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Article
Publication date: 12 January 2021

Kim Hoe Looi and Alex Maritz

This study aims to examine the status of entrepreneurship education (EE) in Malaysia and entrepreneurship education programmes (EEPs) offered by Malaysian public and…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the status of entrepreneurship education (EE) in Malaysia and entrepreneurship education programmes (EEPs) offered by Malaysian public and private higher education institutions (HEIs), against the backdrop of macro-level context of Malaysian government institutions related to entrepreneurship.

Design/methodology/approach

This study replicates and extends the research by Maritz et al. (2015, 2019). The study expands a nascent archetype regarding an iterative and systematic open-ended emergent enquiry, together with data collection from Malaysian HEIs.

Findings

The findings suggest significant emergence of EE (programmes and research) in Malaysia, despite EEPs being sparsely distributed across HEIs in the bottom half of Table 1. The top ten HEIs (12% of all HEIs in Table 1) accounted for 35% of all EEPs. This study highlights the significant influence of Malaysian government institutions related to entrepreneurship on EE and EEPs.

Research limitations/implications

The findings are subject to the availability and accuracy of information and documents available on official websites of HEIs. This limitation has been mitigated with telephone and email inquiries and other sources of information.

Practical implications

The findings provide critical grounding and inferences on the status of EE and EEPs in Malaysia for researchers, practitioners, HEIs, governments and other stakeholders.

Originality/value

This study is first of its kind on emergent enquiry into the status of EE in Malaysia and EEPs offered by 19 public HEIs and 67 private HEIs in Malaysia. Moreover, this study links macro-level context of the Malaysian government institutions related to entrepreneurship with micro-level context of EE and EEPs.

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Article
Publication date: 30 June 2016

Norasmah Othman and Norfadhilah Nasrudin

This study aims to evaluate students’ views on the on-the-campus entrepreneurship programs in Malaysian polytechnics. Participation in the entrepreneurship programs is…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to evaluate students’ views on the on-the-campus entrepreneurship programs in Malaysian polytechnics. Participation in the entrepreneurship programs is able to stimulate an interest in entrepreneurship, and improve the knowledge, skills, and entrepreneurial experience of its students.

Design/methodology/approach

This study adopted a survey method designed in the form of an objective-oriented program evaluation. Questionnaires were used to identify the students’ level of assessments of the instructional dimensions. This study explored the differences in evaluation based on gender, specializations, and courses attended.

Findings

The results showed moderately high level of evaluation. The analysis of gender differences shows that gender did not affect students’ views on the instructional dimension. However, students’ specialization and courses attended are associated with significant differences in the level of evaluation

Research limitations/implications

This research is limited to only five Malaysian polytechnics. The study was looking into the instructional dimension of the entrepreneurship programs. Further research should include the assessment of the institutional side of the programs. .

Practical implications

The evaluation results provide important recommendations to improve some practical aspects of the entrepreneurial activities. The polytechnics’ departments can focus on the actual content as well as on the learning experience to implement conducive, positive, and supportive practices that could lead to a maximum participation rate among students.

Originality/value

There have been no discussions or evaluation of the entrepreneurship programs conducted in Malaysian polytechnics in terms of objective-oriented evaluation. This paper attempts to fill the current gap.

Details

Education + Training , vol. 58 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

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Article
Publication date: 30 May 2013

Mohd Zahari Ismail and Syed Zamberi Ahmad

The paper aims to empirically investigate the effectiveness of the entrepreneurship curriculum delivered in Malaysian polytechnics.

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to empirically investigate the effectiveness of the entrepreneurship curriculum delivered in Malaysian polytechnics.

Design/methodology/approach

The data were collected through survey questionnaires, in‐depth interviews, document reviews and focus group discussions. The respondents were drawn from Malaysian polytechnics – training director, centre managers, entrepreneurship instructors in the centre, and polytechnic students who were purposively selected.

Findings

The study identifies that the entrepreneurship curriculum in polytechnics is not effective. Students are not imbued with entrepreneurial knowledge, skills and attributes during their study. Teaching approaches appear to be inappropriate and polytechnic lecturers do not appear to have relevant entrepreneurial skills, knowledge or training.

