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Article
Publication date: 15 July 2019

Ghada El-Kot, Ronald J. Burke and Lisa M. Fiksenbaum

This paper aims to examine the relationship of perceived supervisor empowerment behaviors and feelings of personal empowerment with important work and well-being outcomes…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the relationship of perceived supervisor empowerment behaviors and feelings of personal empowerment with important work and well-being outcomes in a sample of Egyptian women managers and professionals.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 155 managerial and professional women using anonymously completed questionnaires. Respondents were relatively young; had university educations; had the short job and organizational tenures; held various levels of management jobs; and worked in a range of functions. All measures used here had been used and validated previously by other researchers.

Findings

Work outcomes included job satisfaction, career satisfaction, work engagement, work-family and family-work conflict, emotional exhaustion/burnout, life satisfaction and intent to quit. Both perceived levels of supervisory/leader empowerment behaviors and self-reported feelings of empowerment had significant relationships with the majority of work and well-being outcomes.

Research limitations/implications

Data were collected using self-report questionnaires with the small risk of response set and common method biases. Second, all data were collected at one point in time making it challenging to address issues of causality. Third, all respondents came from the two largest cities in Egypt, Cairo and Alexandria; thus, the extent to which our findings would generalize to managerial and professional women and men is indeterminate. Fourth, it was not possible to determine the representativeness of our sample as well.

Practical implications

Practical implications of these findings along with future research directions are offered. Practical applications include training supervisors on empowerment behaviors, and training all employees on the benefits of personal empowerment and efficacy and ways to increase them.

Social implications

A number of ways to increase levels of empowerment of both front-line employees and managers have been identified. These include increasing employee participation in decision-making, delegating authority and control to these employees, creating more challenging work roles through job redesign, leaders sharing more information and leaders providing more coaching and mentoring to their staff. At the micro level, increasing levels of employee self-efficacy through training and more effective use of their work experiences will increase personal empowerment and improve work outcomes.

Originality/value

Relatively little research has been undertaken on women in management and human resource management in Egypt.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 34 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2017

Lisa Fiksenbaum, Zdravko Marjanovic and Esther Greenglass

Financial threat is defined as fearful-anxious uncertainty regarding one’s current and future financial situation. The purpose of this paper is to examine predictors and…

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3026

Abstract

Purpose

Financial threat is defined as fearful-anxious uncertainty regarding one’s current and future financial situation. The purpose of this paper is to examine predictors and outcomes of financial threat in two samples of students who completed an online questionnaire for course credit. The theoretical model the authors proposed tested the association between personal debt, anxiety, and economic hardship with financial threat, and in turn, financial threat’s relationship with willingness to change financial behavior (e.g. increase income, cut expenses, and reduce debt), job search activity, and psychological distress. Consistent across samples, structural equation modeling (SEM) revealed that the data fit the model and supported all four hypotheses. Debt, economic hardship, and anxiety were all related positively to financial threat, which itself related positively to willingness to change, job search, and psychological distress. Importantly, financial threat mediated the relationship between these economic-situational predictors and affective-behavioral outcomes of financial stain. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

Design/methodology/approach

Using an online questionnaire, participants completed measures of economic hardship, intolerance of uncertainty, job search behavior, financial threat, life satisfaction, general health, perceived stress, and willingness to change to financial behavior. The authors developed and tested a model that explores emotional and cognitive reactions to financial stressors following the recession.

Findings

Results of SEM revealed that the data fit the model and no modification indices were suggested. Examination of parameter estimates indicated that total debt, economic hardship, and anxiety were positively related to financial threat. Financial threat, in turn, positively related to willingness to change one’s financial behaviors, job search, and psychological distress. In addition, economic hardship and anxiety were positively related to psychological distress. That is, individuals who were feeling more threatened by their financial situation were more willing to change their financial situation and were more likely to engage in job search behavior. They were also more likely to report more psychological distress than individuals reporting lower levels of financial threat.

Research limitations/implications

This study was cross-sectional and therefore precludes causal interpretations of the findings. Longitudinal data with repeated assessments of all measures would help determine the direction of causation. Also, the study relied on self-report data, which is prone to bias. For example, it is possible that some participants did not know their exact debt levels, which may have resulted in an under- or overestimation of debt levels. Future research should extend this line of research using objective measures. While the model tested in this study examined the impact of economic factors on perceived threat, behavior, and psychological distress, it did not include social and psychological resources. For example, the authors did not include measures of social support, coping, or personality, which may moderate the impact of economic variables and stress on psychological distress. Although financial knowledge/literacy was not studied here, future research could include it since it has been associated with a variety of financial behaviors such as cash-flow management, credit management, saving, and investing. There is some evidence that financial literacy can decrease emotional stress and anxiety (Vitt et al., 2000).

