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Article
Publication date: 16 April 2018

Muluneh Hideto Dato, Roy Mersland and Neema Mori

The purpose of this paper is to empirically relate subordinate board structures with improved financial and social performance in microfinance institutions (MFIs).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to empirically relate subordinate board structures with improved financial and social performance in microfinance institutions (MFIs).

Design/methodology/approach

The research question is analyzed using a panel data from 23 MFIs in Ethiopia over a period of 2006-2011. Random effects panel data estimation is applied to analyze the link between board committees and MFI’s performance.

Findings

In MFIs with larger than average boards, the findings demonstrate significant ties between financial and outreach performance and how their boards are structured. The structure of board committees moderates the relation between board size and financial and outreach performance measures. Importantly, board committee benefits MFIs through better operational self-sufficiency, lower operating expenses, greater outreach to customers, and outreach to poorer customers using average loan size as the proxy.

Practical implications

Practitioners within microfinance sector, and those operating in advisory and regulatory roles to the sector could benefit from the argument advanced in the paper in that normative recommendation to restructure boards or establish committees requires reevaluating the board characteristics vis-à-vis the optimal monitoring, controlling, and advising needs of the institution.

Originality/value

Prior literature focuses on who sits on boards, how large are the boards, and how independent are they. This paper advances the understanding of the structure of board committees and how this may affect the performance of MFI. This approach provides better representation of director’s role and is thereby a good test of board effectiveness.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

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Article
Publication date: 4 September 2017

Goodluck Charles and Neema Mori

The purpose of this article is to examine the effects that dynamic incentives and the borrowing histories of clients of informal lending institutions have on loan…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to examine the effects that dynamic incentives and the borrowing histories of clients of informal lending institutions have on loan repayment performance, in particular, the extent to which multiple borrowing and progressive lending affect the repayment of loans.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses a data set of 835 borrowers drawn from an informal lending institution in Tanzania. Descriptive analysis and econometric models are used to test the developed hypotheses.

Findings

Whereas clients with multiple loans are associated with poor loan repayment, progressive lending contributes to positive repayment outcomes. Multiple borrowers face increased debt levels and thereby an increased inability to meet their repayment obligations; in contrast, progressive lending by building up a lender–client relationship helps clients to obtain higher loans with a minimum amount of screening.

Research limitations/implications

This was a cross-sectional study based on a sample of individual clients drawn from a single institution. However, since the majority of clients had also taken out loans with other financial institutions, the sample is considered to be representative.

Practical implications

A client’s past repayment performance and multiple loan history must be assessed so that multiple borrowing can be prevented and credit absorption capacity can be gauged more accurately. The repeated nature of the interactions and the threat to cut off any future lending (if loans are not repaid) can be exploited to overcome any information deficit.

Originality/value

This study was conducted in a context in which the degree of information sharing was low and institutional access to clients’ credit histories was limited. It contributes knowledge on how lenders minimise the risk flowing from the ex ante information gap and moral hazards arising from the ex post information gap.

Details

International Journal of Development Issues, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1446-8956

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Article
Publication date: 9 May 2018

Neema Mori and Goodluck Charles

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the composition and role of a board of directors in a family-owned microfinance institution (FO-MFI) in Tanzania.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the composition and role of a board of directors in a family-owned microfinance institution (FO-MFI) in Tanzania.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is based on a longitudinal analysis of the board practices based on boardroom observations for the period between 2012 and 2015. The study further collected and analyzed qualitative data from interviews with board members, management, and institution staff.

Findings

The findings indicate that even though external board members were appointed as a result of their diverse expertise and skills, their personal relationships with shareholders, life-cycle stage of the institution, and the nature of the industry influenced their selection. It was also found that the board played more of the service role in strategy formulation, resource mobilization, and networking, and, through that, members were also able to exercise control of the firm.

Research limitations/implications

Because this paper is based on a qualitative approach, it suffers from the challenge of generalization. However, numerous research issues have been raised that require further investigation.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the governance literature by showing what really happens in a family-owned firm, as it is based on a unique data set drawn from the boardroom of the FO-MFI in a context of a developing economy. This context is unique, given that most private MFIs operating as family enterprises do not have a professional board of directors. The study shows how the board contributes to a strategic direction of the firm in which the management and ownership are not separated, and the first generation is running the firm.

Details

Journal of Family Business Management, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-6238

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Article
Publication date: 12 June 2017

Neema Mori and Goodluck Towo

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of board composition on the profitability of banks in Tanzania. First, it examines the differences between local and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of board composition on the profitability of banks in Tanzania. First, it examines the differences between local and foreign-owned banks in terms of their boards and profitability, and then the contribution of board composition to banks’ profitability.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper utilizes a secondary panel data set of information on the boards, their operations and financial statements of 35 banks. The data were collected between 2009 and 2013. The authors tested the stated hypotheses using descriptive and econometric analyses.

Findings

The results show a significant difference in board composition and profitability between local and foreign-owned banks. Local banks have a higher income and profits. With their contextual knowledge they are able to attract diverse board directors who contribute positively to their performance. The paper also found that large boards and those with women on them were associated with high profitability.

Research limitations/implications

The study focused on three aspects of boards, which are size, foreign directors and women’s representation. The paper is limited in the sense that other aspects of composition that also affect performance are not included in the study.

