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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2021

Selin Ögel Aydın and Metin Argan

Nutritional disorders and unhealthy nutrition, which are recognised as the causes of many widespread health problems (overweight, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular…

Abstract

Purpose

Nutritional disorders and unhealthy nutrition, which are recognised as the causes of many widespread health problems (overweight, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer, etc.) have emerged as a significant problem that requires resolution. The purpose of this study is to influence dietary preferences and to reduce current health issues by using gamification as a social marketing tool. To this end, the decision-making processes affecting food choices in individuals based on calorific content were evaluated and the effectiveness of gamification in encouraging consumers to make lower-calorie choices was examined.

Design/methodology/approach

An experimental design was used to determine the effect of gamification on the dietary preferences of consumers. An independent factorial design (between groups) in which multiple variables were tested with different subjects was used to test the factors that were thought to affect the food choices made by the participants from gamified and non-gamified menus.

Findings

In Study 1, menus (gamified vs non-gamified) and nutritional consciousness (low vs high) had a significant main effect on the total calorie count of the selected foods. In Study 2, menus (gamified with prices vs non-gamified with prices) had a significant main effect on the total calorie count of the selected foods, while nutritional consciousness (low vs high) did not. A significant interaction was observed between menus and nutritional consciousness.

Practical implications

Gamification can be used as an important publicity tool for promoting public health using different influential factors such as price.

Originality/value

This study shows that people can change their food preferences positively through gamification. It shows further how people tend to evaluate the price of their food rather than the calorie count when making dietary preferences. Gamification can, therefore, be considered a promising social marketing tool for improving public health.

Details

Journal of Social Marketing, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-6763

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 August 2014

Sylvia Long Tolbert, Chiranjeev Kohli and Rajneesh Suri

This paper aims to study the role of self-consciousness from the point of view of firm loyalty. Firms increasingly vie to gain, and then maintain, loyal consumers. A…

1319

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to study the role of self-consciousness from the point of view of firm loyalty. Firms increasingly vie to gain, and then maintain, loyal consumers. A firm’s assumption that such consumers will be willing to pay premium prices, however, contradicts consumers’ rational motivations to seek low prices. This research suggests that consumers’ self-consciousness and the nature of their loyalty toward a firm help resolve this apparent contradiction. The results show that when past purchases reflect an exclusive relationship with a retailer, participants with high public self-consciousness valued relatively low-price offers, whereas those with high private self-consciousness expressed high-value perceptions for higher priced offers. However, when past purchases were divided between retail partners, self-consciousness showed no impact on value perceptions.

Design/methodology/approach

Firms increasingly vie to gain, and then maintain, loyal consumers. A firm’s assumption that such consumers will be willing to pay premium prices, however, contradicts consumers’ rational motivations to seek low prices. This research suggests that consumers’ self-consciousness and the nature of their loyalty toward a firm help resolve this apparent contradiction. The results show that when past purchases reflect an exclusive relationship with a retailer, participants with high public self-consciousness valued relatively low-price offers, whereas those with high private self-consciousness expressed high-value perceptions for higher priced offers. However, when past purchases were divided between retail partners, self-consciousness showed no impact on value perceptions.

Findings

Analysis reveals that consumers’ evaluations and search behaviors are influenced by characteristics of the medium (retail vs e-tail), but this effect is moderated by both gender and price knowledge. Females prefer a brick and mortar environment and are likely to seek information at such retailers even when similar products are available online. However, males evaluate online offers better than identical store offers and are less inclined to engage in channel transition. Finally, evaluations of online offers are positively related to price knowledge, whereas a reverse pattern of results is obtained for retail offers.

