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Article
Publication date: 4 November 2019

Nizar Mohammad Alsharari

The purpose of this paper is to gain insight into how well past reforms have performed against revenue, equity and efficiency benchmarks of tax policymaking, so that the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to gain insight into how well past reforms have performed against revenue, equity and efficiency benchmarks of tax policymaking, so that the direction of future reform of tax system might be determined. It also presents a comparative analysis of taxation and revenue trends in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region over the data set period 1990-2012.

Design/methodology/approach

By overviewing the development and relative significance of resource revenues, allocating non-resource taxes and examining the tax policies of constituent countries, this paper presents a comparative review of taxation and revenue trends in the MENA region.

Findings

Findings showed, on average, a slight decline in non-resource revenues against the significant rise in income from resources. The analysis of government revenues and current taxation structures provide insight into how prior reforms have performed against the standard measures of tax policy-making (i.e. revenue, equity and efficiency) and directions for change leading to the establishment of simple tax systems. The study observes regional differences, such as the higher tax and revenues of the Maghreb sub-region over the Mashreq, except for value-added tax, where low rates were associated with equal or greater revenue. Similarities were also found, including the partial compensation by income taxes (not indirect taxes) for revenue lost through trade liberalization. The challenges of tax reform are found to vary across countries and opportunities for improving equity and reducing the complexity of tax systems across the region are identified.

Research limitations/implications

Reforms in all tax systems could have major implications for the country, employment, earnings and tax revenues; but recommendations would require political value judgments and government decisions. The study suggests eliminating the current tax system, thereby replacing one of the more distortionary taxes in the current system with a neutral and efficient tax.

Originality/value

The paper signals the need, even of the oil-rich states of the Gulf Cooperation Council, for governments to build tax systems capable of capturing and spending revenues effectively into the future.

Details

Pacific Accounting Review, vol. 31 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0114-0582

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2010

Abstract

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Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting & Financial Management, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1096-3367

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Article
Publication date: 22 October 2020

Chuanxu Wang, Qiaoyu Peng and Lang Xu

This paper aims to explore how upstream supply chain companies will control the carbon emissions and price decisions of products when the government implements…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore how upstream supply chain companies will control the carbon emissions and price decisions of products when the government implements environmental tax policy on consumers. It provides some suggestions to control carbon emissions for the government and manufacturers.

Design/methodology/approach

This study establishes two-echelon Stackelberg game models with and without the implementation of environmental tax policy on consumers in a centralized scenario and a decentralized scenario. Through the comparative analysis of the four models, the optimal emission abatement and pricing strategies are obtained.

Findings

This paper concludes that implementing environmental tax policy on consumers within the market’s acceptable range is more beneficial to the retailer and the environment, as well as the overall social welfare, except for the manufacturer. Moreover, consumer’s low-carbon preference always has a broader impact on carbon abatement and corporate profits than environmental tax coefficient. Finally, the side-payment self-executing contract can effectively ensure that the supply chain members make rational decisions spontaneously while achieving a win-win solution of centralized scenario.

Originality/value

This paper first considers how the government’s environmental tax policy on consumers will affect the decision-making of supply chain companies, and proposes an improved side-payment self-enforcing contract to maximize environmental and economic benefits of centralized scenario. In addition, it provides a reference for the government to adopt both the carbon cap policy and the environmental tax policy.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

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Abstract

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Public-Private Partnerships, Capital Infrastructure Project Investments and Infrastructure Finance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-654-9

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Book part
Publication date: 18 November 2014

Rebekah D. Moore and Donald Bruce

We examine whether variations in the most fundamental aspects of state corporate income tax regimes affect state economic activity as measured by personal income, gross…