Practical implications

The current study can help researchers and practitioners understand the concept of financial threat among university students. For example, if students have incurred student loans and debt and begin displaying symptoms of distress, like anxiousness, worry, and irritability, they could be referred to a professional experienced in working with emotional and behavioral disorders related to financial issues. It can also help practitioners gain an understanding and insight into clients’ poor financial decision making. Government could initiate programs that help individuals cope with the negative effects of unemployment. Given that young people are experiencing disproportionately high unemployment that can have a lasting adverse effect on employment prospects and future earnings, the current post-secondary curriculum needs to prepare young people for the world of work, and gain a footing in the labor market. One way to achieve this is through high-quality work experiences (e.g. internships/apprenticeships). Identifying ways to mitigate the effects of debt and economic hardship is also imperative. For example, money and debt advice may improve one’s financial circumstances, which, in turn, may improve their physical and psychological well-being.

Social implications

Future studies could focus on developing models predicting to financial stress using personality, psychological resources, and an objective measure of financial knowledge. Despite these limitations, this research demonstrates how emotional factors need to be included in economic models that also include debt and economic hardship. The study contributes to the economic and psychological literature by documenting how economic hardship and debt influence perceptions of threat, planned behavior, and psychological distress. The authors take a unique approach to describing economic hardship and financial threat as antecedents of distress, job search, and willingness to change. Future research could be directed toward employing the model for predicting behavior that would lessen economic stress and thereby leading to increased psychological well-being.

Originality/value

The study develops and tests an original theoretical model linking financial, emotional, and psychological variable in a comprehensive framework that is then tested empirically. This model is original with this paper.

Details

Review of Behavioral Finance, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1940-5979

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 23 October 2009

Ronald J. Burke, Mustafa Koyuncu, Lisa Fiksenbaum and Halil Demirer

Based on US college student and adult samples, Kasser and Sheldon suggested that time affluence (TA) may be a more significant predictor of subjective well‐being than…

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1482

Abstract

Purpose

Based on US college student and adult samples, Kasser and Sheldon suggested that time affluence (TA) may be a more significant predictor of subjective well‐being than material affluence (MA). This paper aims to replicate and extend their findings to an employed sample from another country and culture.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 877 men and women managers and professionals working in the manufacturing sector in Turkey using anonymously completed questionnaires.

Findings

This sample worked long hours and earned significantly less income than did the US samples. TA and MA were uncorrelated in this sample though positively and significantly correlated in the US samples. Income emerged as a significant predictor of MA but not TA. Hierarchical regression analyses, controlling for both personal demographics (e.g. age, education) and work situation characteristics (e.g. organizational level, organizational tenure) showed that TA and MA were significant predictors of most work outcomes (e.g. job satisfaction, job stress) and indicators of psychological well‐being (e.g. psychosomatic symptoms, life satisfaction).

Research limitations/implications

Data were collected at one point in time so issues of causality cannot be addressed. Results suggest that further research on TA and MA should be carried out in countries having different values and levels of development than in North America.

Originality/value

These findings partially replicate US results and extend them to women and men working in a single occupation in another country. They suggest that further research on TA and MA should be carried out in countries having different values and levels of development than in North America.

Details

Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

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Article
Publication date: 13 February 2009

Ronald J. Burke and Lisa Fiksenbaum

It has been suggested that females may be disadvantaged in professions and organizations that require working long hours since females may choose to work fewer hours or…

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1215

Abstract

Purpose

It has been suggested that females may be disadvantaged in professions and organizations that require working long hours since females may choose to work fewer hours or may have to work fewer hours because of home and family responsibilities. The term “extreme jobs” has been used previously to describe jobs in which incumbents work 60 or more hours a week. The purpose of this paper is to compare female and male managers working 56 or more hours a week on personal and work situation characteristics, job behaviors, work and extra‐work outcomes and indicators of psychological well‐being.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 530 managerial and professional women and men in Canada using an anonymously completed questionnaire, about a 35 percent response rate. All had achieved their MBA degrees from the same university. Only those working 56 h a week or more were used in this research.