Practical implications

The paper suggests that in order to maximize profitability, banks should increase the number of directors. Many board members can share skills and knowledge, which can improve performance. Women are underrepresented on boards. With current changes in policy and education in emerging countries, there is a need to increase their representation.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the agency theory by showing that large boards are indeed efficient at monitoring and bringing in profits, especially in an emerging economy where there are multifaceted risks at country and company level. These risks require shareholders and investors to have a much better understanding of the banks and that is where a large board plays a key role.

Details

African Journal of Economic and Management Studies, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-0705

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 6 February 2020

Theresia Busagara, Neema Mori, Lena Mossberg, Dev Jani and Tommy Andersson

The purpose of this paper is to establish the link between customer information sharing and new service development.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to establish the link between customer information sharing and new service development.

Design/methodology/approach

Through a survey of tourism firms, 295 questionnaires were collected in three large tourism locations in Tanzania. Thereafter, the hypotheses were tested by structural equation modeling (SEM) after undertaking both factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis.

Findings

Results indicate that there is a positive association/link between customer information sharing and new service development. The link here expresses the association that exists as customers share information and the extent of use of this information for the firm benefit in facilitating new service development. Specifically, customers post service information and customer interaction behaviors positively support new service development; however, customers’ pre-service information revealed no link.

Practical implications

These results offer practical evidence that post service information and interaction behaviors form the groundwork for development of new services in service-related organizations.

Originality/value

These results evidence that customer post service information and customer interaction behaviors form the groundwork for development new services in tourism. Hence, the study strengthens the value co-creation and innovation views in the service arena by extending knowledge in the use of both the service and the customer environment for service improvement.

Details

The Bottom Line, vol. 33 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0888-045X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 15 July 2019

Neema Mori

Savings help to provide for future personal and households needs. The purpose of this paper examined Tanzanians’ determinants of saving. It studied the relationship…

Abstract

Purpose

Savings help to provide for future personal and households needs. The purpose of this paper examined Tanzanians’ determinants of saving. It studied the relationship between individual characteristics (gender, marital status, age, education level and financial education) and saving behaviour.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper used 2017 national baseline survey data with 8,959 observations from all over Tanzania. Descriptive analysis and econometric models were used to test the developed hypotheses.

Findings

Descriptive results show that Tanzanians mainly associate saving with setting money aside to keep it safe for future use. The results also show that most Tanzanians keep their money at home – a very informal way of saving. The results indicate that age and education level are key characteristics that determine positive saving by Tanzanians.

Research limitations/implications

This study used FinScope survey data which was limited to Tanzania. Since FinScope surveys are done in other African countries, using similar methodologies, it would be interesting to investigate similar trends in other contexts.

Practical implications

The study recommends promoting awareness of saving in formal institutions. This will benefit not only customers but the financial institutions and mobile telecom companies themselves.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the life-cycle theory by showing how families, societies and exposures influence individuals to save. Gender and marital status seem to play a lesser role than social- and exposure-related aspects of age and education. Exposure and social interactions are key determinants in the attitude to saving.

Details

Review of Behavioral Finance, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1940-5979

Keywords

Content available

Abstract

Details

International Journal of Law and Management, vol. 57 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-243X

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Article
Publication date: 17 June 2021

Alok Kumar Mishra, Vaithiyanathan D., Yogesh Pal and Baljit Kaur

This work is proposed for low power energy-efficient applications like laptops, mobile phones, and palmtops. In this study, P-channel metal–oxide–semiconductor (PMOS)’s…

Abstract

Purpose

This work is proposed for low power energy-efficient applications like laptops, mobile phones, and palmtops. In this study, P-channel metal–oxide–semiconductor (PMOS)’s are used as access transistor in 7 transistors (7 T) Static Random Access Memory (SRAM) cell, and the theoretical Static Noise Margin (SNM) analysis for the proposed cell is also performed. A cell is designed using 7 T which consists of 4 PMOS and 3 NMOS. In this paper write and hold SNM is addressed and read SNM is also calculated for the proposed 7 T SRAM cell.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors have replaced N-channel metal–oxide–semiconductor (NMOS) access transistors with the PMOS access transistors, which results in proper data line recovery and provides the desired coupling. An error is likely to occur, if the read operation is performed too often probably by using the NMOS pass gate. It results in an improper recovery of the data line. Instead, by using PMOS as a pass gate, the time required for read operation can be brought down. As we know the mobility (µ) of the PMOS transistor is low, so the authors have used this property into the proposed design. When a low signal is applied to its control gate, the PMOS transistor come up with the desired coupling, when working as a pass gate.

Findings

Feedback switched transistor is used in the proposed circuit, which plays an important role in the write operation. This transistor is in OFF state and PMOS’s work as access transistor, when the proposed cell operating in read mode. This helps in the reduction of power. This work is simulated using UMC 40 nm technology node in the cadence virtuoso environment. The simulated result shows that, write power saving of 51.54% and 61.17%, hold power saving of 25.68% and 48.93% when compared with reported 7 T and 6 T, respectively.

Originality/value

The proposed 7 T SRAM cell provides proper data line recovery at a lower voltage when PMOS works as the access transistor. Power consumption is very less in this technique and it is best suitable for low power applications.

Details

Circuit World, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

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