Originality/value

The findings shed light on how consumers evaluate identical online vs retail price offers, and their associated search intentions. These findings have practical implications for merchants who adopt a dual presence.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 23 no. 4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 July 2010

Sang‐Eun Byun and Brenda Sternquist

Buyers in China often communicate positive and negative purchasing experiences through word‐of‐mouth (WOM), which creates special problems and opportunities for marketers…

1596

Abstract

Purpose

Buyers in China often communicate positive and negative purchasing experiences through word‐of‐mouth (WOM), which creates special problems and opportunities for marketers. Price mavenism, which is associated with price‐information searching and price‐sharing behavior, is often considered a negative dimension of price. The purpose of this paper, however, is to propose price mavenism as an outcome variable arising from both positive perceptions of price (prestige sensitivity) and negative perceptions (price and value consciousness) and examine that the “know” (price mavenism) will positively impact the “glow” (shopping hedonism) among the Chinese.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected through a survey in Shanghai, China. The conceptual model was tested using structural equation modeling.

Findings

This study found that prestige sensitivity, price consciousness and value consciousness shaped price mavenism among the Chinese, supporting the idea that price mavenism arises from both positive and negative perceptions of price. In addition, for the Chinese, being a source of price information and sharing the knowledge with their social groups fulfill a hedonic motivation for shopping. While value consciousness was positively associated with shopping hedonism, price consciousness per se was not.

Research limitations/implications

This study challenges the idea that price mavenism is mainly explained by a negative perception of price.

Practical implications

By understanding the drivers of price mavenism and their impacts on shopping hedonism, international marketers can fine‐tune their marketing strategies to appeal more effectively to price mavens in China.

Originality/value

This study highlights the importance of cultural perspectives in understanding the structure of price mavenism and its theoretical and marketing foundations.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 November 2013

Minxue Huang, Huawei Zhu and Xuechun Zhou

This paper aims to examine the effects of providing more information (e.g. product and price) and enhancing the interactivity of a website on consumers' willingness to pay…

1351

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the effects of providing more information (e.g. product and price) and enhancing the interactivity of a website on consumers' willingness to pay price premiums.

Design/methodology/approach

An experiment tests the proposed framework and corresponding hypotheses. The test features eight versions of an experimental website, with varying combinations of online information (e.g. price information, product information, and interactivity).

Findings

Providing more information, whether about the product or price, leads to increased trust among consumers, which has the capacity to reduce consumer price consciousness and thereby enhance price premiums. E-tailers can earn price premiums by enhancing the interactivity on their websites.

Originality/value

Previous studies are ambivalent about the impacts of providing information online. This study examines two paths by which information provision influences price premiums: trusting beliefs and price consciousness. The results demonstrate that providing rich information, together with enhanced interactivity, increases the perceived trustworthiness of the e-tailer, which reduces consumers' price consciousness and increases the price premiums.

Details

Online Information Review, vol. 37 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 July 2009

Mariola Palazón and Elena Delgado

This study aims to integrate price consciousness into the promotional effectiveness framework. Specifically, it aims to analyse whether price consciousness affects the…

6985

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to integrate price consciousness into the promotional effectiveness framework. Specifically, it aims to analyse whether price consciousness affects the evaluation of price discounts and premiums at two different benefit levels (moderate vs high).

Design/methodology/approach

An experiment was conducted with two promotional benefit level (moderate, high) × two promotion type (price discount, premium) between subjects design. A sample of 229 undergraduate students was randomly assigned to a specific product‐promotion combination.

Findings

The results obtained indicate that at moderate benefit level, price discounts and premiums are equally effective for high price conscious consumers. However, price discounts are more effective than premiums for low price conscious consumers. At high benefit level price discounts are more effective than premiums, but this effect is more apparent for high price conscious consumers.

Research limitations/implications

The limitations of the study are those typically applied to the experimental methodology. Specifically, only two product categories and two types of sales promotions were used which limits the generalization of the results. Another potential limitation is the use of students' respondents.

Practical implications

It is recommended that managers should know how price conscious their consumer segment is before taking any decisions regarding the promotional strategy. To be more effective, it is recommended to offer premiums instead of moderate price discounts if the target segment is high price conscious. However, such a recommendation should only be followed when the target is not low price conscious, because for this consumer segment a moderate discount is preferred.

