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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2006

Gary N. Powell and Jeffrey H. Greenhaus

The relationship between work‐family enrichment (WFE), representing positive interdependencies between individuals' work and family roles, and work‐family conflict (WFC)…

Abstract

Purpose

The relationship between work‐family enrichment (WFE), representing positive interdependencies between individuals' work and family roles, and work‐family conflict (WFC), representing negative interdependencies between the same roles, has been discussed but never fully clarified in the scholarly literature on the work‐family interface. The purpose of this article is to increase understanding of the relationship between these two constructs.

Design/methodology/approach

The relationship between WFE and WFC is conceptualized at the level of a “resource” that may be generated in one role, work or family, and applied to the other role. This approach offers an alternative to the more typical approach of analyzing this relationship at the aggregate level across all possible resources.

Findings

The answer to the question posed in the title of the article is “yes or no”, or “it depends”. At the resource level, it is suggested that WFE is either unrelated or negatively related to WFC depending on the specific process under consideration by which experiences in one role may affect experiences in the other role.

Research limitations/implications

Future research that examines the relationship between WFE and WFC at the resource level is recommended. For this research to be conducted, new measures are needed that assess these two constructs at the resource level.

Originality/value

This article sheds light on the resource‐level conditions under which positive vs negative interdependencies between work and family roles may occur. In addition, it argues that research on the work‐family interface that goes beyond the aggregate level of analysis is sorely needed.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 11 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2020

Talat Islam, Mubbsher Munawar Khan, Ishfaq Ahmed, Ahmad Usman and Muhammad Ali

This study investigates the mechanism between work-family conflict (WFC) and job dissatisfaction by considering threat to family role as a mediator and role segment…

Abstract

Purpose

This study investigates the mechanism between work-family conflict (WFC) and job dissatisfaction by considering threat to family role as a mediator and role segment enhancement as a moderator.

Design/methodology/approach

The data were collected from 245 male and 245 female police officers using a questionnaire-based survey method through convenience sampling.

Findings

Results revealed that threat to family role partially mediates the association between WFC and job dissatisfaction. Role segment enhancement was also noted to weaken the association between WFC and job dissatisfaction. Moreover, the study revealed that male employees are more likely to draw a boundary between their work and family domain, which was not found in their female counterparts.

Research limitations/implications

The survey for this study was conducted in a male-dominant developing country, so results may be different in developed countries. The study has theoretical and managerial implications.

Originality/value

This study adds value to the existing literature on work-family conflicts in the perspective of source attribution and boundary management. Further, to the best of researchers' knowledge, none of the previous studies have examined role segment enhancement and threat to family role among the police workforce.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. 43 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1999

Ellen Ernst Kossek, Raymond A. Noe and Beverly J. DeMarr

In light of the dramatic social transformations occurring in the nature of family and worker demands, nearly all employees today need to make decisions on how to manage…

Abstract

In light of the dramatic social transformations occurring in the nature of family and worker demands, nearly all employees today need to make decisions on how to manage work and family roles. Drawing on role theory, we provide a summary framework for understanding individual, family, and organizational influences on the self‐management of work and family roles. Work‐family role synthesis is defined as the strategies an individual uses to manage the enactment of work and caregiving roles. It involves decision‐making choices governing boundary management and role embracement of multiple roles. We present hypotheses and a research agenda for examining antecedents and consequences of employee strategies for managing work and family roles.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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Article
Publication date: 7 January 2019

Pavitra Mishra and Jyotsna Bhatnagar

This study aims to fulfill the need to explore positive side of work–family interface, especially in emerging economies like India. The authors assessed the relationships…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to fulfill the need to explore positive side of work–family interface, especially in emerging economies like India. The authors assessed the relationships of individual (family role salience), organizational (work–family culture) and social (community support) antecedents to work-to-family enrichment. They also examined whether gender moderated the relationship between the three antecedents and work-to-family enrichment.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected on a questionnaire scale from 487 employees.

Findings

It has been found that family role salience, supportive work-family culture and community support were directly related to work-to-family enrichment. Gender did not influence the relationship between work-family culture and work-to-family enrichment. However, relationships between family role salience and work-to-family enrichment, and between community support and work-to-family enrichment, were stronger in case of the male employees. The evolving nature of gender and integration of work-family-community domain provide insights into managers and policymakers about the importance of family and community in the organizations.