Research limitations/implications

The sample size was small to be wholly reliable for generalising the findings to a similar problem in other higher learning institutions. However, the insights gained are a crucial basis for further research and give some variables to be investigated on their significance in shaping entrepreneurship education, especially in a developing country like Malaysia.

Practical implications

The findings provide valuable insights for institutional, educators, and policy makers. Stakeholders could use this study to revisit the existing education system and to improve the teaching methodologies in the area of entrepreneurship education in the higher learning institutions.

Originality/value

This is one of the first comprehensive studies to explore how entrepreneurship education is delivered within Malaysian polytechnics.

Details

Journal of Chinese Entrepreneurship, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-1396

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 30 September 2014

Wendy Ming Yen Teoh and Siong Choy Chong

This paper aims to identify developmental issues associated with women entrepreneurship, with the Malaysian small and medium enterprises (SMEs) as a base. Subsequently…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to identify developmental issues associated with women entrepreneurship, with the Malaysian small and medium enterprises (SMEs) as a base. Subsequently, the paper also aims to devise certain stratagems and new policies for ensuring women entrepreneurial growth.

Design/methodology/approach

An overview of the issues surrounding women entrepreneurship development in Malaysia is provided, drawing on the extant literature. The issues comprise cultural barriers, lack of spousal support, gender inequality, lack of confidence, weak social and business networking, few laws to support working families and neglected women entrepreneurs in the cottage industry, as well as domestic help and home-based childcare.

Findings

Based on the issues identified, strategies are proposed to address them, contextualising on the gender aspect of women entrepreneurship.

Practical implications

A summary is provided on the research and practical gaps from the perspective of strengthening women entrepreneurship and with the aim of encouraging further research in this area. The paper posits that an understanding of the gender aspect on issues related to the development of women entrepreneurship in Malaysia is required if policy measures are to be constructive in assisting women entrepreneurs in achieving their full entrepreneurial potential.

Originality/value

Very limited studies have been undertaken in the past to assess the issues faced by women entrepreneurs in the context of overall development of women entrepreneurship. This is of great value to an SME-dominated economy such as Malaysia where the paper provides a comprehensive summary of the strategies and policy measures required to strengthen women entrepreneurship development.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 29 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 21 August 2017

Yen-Chun Jim Wu and Tienhua Wu

The purpose of this paper is to systematically review the literature on entrepreneurship education (EE) in the Asia Pacific spanning a ten-year publishing period. The…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to systematically review the literature on entrepreneurship education (EE) in the Asia Pacific spanning a ten-year publishing period. The results of previous EE research are summarily analyzed and the key themes are critically addressed.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper presents a systematic literature review of EE articles published from 2007 to 2016 in peer-reviewed, English-speaking journals that are available on the Scopus database. Frequency, bibliometrical data, and research content of the literature review are analyzed.

Findings

Research in this area is experiencing a steady growth, and a small percentage of scholars or countries in the Asia Pacific are found to make significant contributions to a body of knowledge on EE. The findings also show that the majority of studies lack theoretical legitimacy on the definition of EE and its underpinning theories; however, some articles consider an institutional or contextual perspective on EE, present individual-centered pedagogy in a traditional educational context, or indicate the intertwined connections between EE initiatives and economic growth. Thus, the findings manifest EE research in the Asia Pacific as relatively limited across research agenda, viewpoints, and levels.

Research limitations/implications

Based on the discussion on key themes, a multi-faceted and multi-tier perspective and a longitudinal study are suggested to provide broader and deeper understanding of the complexities in EE provision and its role in the relationship with national entrepreneurship. Thus, the gap between Western/Asian research contexts and enabling a common evolving body of knowledge can be bridged.

Practical implications

This study provides valuable insights that can aid educators and policymakers to establish and improve EE design and operations. This study would benefit EE systems in countries of the Asia Pacific region and should improve their practical outcomes. The relevance of integrating functional, personality, and behavioral views into EE development seems difficult but is suitable for EE advancements, thereby boosting the acceptance of entrepreneurship in society and subsequently impacting the economic development of a country.