Originality/value

To analyze the effectiveness of a promotion, most of the present research has focused on the benefit provided, and the promotional framework used. However, lacking in this research are insights into how consumer personal characteristics may affect that effectiveness. The current research is to fill this gap in knowledge about consumer responses to sales promotions incorporating price consciousness in the analysis.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 18 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 January 2015

Kandapa Thanasuta

Private label brands have achieved double-digit growth in the Thai market. To expand market share, private label brands need to identify clearly what triggers consumer…

5739

Abstract

Purpose

Private label brands have achieved double-digit growth in the Thai market. To expand market share, private label brands need to identify clearly what triggers consumer purchases. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between consumer decision-making styles and actual purchases of private label products in a Thai market context, using price consciousness, quality consciousness, brand consciousness, value consciousness, and risk perception as factors for investigation.

Design/methodology/approach

Responses from a total of 240 respondents from four product categories were collected through mall intercepts in five hypermarkets and supermarkets in Bangkok, and a regression-based model was employed to identify the associations.

Findings

The results indicate a significant relationship between price-conscious and brand-conscious consumers, and private label purchases and show that the relationship between quality-conscious, value-conscious, and risk-adverse consumers and private label purchases is insignificant. It concludes that price-conscious consumers are the ones most likely to purchase private label products in low-differentiation categories. An opposite relationship prevails for consumers who are brand conscious in low-differentiation, high-risk, and low-risk categories.

Research limitations/implications

The outcomes of this research suggest that private label brands should maintain a low-price strategy while striving for continuous improvement in quality to capture additional quality- and value-conscious consumers. It also suggests that national brands invest in brand-building strategies rather than competing on price.

Originality/value

This study enhances an understanding of consumer decision-making characteristics for actual private label purchases rather than the intention to purchase and is useful in suggesting an alternative to socio-economic factors as a method of identifying private label purchasers.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 June 2010

Concha R. Neeley, Kyeong Sam Min and Pamela A. Kennett‐Hensel

This paper aims to evaluate the relationships among consumer expertise, hedonic orientation, price consciousness, and consumption using wine as the focal product. While…

3595

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to evaluate the relationships among consumer expertise, hedonic orientation, price consciousness, and consumption using wine as the focal product. While these variables' impact on decision making within this industry have been examined in isolation, this is believed to be the first study marrying these hedonic and non‐hedonic characteristics.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from a convenience sample of wine purchasers consisting of faculty, staff and upper level students at a major southwestern university using a 95 item questionnaire. In total, 241 usable surveys were included in the analysis.

Findings

The findings indicate support for all five hypothesized relationships. The importance of hedonic orientation as a psychographic characteristic emerges. The relationship between expertise and consumption is moderated by hedonic orientation as is the relationship between expertise and price consciousness. Price consciousness mediates the relationship between expertise and consumption, but only for those consumers who have a high hedonic orientation.

Research limitations/implications

The results may not be generalizable across all consumers given the convenience nature of the sample. Additionally only one product category, wine, is included.

Originality/value

This study examines wine consumers' hedonic orientation and its impact on ultimate consumption. Further, this study is also valuable to the field of consumer behavior through development of a scale to capture the dimensions underlying the construct of hedonic orientation. Previous researchers have established profiles of persons who engage in hedonic consumption, but have not assessed an individual's hedonic orientation.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 August 2015

Rajat Roy

Extant literature on pricing posits that consumers’ internal reference price (IRP) drives willingness to pay (WTP), when external pricing cues are available. This positive…

1498

Abstract

Purpose

Extant literature on pricing posits that consumers’ internal reference price (IRP) drives willingness to pay (WTP), when external pricing cues are available. This positive IRP-WTP relationship is further moderated by involvement and price consciousness. The purpose of this paper is to test how the IRP-WTP relationship will be moderated by involvement and price consciousness, albeit in the pay-what-you-want (PWYW) context. In the PWYW setting consumers can pay any amount of money (including nothing) and no external pricing cues are provided.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey was engaged to measure the key variables, and the data was analyzed using hierarchical multiple regression with spotlight analyses.