Practical implications

The study builds a business case for facilitating a positive work-family culture in India for both male and female employees. The results point to the transitioning socio-cultural scenario of India, which advocates more similarities than differences in modern gender role expectations and identity. The current study emphasizes that while formulating policy, managers and policymakers should keep in mind evolving preferences of both the genders.

Originality/value

The research provides a holistic view of how individual-, organizational- and social-level factors may affect employees’ work–family enrichment in India. It also highlights the changing role of gender. Theoretical and practical limitations are also discussed.

Details

Journal of Asia Business Studies, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1558-7894

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Article
Publication date: 30 September 2013

Anna Frances Carmon and Judy C. Pearson

The purpose of this paper is to examine how family member employees’ communicative experiences within their families affect their perceptions of the workplace. The…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine how family member employees’ communicative experiences within their families affect their perceptions of the workplace. The influence of family business employees’ perceptions of family communication patterns on family satisfaction, family involvement, and work involvement within their family businesses were explored.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 138 family business employees, representing 81 family businesses, were surveyed. The questionnaire contained measures of family communication patterns, family involvement, work involvement, family satisfaction, as well as several demographic questions. Path modeling was used to analyze two proposed models of family involvement and work involvement.

Findings

Conversation orientation was related to perceptions of family satisfaction and perceptions of family satisfaction were related to perceptions of family involvement. While both proposed models were consistent with the data, no significant relationships were found between conformity orientation and perceptions of family satisfaction and between perceptions of family satisfaction and work involvement.

Originality/value

While not only exploring family business employees’ experiences through a unique communicative lens, this study also provides several practical implications for family business owners and managers.

Details

Journal of Family Business Management, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-6238

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Article
Publication date: 14 June 2011

Timothy D. Ryan and Michael Sagas

Athletic coaches are responsible for team relationships and a team's performance, yet many may leave the coaching profession or withdraw from team management because of…

Abstract

Purpose

Athletic coaches are responsible for team relationships and a team's performance, yet many may leave the coaching profession or withdraw from team management because of work‐family issues. The purpose of this study is to use ecological theory as a guide to theorize on the relationships between work‐factors and work‐family outcomes for team leaders.

Design/methodology/approach

Participants were 601 college coaches. Using an online questionnaire, participants evaluated their supervisory support, autonomy in their job, and various work‐family factors. Specifically, the effects of the work‐factors of autonomy and supervisory support were examined on work‐family variables. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM).

Findings

Confirmatory factor analysis results suggested that the fit for coaches and their work‐family interface is best explained by four work‐family dimensions – two directional conflict dimensions and two directional enrichment dimensions. Results suggest that supervisory support correlates with lower conflict and greater enrichment. Additionally, coaches reported that an autonomous workplace correlated with lower conflict and greater work enrichment with family.

Practical implications

Results suggest that it is beneficial to help the coach/team leader to improve fit, even though conflict is inevitable. Previously mentioned, and found throughout the results, was the effectiveness of the supervisor at alleviating conflict and amplifying enrichment.

Social implications

A reason for the disparate number of women in team leadership positions has been family pressure. This research is expected to lay a foundation for future research on the beneficial aspects of multiple role participation.

Originality/value

This research builds on past work on the work‐family fit, which originally focused heavily on conflict, but has just recently started looking at the beneficial aspects of multiple role participation.

Details

Team Performance Management: An International Journal, vol. 17 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7592

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Article
Publication date: 30 September 2011

Cecilia Bjursell and Lisa Bäckvall

Writings in the media have the potential to influence our standpoint and, thereby, our actions. In this paper, the authors analyze how women in family business are…

Abstract

Purpose

Writings in the media have the potential to influence our standpoint and, thereby, our actions. In this paper, the authors analyze how women in family business are represented in media to understand the frames set by this discourse in terms of women owning and leading family businesses. The aim of the paper is to explore how the counterposed roles of business person and mother are presented in media and what implications this might have for role enactment.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper opted for an exploratory study of 308 articles about women in family business over a 15‐year period. In the interpretative, qualitative analysis of media texts, the discursive construction of the mother role and the business role are explored.

Findings

The paper provides empirical insights into how the mother role is taken for granted while the business role is approached as problematic in portrayals of women in family business. The authors discuss whether the media discourse reinforces traditional roles or stimulates role innovation.