Originality/value

This study is the first literature review on EE research in the Asia Pacific; it provides a summary analysis of the current state of EE and future directions in theory and practice.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 55 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 16 November 2012

Norasmah Othman, Norashidah Hashim and Hariyaty Ab Wahid

The purpose of this paper is to observe the readiness of students and the internal environment of Malaysian public universities in the implementation of entrepreneurship education.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to observe the readiness of students and the internal environment of Malaysian public universities in the implementation of entrepreneurship education.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors employed a quantitative approach and the main instrument used to gauge the entrepreneurship readiness among students in Malaysia public universities was the questionnaire. The data were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software to obtain descriptive statistics that describe the profile of entrepreneurship readiness, both among the students themselves and in the internal environment of the universities, as the students perceive it.

Findings

According to the findings, students in Malaysian public universities demonstrate strong readiness, in terms of entrepreneurial willingness and capabilities. Within the internal environment of public universities, however, readiness for entrepreneurship education remains, from the students’ perspective, imperfect, and requires improvement if these institutions are to support future entrepreneurship education.

Research limitations/implications

This research is limited to students in Malaysian public universities. It is suggested that further research should include the students of private universities also, in order to mine a wealth of information pertinent to the readiness of Malaysian students, as well as to provide material for the remodelling of the internal environments of higher learning institutions.

Practical implications

Readiness profiles of students and institutions towards the implementation of entrepreneurship education provide important resources for policymakers responsible for Malaysian public universities, enabling them to enhance the implementation of entrepreneurship education.

Originality/value

There has been little discussion or analysis of the readiness of students and the internal environments of public universities in Malaysia towards the implementation of entrepreneurship education. This paper attempts to fill this gap in current research.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 54 no. 8/9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 23 November 2019

Samer Al-Shami, Abdullah Al Mamun, Safiah Sidek and Nurulizwa Rashid

This paper aims to explore the specific causes of failure among Malaysian female entrepreneurs who were provided with financial services by the microfinance institution…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the specific causes of failure among Malaysian female entrepreneurs who were provided with financial services by the microfinance institution: Amanah Ikhtiar Malaysia (AIM) to start up their own businesses.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper adopts a qualitative-based case study design approach, with data collected from a total of 18 female entrepreneurs who had failed to develop their businesses. In-depth personal interviews were conducted, coupled with personal observation via purposive cum snowball sampling.

Findings

Thematic analysis revealed a pattern-based outcome which discloses a variety of causes affecting the failure of Malaysian female entrepreneurship. These causes ranged from inter-related external factors which were perceived as beyond their control, such as personal life events, intensive competition and loan inflexibility to internal causes, which were related to lack of resources, poor financial management and personal dissatisfaction with their own business performance.

Research limitations/implications

The findings of this study provide valuable information for Malaysian economic policymakers in how to practically address the objectives of the National Women's Policy (NPW) and improve the innovative quality of their products and services. A thorough understanding of the specific obstacles facing female entrepreneurs in Malaysia is essential if policymakers are to improve opportunity exploitation efficiency and assist in mitigating the external and internal causes of business failure among Malaysian females.

Originality/value

Studies in this field have demonstrated that most new “start-ups” fail within three years of their establishment. While determinist, emotive and voluntarist theories can often provide an adequate explanation for the causes of business failure, it is clear that no single factor is usually responsible. Rather, multiple interrelated factors are found to be at play. This study, therefore, provides an integrative model for causes of business failure among small-business female entrepreneurs. It also represents one of only a few such studies in the literature and, to the best of knowledge at the time of writing, is the first such study that used an integrative approach to explain the causes of business failure in the Malaysian context.

Details

Qualitative Research in Financial Markets, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4179

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 12 August 2019

Nor Azizan Che Embi, Haruna Babatunde Jaiyeoba and Sheila Ainon Yussof

The purpose of this paper is to reflect on the data collected from Malaysian students to investigate the effects of students’ entrepreneurial characteristics (need for…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to reflect on the data collected from Malaysian students to investigate the effects of students’ entrepreneurial characteristics (need for achievement, locus of control, propensity to take risk, self-confidence, tolerance of ambiguity and uncertainty, and leadership) on their propensity to become entrepreneurs in Malaysia.