Findings

First, a slightly smaller percentage of females worked 56 or more hours a week. Second, females were significantly different from males on a number of personal and work situation characteristics (were younger, less likely to be married or to have children, had less job and organizational tenure). Third, there were few differences on stable individual difference characteristics, job behaviors, work outcomes, extra‐work satisfactions and psychological well‐being. Females did, however, indicate more psychosomatic symptoms, higher levels of satisfaction with friends, and tended to report higher levels of perfectionism and job stress. The work and non‐work experiences of females and males in these “extreme jobs” tended to be more similar than different. The few differences noted did indicate females to be somewhat disadvantaged.

Research limitations/implications

All data were collected using questionnaires raising the possibility of response set tendencies.

Originality/value

This paper describes one of the few studies that looks at the effects of “extreme jobs” on managerial women.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 24 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

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Article
Publication date: 24 October 2008

Ronald J. Burke, Mustafa Koyuncu and Lisa Fiksenbaum

The purpose of this paper is to examine potential antecedents of workaholism components identified in previous research and the relationship of these components to work…

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1433

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine potential antecedents of workaholism components identified in previous research and the relationship of these components to work and extra‐work satisfactions and psychological well‐being among professors in Turkey. It attempts to replicate previous research conducted in North America.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 406 professors using a web‐based questionnaire. Three workaholism components were considered: work involvement, feeling driven to work because of inner needs, and work enjoyment.

Findings

It was found that the three workaholism components were unrelated to three blocks of antecedent predictor variables. Both feeling driven to work and work enjoyment generally predicted validating job behaviors while work enjoyment predicted work and extra‐work satisfactions and psychological well‐being. These findings provide a partial replication of previous North American results, suggesting the need to consider both country and cultural factors in future workaholism research.

Research limitations/implications

All data were collected using self‐report questionnaires, raising the possibility of response set tendencies. In addition, all data were collected at one point in time, making it difficult to determine causality.

Practical implications

Work enjoyment emerged as a strong and consistent predictor of most work and well‐being outcomes. Organizations are encouraged to increase satisfaction levels in efforts to attain productive and healthy people.

Originality/value

This paper replicates previous workaholism research carried out in North America in Turkey, a secular Muslim country. The importance of considering country culture and values is highlighted.

Details

Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2006

Mustafa Koyuncu, Ronald J. Burke and Lisa Fiksenbaum

This research aims to investigate gender differences among professors in Turkey.

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1317

Abstract

Purpose

This research aims to investigate gender differences among professors in Turkey.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 243 male and 165 female professors using an anonymously completed internet based questionnaire. Measures included personal demographic and work situation characteristics, workaholism components and validating job behaviors (e.g. perfectionism) workaholism antecedents (e.g. beliefs and fears, organizational values), work and extra‐work satisfactions, and psychological well‐being.

Findings

There were considerable differences in personal demographic and work situation characteristics. Female professor were younger, more likely to be single, more likely to have fewer children, had less job and university tenure, were at lower ranks and earned less income. Female and male professors were similar on workaholic behaviors, work and extra‐work satisfaction and psychological well‐being, with one exceptions: female professors reported more psychosomatic symptoms.

Practical implications

Despite considerable demographic and work situation differences, female and male professors in Turkey report similar job behaviors, satisfactions and psychological well‐being.

Originality/value

Provides information on personal demographic and work situation characteristics among male and female academic staff in Turkey.

Details

Equal Opportunities International, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2006

Mustafa Koyuncu, Ronald J. Burke and Lisa Fiksenbaum

The paper aims to examine potential antecedents and consequences of work engagement in a sample of women managers and professionals employed by a large Turkish bank.

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5362

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to examine potential antecedents and consequences of work engagement in a sample of women managers and professionals employed by a large Turkish bank.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 286 women, a 72 per cent response rate, using anonymously completed questionnaires. Engagement was assessed by three scales developed by Schaufeli et al.: vigor, dedication and absorption. Antecedents included personal demographic and work situation characteristics as well as work life experiences; consequences included measures of work satisfaction and psychological well‐being.

Findings

The following results were observed. First, worklife experiences, particularly, control, rewards and recognition and value fit, were found to predict all three engagement measures. Second, engagement, particularly dedication, predicted various work outcomes (e.g. job satisfaction, intent to quit). Third, engagement, particularly vigor, predicted various psychological well‐being outcomes.

Research limitations/implications

Questions of causality cannot be addressed since data were collected at only one point in time. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine the effects of work life experiences on engagement.