Practical implications

Understanding role as something separate from the individual provides a means to critically review expectations of women in business and how these expectations hinder business activities.

Originality/value

The study examines data over a 15‐year period in the Swedish media setting and describes changes in attitudes about women's roles in family business. Regarding the family business as an arena for performative acts provides a perspective that can highlight the intertwinement of the private and professional arenas in family business.

Details

Journal of Family Business Management, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-6238

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Article
Publication date: 5 August 2021

Allison M. Ellis, Tori L. Crain and Shalyn C. Stevens

Despite a burgeoning literature on family-supportive supervisor behaviors (FSSB), it is unclear whether supervisors view these behaviors as in-role or discretionary. We…

Abstract

Purpose

Despite a burgeoning literature on family-supportive supervisor behaviors (FSSB), it is unclear whether supervisors view these behaviors as in-role or discretionary. We proposed a new cognitive motivational construct, FSSB role perceptions (FSSB-RP; that is the extent to which supervisors perceive FSSB as an expected part of their job) and evaluated it as a mediator of the relationship between supervisors' own work–family experiences and FSSB.

Design/methodology/approach

We used an online survey of 245 US based supervisors.

Findings

We find that FSSB role perceptions is a unique but related construct to FSSB, and that approximately half of our sample of 245 supervisors either do not believe that FSSB is a part of their job or are unsure as to whether it is. Path analyses revealed that supervisors' own experiences of work–family conflict and enrichment are related to engaging in FSSB through role perceptions, especially when a reward system is in place that values FSSB.

Practical implications

These results may influence the design, implementation and dissemination of leader family-supportive training programs.

Originality/value

The factors that drive supervisors to engage in FSSB are relatively unknown, yet this study suggests the novel construct of FSSB role perceptions and supervisors' own work–family experiences are important factors.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 4 August 2021

Matthew B. Perrigino, Ellen Ernst Kossek, Rebecca J. Thompson and Todd Bodner

Despite the proliferation of work–family research, a thorough understanding of family role status changes (e.g. the gaining of elder or child caregiving responsibilities…

Abstract

Purpose

Despite the proliferation of work–family research, a thorough understanding of family role status changes (e.g. the gaining of elder or child caregiving responsibilities) remain under-theorized and under-examined. The purpose of this paper is to conceptualize various forms of family role status changes and examine the ways in which these changes influence various employee outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected as part of the work–family health study. Using a longitudinal, three-wave study with two-time lags of 6 months (n = 151 family role status changes; n = 392 individuals with family role stability), this study uses one-way analysis of variance to compare mean differences across groups and multilevel modeling to examine the predictive effects of family role status changes.

Findings

Overall, experiences of employees undergoing a family role status change did not differ significantly from employees whose family role status remained stable over the same 12-month period. Separation/divorce predicted higher levels of family-to-work conflict.

Originality/value

The work raises important considerations for organizational science and human resource policy research to better understand the substantive effects of family role status changes on employee well-being.

Details

Journal of Humanities and Applied Social Sciences, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN:

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Book part
Publication date: 4 September 2017

Kadri Raid and Kairi Kasearu

This paper aims to explore how couples reflect gender role–related attitudes in their family formation process and whether these processes could be described through the…

Abstract

This paper aims to explore how couples reflect gender role–related attitudes in their family formation process and whether these processes could be described through the lens of ambivalence. Using qualitative methods, semi-structured interviews with Estonian married and cohabiting couples were conducted (all together 24 interviewees). Analysis revealed themes of ambivalence toward gender roles among married and cohabiting couples. The present study could be classified as exploratory in identifying ambivalence, with open-ended and emergent analysis.

It is known that Estonians have adopted Western values and their family behavior resembles that of Nordic countries. However, our interviews showed that on the level of the individual, gender role–related attitudes in relationships have remained traditional. The reason for this might lie in the rapid change of values that occurred after the collapse of the Soviet Union. Western lifestyle was seen as an ideal, and copied in behavior before the actual family or gender role values could undergo the transformation needed to support egalitarian family values.

Our study reveals that the societal context of a rapid change in values and norms might create confusion and ambivalence in attitudes. Therefore, a high proportion of cohabiting couples might not be the product of egalitarian gender role–related attitudes but a product of ambivalent couple relations where the couple has not discussed thoroughly the vision and expectations they have for each other and their relationship.

Details

Intimate Relationships and Social Change
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-610-5

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