Abstract

We examine whether variations in the most fundamental aspects of state corporate income tax regimes affect state economic activity as measured by personal income, gross state product, and total non-farm employment. We focus on a variety of statutory components of state corporate income taxes that apply broadly in most U.S. states and for most multi-state corporate taxpayers. Our econometric strategy consists of a series of fixed effects panel regressions using state-level data from 1996 through 2010. Our results reveal important interaction effects of tax rates and policies, suggesting that policy makers should avoid making decisions about tax rates in isolation. The results demonstrate a relatively consistent negative economic response to the combination of high tax rates with throwback rules and heavy sales factor weights. Combined reporting has no discernible effect on personal income, GSP, or employment after controlling for tax rates, apportionment, and throwback rules. In an effort to gauge the relative impacts of tax policies on the location of economic activity, we also estimate alternative models in which each state’s economic activity is measured as a share of the national economic activity in each year. Statistically significant effects for tax rates, apportionment formulas, and throwback rules in the shares models suggest that at least some of their impact involves the movement of activity across state lines, thereby leaving open the possibility of a zero-sum game among the states.

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Book part
Publication date: 18 October 2011

Jørgen Goul Andersen

This chapter analyses the recovery of the Danish economy from the crisis of the 1980s, its elevation to a bit of an ‘economic miracle’ or at least an ‘employment miracle…

Abstract

This chapter analyses the recovery of the Danish economy from the crisis of the 1980s, its elevation to a bit of an ‘economic miracle’ or at least an ‘employment miracle’ from 1995 to 2005 and its subsequent decline during the financial crisis, which revealed more long-standing problems that precluded a quick recovery. The solution of Denmark's structural balance of payment problems in the early 1990s paved the way for long-term prosperity, and Denmark managed the challenges of globalisation and deindustrialisation almost without social costs. However, an accumulation of short-term policy failures and credit liberalisation facilitated a credit and housing bubble, a consumption-driven boom and declining competitiveness. In broad terms, the explanation is political; this includes not only vote- and office-seeking strategies of the incumbent government but also ideational factors such as agenda setting of economic policy. Somewhat unnoticed – partly because of preoccupation with long-term challenges of ageing and shortage of labour – productivity and economic growth rates had slowed down over several years. The Danish decline in GDP 2008–2009 was larger than in the 1930s, and after the bubble burst, there were few drivers of economic growth. Households consolidated and were reluctant to consume; public consumption had to be cut as well; exports increased rather slowly; and in this climate, there was little room for private investments. Financially, the Danish economy remained healthy, though. Current accounts revealed record-high surpluses after the financial crisis; state debt remained moderate, and if one were to include the enormous retained taxes in private pension funds, net state debt would de facto be positive. Still, around 2010–2011 there were few short-term drivers of economic growth, and rather unexpectedly, it turned out that unemployment problems were likely to prevail for several years.

Details

The Nordic Varieties of Capitalism
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-778-0

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Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2014

Holly Sutherland

Abstract

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Handbook of Microsimulation Modelling
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-570-8

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Article
Publication date: 25 June 2020

Onur A. Koska, Frank Stähler and Onur Yeni

In a simple reciprocal dumping model of trade, this study scrutinizes the strategic role of trade and commodity taxes as environmental instruments when consumption of an…

Abstract

Purpose

In a simple reciprocal dumping model of trade, this study scrutinizes the strategic role of trade and commodity taxes as environmental instruments when consumption of an imported product generates pollution. The results suggest that for sufficiently small values of the marginal disutility from pollution, commodity taxes can be preferred over import tariffs, and compared to the case of trade policies, free trade can be welfare dominating even for higher values of the marginal disutility from pollution when commodity taxes are used strategically as environmental instruments.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors employ a reciprocal dumping model of trade.

Findings

A sufficiently high marginal disutility from pollution (or sufficient asymmetries between the countries in terms of their marginal disutility from pollution) may jeopardize bilateral trade, especially if countries are given the option to set tariffs freely for imported goods (consumption of which generate environmental pollution). For sufficiently weak transboundary pollution and sufficiently low marginal disutility from pollution, (1) both Nash trade and domestic policies may prove to be helpful in addressing consumption-based pollution, and (2) it is possible to show in such a case that Nash domestic policies may be preferred over Nash trade policies, especially when both transboundary pollution and the trading partner's marginal disutility from pollution are sufficiently low.