Practical implications

Organizations can increase levels of work engagement by creating work experiences (e.g. control, rewards and recognition) consistent with effective human resource management practices.

Originality/value

This study contributes to our understanding of work engagement among women managers and professionals.

Details

Equal Opportunities International, vol. 25 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 July 2009

Ronald J. Burke and Lisa Fiksenbaum

Interest in the potential negative effects of long work hours has increased over the past ten years. The purpose of this paper is to compare personal demographics and work…

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718

Abstract

Purpose

Interest in the potential negative effects of long work hours has increased over the past ten years. The purpose of this paper is to compare personal demographics and work situation characteristics, stable individual difference factors, job behaviors, work and extra‐work satisfactions and psychological well‐being of female MBA graduates in managerial and professional jobs working 56 h a week or more with those working 55 h a week or less.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 247 female MBA graduates of a single Canadian business school, using anonymously completed questionnaires, with about a 35 percent response rate.

Findings

Females working more hours reported both benefits and costs. The benefits included higher levels of job satisfaction, future career prospects and salary; the costs included higher levels of job stress and psychosomatic symptoms and lower levels of family satisfaction and emotional health.

Research limitations/implications

All data were self‐reports and the sample of women managers and professionals working 56 or more hours a week was relatively small. The research needs to be replicated in other countries as well.

Practical implications

Organizations need to consider the potential costs to both employees and themselves from long working hours.

Originality/value

This paper is one of few studies of the effects of long work hours on the experiences of managerial and professional women.

Details

Equal Opportunities International, vol. 28 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

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Article
Publication date: 24 July 2007

Ronald J. Burke, Mustafa Koyuncu and Lisa Fiksenbaum

This research aims to examine potential antecedents and consequences of different career priority patterns among managerial and professional women working in a large…

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807

Abstract

Purpose

This research aims to examine potential antecedents and consequences of different career priority patterns among managerial and professional women working in a large Turkish bank. Two career priority patterns advanced by Schwartz were considered: career‐primary and career‐family. Previous research conducted in other countries has compared these career priority patterns.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 286 managerial and professional women using anonymously completed questionnaires, a 72 percent response rate.

Findings

Career‐primary and career‐family women were similar on personal demographic and work situation characteristics. However, the two groups were significantly different on a variety of other measures. Career‐primary women were more satisfied with their jobs and careers, had more optimistic career prospects, were more work engaged, exhibited higher levels of workaholism and reported higher levels of psychological well‐being. These findings were somewhat different from those obtained in previous research suggesting possible country and culture differences.

Research limitations/implications

All data were collected using questionnaires at one point in time making it difficult to draw conclusions on causality. It is also not clear the extent to which these findings would generalize to women in other occupations.

Practical implications

The findings raise potential career development issues and their role in the satisfaction and well‐being of managerial women, these having possible career counseling implications.

Originality/value

This study replicates previous work and extends this to another county. Future research should be devoted to greater understanding of country and culture effects on the findings.

Details

Women in Management Review, vol. 22 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-9425

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Article
Publication date: 13 April 2010

Ronald J. Burke, Parbudyal Singh and Lisa Fiksenbaum

The purpose of this exploratory research is to examine the relationship of a measure of work intensity with potential antecedents and consequences.

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2864

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this exploratory research is to examine the relationship of a measure of work intensity with potential antecedents and consequences.

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire was developed and pre‐tested. It included a new 15‐item measure of work intensity. Data were collected from 106 respondents enrolled in three university business courses using anonymously completed questionnaires. Regression and factor analyses were used in developing the measure and testing the relationships.

Findings

The 15‐item measure of work intensity was found to have high internal consistency and reliability. Work intensity was significantly related to respondents' organizational level and work status. In addition, respondents indicating higher levels of work intensity also reported working more hours, a higher workload, and greater job stress. Work intensity was unrelated to organizational values supporting work‐personal life imbalance, three workaholism components, or to indicators of work engagement. Factor analysis of the work intensity measure produced three factors: emotional demands, job demands, and time demands, the first two were fairly consistently related to other study variables, whereas time demands was not.

Research limitations/implications

The sample was relatively small and the data were collected using self‐reports. The design was cross‐sectional, thus limiting causal inferences.

Practical implications

Managers will find the study useful in assessing the effects of work intensity and working long hours for employees, including stress levels and work engagement.

Originality/value

The study developed a work intensity measure and examined its properties and correlates, something that is lacking in the literature.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 39 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

Keywords

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