Design/methodology/approach

As a quantitative study, various analyses, such as exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling, were conducted to analyze the data collected from 257 students known to have participated in entrepreneurship course and programmes.

Findings

The results show that leadership skill, need for achievement, tolerance of ambiguity, and risk-taking propensity are positively and significantly associated with students’ intention to initiate entrepreneurial activities in Malaysia.

Originality/value

The researchers have used data from the perspective of Malaysian students to increase the readers’ understanding on students’ entrepreneurial characteristics that could enhance their likelihood to become entrepreneurs in Malaysia.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 61 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 17 August 2010

Muhammad Nizam Zainuddin and Mohd Rozaini Mohd Rejab

The purpose of this paper is to assess the effectiveness of undergraduates' specialised entrepreneurship programmes in Malaysian universities that have been made available…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess the effectiveness of undergraduates' specialised entrepreneurship programmes in Malaysian universities that have been made available to “ME generation” students. By analysing the antecedents and predicting self‐employment intention, the paper evaluates the impact of such programmes upon the employability value of undergraduates who are part of the ME generation in a developing country such as Malaysia.

Design/methodology/approach

A census survey was conducted on final and penultimate year students from major public and private universities in Malaysia. From these data, analyses of variables that affect self‐employment intention were performed, and the prediction of self‐employment intention was obtained.

Findings

The results show that the students do not perceive self‐realisation as their most salient beliefs and perceived that their entrepreneurship lecturers' expectations towards them to become self‐employed are not highly influential and need to be complied with. However, they believed that specialised entrepreneurship education (SEE) contributes to increasing entrepreneurial self‐efficacy and subsequently towards their self‐employment intention, and thus increases their employability value.

Research limitations/implications

This research only studies students' self‐employment intention in their respective universities and not their actual behaviour. Results from the paper are limited in ability to demonstrate “actual” outcomes that result from the interaction of the antecedents in universities' confinement.

Practical implications

The paper provides an important analysis of the current status of entrepreneurship students in Malaysian universities. The findings provide insight on the development of effective entrepreneurship programme deliveries and methodologies.

Originality/value

The paper provides a basis to improve the effectiveness of SEE in Malaysian universities and in turn produce highly employable graduates.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 52 no. 6/7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 24 February 2012

Syed Zamberi Ahmad and Siri Roland Xavier

The purpose of this paper is to explore the entrepreneurial activities in Malaysia through determining some demographic characteristics, expert and individual perceptions…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the entrepreneurial activities in Malaysia through determining some demographic characteristics, expert and individual perceptions of Malaysian entrepreneurs, in addition to the environment for entrepreneurship, and to highlight Malaysia's entrepreneurial position internationally.

Design/methodology/approach

The study was drawn from country‐level data provided by the National Malaysia GEM (Global Entrepreneurship Monitor) to evaluate the current status of entrepreneurial environments in the country.

Findings

The findings show that the early stages of entrepreneurship development in Malaysia are very dynamic and volatile. The number of early‐stage entrepreneurial activities in Malaysia is still lower than in other parts of developing countries. Inadequate financial support, bureaucracy and inconsistency of government policies, lack of entrepreneurial education at tertiary level and inadequacy of entrepreneurial training are some of the important obstacles encountered by entrepreneurs in Malaysia. On the other hand, there are favourable entrepreneurial environmental conditions determined in this study that are promising: the physical infrastructures and services access towards entrepreneurship, and the financial environment related with entrepreneurship.

Practical implications

The results are also useful for optimising the local entrepreneurial environment, and are helpful for policy decision makers. Institutions need to be strengthened before entrepreneurial resources can be fully deployed.

Originality/value

This paper provides the Malaysian government with theoretical support so that the government can utilise limited resources to develop entrepreneurial activities.

Details

Journal of Chinese Entrepreneurship, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-1396

Keywords

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