Findings

In the normal everyday pricing context, involvement strengthens the IRP-WTP relationship, while price consciousness weakens it. Contrary to this normal pricing wisdom, in the PWYW context, it was found that both involvement and price consciousness weaken the IRP-WTP relationship, thereby driving down consumers’ WTP.

Research limitations/implications

Future studies should use experimental design to manipulate some of the independent variables used in the study, focus on the mediating processes that underlie PWYW decision-making and extend the findings in the context of wider demographics.

Practical implications

Managers should focus on segmentation, branding and product experiences to ensure higher returns of PWYW businesses.

Originality/value

This paper addresses lack of overall research in the PWYW area, and also addresses some key gaps left by extant research of Kim et al. (2009) that was published in the Journal of Marketing.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 33 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 August 2021

Booi Chen Tan, Teck Chai Lau, Abdullah Sarwar and Nasreen Khan

The purpose of this study is to propose a research framework to examine the effects of consumer consciousness, food safety concern and healthy lifestyle on the attitudes…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to propose a research framework to examine the effects of consumer consciousness, food safety concern and healthy lifestyle on the attitudes toward eating “green” simultaneously in a single study. Besides, the mediating role of healthy lifestyle in forming a positive attitude toward eating “green” is also examined in this study.

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire-based approach was applied in this study. The unit of analysis was individual consumer (aged 18 years and above) who lived in Klang Valley, Malaysia. PLS-SEM was used to test the structural relationship of the constructs in the model based on the 300 useable data collected.

Findings

The results indicated that health consciousness, food safety concern and healthy lifestyle have a significant effect on attitudes toward eating “green”, whereas environmental and price consciousness did not have such effect. A healthy lifestyle also mediates the relationship between health consciousness and attitude toward eating “green”. An individual’s healthy lifestyle that focused on physical health-related activities will increase the effect of consumer health consciousness on their attitudes toward eating “green”.

Practical implications

The outcome of this study provided deeper insights for firms to assess the feasibility of entering or expanding their operations in the green market with more enduring and effective sales and marketing strategies.

Originality/value

Consumers’ acceptance of or resistance toward organic food had become the centre of the research focus by the academician and the industrial practitioners over the years, despite the inconsistencies of the results obtained to predict such behavior. In this study, besides examining the direct effect of the proposed variables on the attitudes toward eating “green”, the mediating role of a healthy lifestyle in forming such attitudes was also examined.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 124 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 2005

Byoungho Jin and Yong Gu Suh

Despite proven strategic significance and wide acceptance of private label products (PB), our understanding of PB in international markets is limited. The purposes of this…

12025

Abstract

Purpose

Despite proven strategic significance and wide acceptance of private label products (PB), our understanding of PB in international markets is limited. The purposes of this study are to propose a model that integrates four consumer characteristic variables (price consciousness, value consciousness, perceived price variation, and consumer innovativeness) toward PB attitude and purchase intention, and to test the model in two product categories, grocery and home appliances, in a South Korean discount store context.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 168 usable data (87 for food and 81 for home appliances were collected using mall intercept method from female shoppers at one Korean discount store in Seoul, Korea.

Findings

The findings revealed that, depending on the product category, contribution of the factors varies. Among four consumer characteristics, only three in each category exhibited direct and indirect association with PB purchase intention. Perceived quality variability in a food category and price consciousness in a home appliance category did not show any relationship with PB purchase intention nor with PB attitude. In both product categories, only two variables, value consciousness and consumer innovativeness, predicted PB attitude. Overall, consumer innovativeness was the strongest factor predicting Korean shoppers’ PB attitude.

Originality/value

Important theoretical contributions of this study are finding the relative importance of the variables on PB attitude and purchase intention, and differing roles of consumer variables by product characteristics. Further significance of this study lies in understanding the differing impact of consumer perceptual variables in predicting PB attitude and purchase intention simultaneously. Managerial implications of these results were discussed.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

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