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Article
Publication date: 10 February 2012

Ronald J. Burke, Mustafa Koyuncu, Parbudyal Singh, Nihat Alayoglu and Kadife Koyuncu

The purpose of this paper is to explore gender differences in the work and career experiences and psychological health of women and men in managerial and professional jobs…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore gender differences in the work and career experiences and psychological health of women and men in managerial and professional jobs in Turkey.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected for 94 men and 48 women in managerial and professional jobs in Turkey. Comparisons of women and men using one‐way ANOVA provided considerable support for the hypotheses.

Findings

Women and men were found to differ on many personal demographic and work situation characteristics: women were younger, less likely to be married or have children, were at lower organizational levels, worked fewer hours and earned less income. Women and men had similar levels of education, however. Women and men were similar on almost all work outcomes (e.g. job satisfaction, work engagement, intent to quit) and indicators of psychological health (e.g. exhaustion, life satisfaction). However, men worked significantly more hours than did women.

Originality/value

The research extends previous work by scholars using a sample from Turkey. It is not often that research of this nature utilizes samples from countries outside of North America, Europe and Australasia. Furthermore, unlike some published research, this study uses many instruments/measures, all with excellent psychometric properties.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 23 October 2009

Ronald J. Burke, Mustafa Koyuncu, Lisa Fiksenbaum and Halil Demirer

Based on US college student and adult samples, Kasser and Sheldon suggested that time affluence (TA) may be a more significant predictor of subjective well‐being than…

Abstract

Purpose

Based on US college student and adult samples, Kasser and Sheldon suggested that time affluence (TA) may be a more significant predictor of subjective well‐being than material affluence (MA). This paper aims to replicate and extend their findings to an employed sample from another country and culture.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 877 men and women managers and professionals working in the manufacturing sector in Turkey using anonymously completed questionnaires.

Findings

This sample worked long hours and earned significantly less income than did the US samples. TA and MA were uncorrelated in this sample though positively and significantly correlated in the US samples. Income emerged as a significant predictor of MA but not TA. Hierarchical regression analyses, controlling for both personal demographics (e.g. age, education) and work situation characteristics (e.g. organizational level, organizational tenure) showed that TA and MA were significant predictors of most work outcomes (e.g. job satisfaction, job stress) and indicators of psychological well‐being (e.g. psychosomatic symptoms, life satisfaction).

Research limitations/implications

Data were collected at one point in time so issues of causality cannot be addressed. Results suggest that further research on TA and MA should be carried out in countries having different values and levels of development than in North America.

Originality/value

These findings partially replicate US results and extend them to women and men working in a single occupation in another country. They suggest that further research on TA and MA should be carried out in countries having different values and levels of development than in North America.

Details

Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 28 January 2014

Mustafa Koyuncu, Ronald J. Burke, Nihat Alayoglu and Jacob Wolpin

Although qualified women are still underrepresented at ranks of senior management in all countries, considerable progress has been made in identifying work experiences…

Abstract

Purpose

Although qualified women are still underrepresented at ranks of senior management in all countries, considerable progress has been made in identifying work experiences associated with career success and advancement. The studies of mentor relationships in North America have shown that women receiving more functions from their mentors reported benefits such as greater job and career satisfaction, and female mentors provided more psychosocial functions than did male mentors. The present study examined antecedents and consequences of mentor relationships in a sample of managerial and professional women working for a large organization in Turkey. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 192 women managers and professionals using anonymously completed questionnaires.

Findings

The following results were obtained: having a mentor relationship had little impact on work outcomes, female and male mentors generally provided the same mentor functions, and mentor functions had little impact on work outcomes.

Practical implications

Highlights the potential role of both organizational and societal values in mentoring programs.

Originality/value

These findings are at odds with previously reported results obtained in Anglo-Saxon countries. Possible explanations for the failure to find previously reported benefits of mentoring are offered.

Details

Cross Cultural Management, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 May 2012

Mustafa Koyuncu, Ronald J. Burke and Jacob Wolpin

Although women continue to enter managerial and professional jobs in increasing numbers, they continue to be underrepresented at more senior levels of management. Several…

Abstract

Purpose

Although women continue to enter managerial and professional jobs in increasing numbers, they continue to be underrepresented at more senior levels of management. Several factors have been found to account for this, an important one being women's responsibilities for home and family functioning, often resulting in work‐family conflict (WFC). The purpose of this paper is to examine correlates and consequences of WFC among a sample of managerial and professional women working in Istanbul, Turkey.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 143 women, most working in the public sector, using anonymously completed questionnaires. About half were married and about half had children. WFC, both work interfering with family and family interfering with work (time‐, strain‐ and behaviour‐based) were measured by a scale developed and validated by Carlson et al., in a US study.