Originality/value

The novel contribution of this paper is (1) to capture asymmetries among trading partners in terms of how much they account for environmental pollution when deciding on their (domestic/trade) policy measures and (2) to focus on environmental degradation that is caused by final consumption of a product imported from a trading partner.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 48 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Article
Publication date: 21 March 2020

Hanan M. Taleb

The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential of implementing a toxicity tax for heavily polluting vehicles in United Arab Emirates. A fast-changing world…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential of implementing a toxicity tax for heavily polluting vehicles in United Arab Emirates. A fast-changing world needs responsive policies to cope with the crisis human beings are currently facing on earth. Implementing a new policy represents a design for a change. Policies come in the form of regulations that have been officially agreed and chosen by either a political party, business or any other type of organization. This paper adopts the policy development cycle in the Australian policy handbook as a practical framework. A focus group comprising 35 participants and two decision makers thoroughly discussed each stage of the “policy development cycle”. A qualitative analysis of the data showed that there is potential for implementing a new tax to be imposed on highly polluting vehicles in United Arab Emirates (UAE) the most appropriate policy instrument in UAE is a policy enacted through restricted law; it might take more than 3 years to work; the expected tax would range between $280 and $1,100 per year; and there is concern that this new tax would slow Dubai’s preparation for EXPO 2020. These findings will help countries implement this new tax. Following the stages of the policy development cycle and their procedures will, therefore, inspire decision makers to formulate new environmental policies not only in UAE but around the world.

Design/methodology/approach

This research adopts the use of “focus groups” as its primary approach to data collection. A focus group is a common qualitative research technique and involves a small number of participants. The main reason for using qualitative research is because participants are asked for open-ended responses that convey their thoughts or feelings. The author of this paper served as the moderator who posed a series of questions intended to gain insight into the group’s views on the implementation of a toxicity tax for heavy polluting vehicles in the UAE. Time and attention were given to what it is that you expect to get out of focus-group research. The group was invited for one full day to a big hall and was seated around one table. The group was sometimes divided to obtain more focused views. Overall, four primary groups participated in this study. A fifth group, consisting of three senior members of a governmental agency who acted as decision makers, took part in one-to-one interviews at their place of work. Table I provides details on the backgrounds of the participant.

Findings

Research highlights the policy development cycle to investigate a new transport policy in UAE. A focus group comprising 35 participants and two interviews with two decision makers. There is potential for a tax to be imposed on highly polluting vehicles in UAE. The expected tax would range between $280 and $1,100 per year. The best policy instrument in the region is policy by law. The truck industry will be affected, and there will be a public refusal.

Research limitations/implications

A new policy of implementing tax for high polluting vehicles was, therefore, discussed in this paper. Participants thought the tax would work, but an in-depth feasibility study on both microeconomic and macroeconomic aspects will be required; providing governmental incentives will help support the shift to less-polluting vehicles.

Practical implications

The policy development cycle was utilized as a practical framework for this research.

Social implications

People were engaged into this study to make the policy viable. People will react positively to this policy.

Originality/value

Due to the lack of such research in this area, this paper will fill a gap in the knowledge. Moreover, the policy will be real implementation based on this publication. The findings will not only help UAE but also many countries that share same environmental and social contexts.

Details

Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6166

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1980

J.O.N. Perkins

The theory of macroeconomic policy that has dominated thought and policy‐making since the later 1930s is essentially one‐dimensional in the closed economy (and two…

Abstract

The theory of macroeconomic policy that has dominated thought and policy‐making since the later 1930s is essentially one‐dimensional in the closed economy (and two dimensional in the open economy). That is to say, in a closed economy we have been taught to operate on the level of demand ‐ with any or every macroeconomic instrument. When inflation is too rapid the aim has been to use (some or all of) our policy instruments to reduce demand; and when unemployment is too high we have learned to raise it.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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