Findings

The respondents indicated relatively low levels of WFC. Levels of work interfering with family and family interfering with work were significantly and positively correlated. Hierarchical regression analyses, controlling for both personal demographic and work situation characteristics, showed that WFC generally predicted both work and psychological well‐being outcomes, work interfering with family being a consistently stronger predictor of these than was family interfering with work.

Research limitations/implications

Data collected at one point in time make it difficult to examine causality. In addition, most respondents worked in the public sector, raising the issue of generalizability to women managers and professionals in the private sector.

Practical implications

Practical implications are offered for individuals, families and workplaces to address work‐family issues.

Originality/value

This is one of the few studies of WFC among women managers and professionals in Turkey.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 27 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 12 February 2010

Lisa Fiksenbaum, Mustafa Koyuncu and Ronald J. Burke

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between virtues and indicators of work engagement, satisfaction, and psychological well‐being among a large…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between virtues and indicators of work engagement, satisfaction, and psychological well‐being among a large sample of managerial and professional women working in a large Turkish bank. Managerial women in Turkey, as elsewhere, are under‐represented at senior levels of management. A virtue is any psychological process that enables a person to benefit herself or himself and others.

Design/methodology/approach

Data are collected from 286 managerial and professional women using anonymously completed questionnaires, a 72 percent response rate. Two virtues are considered: Optimism and Proactive Behavior.

Findings

Optimism and Proactive Behavior are significantly and positively correlated. Hierarchical regression analyses, controlling for both personal demographic and work situation characteristics, indicate that virtues account for significant increments in explained variance on all outcome measures. Optimism emerges as a particularly consistent predictor of these.

Research limitations/implications

The research data are collected at one point in time, limiting the understanding of causality.

Practical implications

Suggestions for increasing levels of virtues through training are offered based on previous theory.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the emerging literature in positive organizational scholarship on the relationship of virtues to individual health and performance in work settings.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 29 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 24 October 2008

Ronald J. Burke, Mustafa Koyuncu and Lisa Fiksenbaum

The purpose of this paper is to examine potential antecedents of workaholism components identified in previous research and the relationship of these components to work…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine potential antecedents of workaholism components identified in previous research and the relationship of these components to work and extra‐work satisfactions and psychological well‐being among professors in Turkey. It attempts to replicate previous research conducted in North America.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 406 professors using a web‐based questionnaire. Three workaholism components were considered: work involvement, feeling driven to work because of inner needs, and work enjoyment.

Findings

It was found that the three workaholism components were unrelated to three blocks of antecedent predictor variables. Both feeling driven to work and work enjoyment generally predicted validating job behaviors while work enjoyment predicted work and extra‐work satisfactions and psychological well‐being. These findings provide a partial replication of previous North American results, suggesting the need to consider both country and cultural factors in future workaholism research.

Research limitations/implications

All data were collected using self‐report questionnaires, raising the possibility of response set tendencies. In addition, all data were collected at one point in time, making it difficult to determine causality.

Practical implications

Work enjoyment emerged as a strong and consistent predictor of most work and well‐being outcomes. Organizations are encouraged to increase satisfaction levels in efforts to attain productive and healthy people.

Originality/value

This paper replicates previous workaholism research carried out in North America in Turkey, a secular Muslim country. The importance of considering country culture and values is highlighted.

Details

Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2006

Mustafa Koyuncu, Ronald J. Burke and Lisa Fiksenbaum

This research aims to investigate gender differences among professors in Turkey.

Abstract

Purpose

This research aims to investigate gender differences among professors in Turkey.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 243 male and 165 female professors using an anonymously completed internet based questionnaire. Measures included personal demographic and work situation characteristics, workaholism components and validating job behaviors (e.g. perfectionism) workaholism antecedents (e.g. beliefs and fears, organizational values), work and extra‐work satisfactions, and psychological well‐being.

Findings

There were considerable differences in personal demographic and work situation characteristics. Female professor were younger, more likely to be single, more likely to have fewer children, had less job and university tenure, were at lower ranks and earned less income. Female and male professors were similar on workaholic behaviors, work and extra‐work satisfaction and psychological well‐being, with one exceptions: female professors reported more psychosomatic symptoms.

Practical implications

Despite considerable demographic and work situation differences, female and male professors in Turkey report similar job behaviors, satisfactions and psychological well‐being.

Originality/value

Provides information on personal demographic and work situation characteristics among male and female academic staff in Turkey.

Details

Equal Opportunities International, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2006

Mustafa Koyuncu, Ronald J. Burke and Lisa Fiksenbaum

The paper aims to examine potential antecedents and consequences of work engagement in a sample of women managers and professionals employed by a large Turkish bank.

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to examine potential antecedents and consequences of work engagement in a sample of women managers and professionals employed by a large Turkish bank.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 286 women, a 72 per cent response rate, using anonymously completed questionnaires. Engagement was assessed by three scales developed by Schaufeli et al.: vigor, dedication and absorption. Antecedents included personal demographic and work situation characteristics as well as work life experiences; consequences included measures of work satisfaction and psychological well‐being.

Findings

The following results were observed. First, worklife experiences, particularly, control, rewards and recognition and value fit, were found to predict all three engagement measures. Second, engagement, particularly dedication, predicted various work outcomes (e.g. job satisfaction, intent to quit). Third, engagement, particularly vigor, predicted various psychological well‐being outcomes.

Research limitations/implications

Questions of causality cannot be addressed since data were collected at only one point in time. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine the effects of work life experiences on engagement.

Practical implications

Organizations can increase levels of work engagement by creating work experiences (e.g. control, rewards and recognition) consistent with effective human resource management practices.

Originality/value

This study contributes to our understanding of work engagement among women managers and professionals.

Details

Equal Opportunities International, vol. 25 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 24 July 2007

Ronald J. Burke, Mustafa Koyuncu and Lisa Fiksenbaum

This research aims to examine potential antecedents and consequences of different career priority patterns among managerial and professional women working in a large…

Abstract

Purpose

This research aims to examine potential antecedents and consequences of different career priority patterns among managerial and professional women working in a large Turkish bank. Two career priority patterns advanced by Schwartz were considered: career‐primary and career‐family. Previous research conducted in other countries has compared these career priority patterns.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 286 managerial and professional women using anonymously completed questionnaires, a 72 percent response rate.

Findings

Career‐primary and career‐family women were similar on personal demographic and work situation characteristics. However, the two groups were significantly different on a variety of other measures. Career‐primary women were more satisfied with their jobs and careers, had more optimistic career prospects, were more work engaged, exhibited higher levels of workaholism and reported higher levels of psychological well‐being. These findings were somewhat different from those obtained in previous research suggesting possible country and culture differences.

Research limitations/implications

All data were collected using questionnaires at one point in time making it difficult to draw conclusions on causality. It is also not clear the extent to which these findings would generalize to women in other occupations.

Practical implications

The findings raise potential career development issues and their role in the satisfaction and well‐being of managerial women, these having possible career counseling implications.

Originality/value

This study replicates previous work and extends this to another county. Future research should be devoted to greater understanding of country and culture effects on the findings.

Details

Women in Management Review, vol. 22 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-9425

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 15 August 2008

Ronald J. Burke, Mustafa Koyuncu and Lisa Fiksenbaum

The purpose of this paper is to explore gender differences in the work and career experiences of female and male managers and supervisors in the hospitality and tourism…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore gender differences in the work and career experiences of female and male managers and supervisors in the hospitality and tourism sector in Turkey. There is a belief that women tend to be disadvantaged in this sector as few women occupy the senior executive positions and those that do receive less pay. In addition, managerial and professional women in Turkey, in general, are less likely to achieve senior executive positions.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper reports research examining the work experiences, work and career satisfactions and psychological well‐being of females and males in managerial and supervisory positions in the hospitality and tourism sector in Turkey. Data were collected in 12 five‐star hotels operating in the Mediterranean and Agean region.

Findings

The paper finds, in answer to the research question – do female and male managers working in the Turkish hospitality and tourism sector report similar personal and work situation demographic characteristics, stable personality traits, work experiences, job satisfaction and levels of psychological well‐being – that the answer was Yes.

Originality/value

The paper is of value in pointing out that although its findings are positive, hospitality and tourism organizations still need to make efforts to support the career aspirations of their female managers and supervisors, and suggests elements which have proved useful in supporting women's career success and advancement.

Details

Equal Opportunities International, vol. 27 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

Keywords

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