Egyptian women supervisory empowerment behaviors on well-being outcomes

Ghada El-Kot (College of Management and Technology, Arab Academy for Science Technology and Maritime Transport, Alexandria, Egypt)
Ronald J. Burke (Schulich School of Business, York University, Toronto, Canada)
Lisa M. Fiksenbaum (Department of Psychology, York University, Toronto, Canada)

Gender in Management

ISSN: 1754-2413

Publication date: 1 July 2019

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the relationship of perceived supervisor empowerment behaviors and feelings of personal empowerment with important work and well-being outcomes in a sample of Egyptian women managers and professionals.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 155 managerial and professional women using anonymously completed questionnaires. Respondents were relatively young; had university educations; had the short job and organizational tenures; held various levels of management jobs; and worked in a range of functions. All measures used here had been used and validated previously by other researchers.

Findings

Work outcomes included job satisfaction, career satisfaction, work engagement, work-family and family-work conflict, emotional exhaustion/burnout, life satisfaction and intent to quit. Both perceived levels of supervisory/leader empowerment behaviors and self-reported feelings of empowerment had significant relationships with the majority of work and well-being outcomes.

Research limitations/implications

Data were collected using self-report questionnaires with the small risk of response set and common method biases. Second, all data were collected at one point in time making it challenging to address issues of causality. Third, all respondents came from the two largest cities in Egypt, Cairo and Alexandria; thus, the extent to which our findings would generalize to managerial and professional women and men is indeterminate. Fourth, it was not possible to determine the representativeness of our sample as well.

Practical implications

Practical implications of these findings along with future research directions are offered. Practical applications include training supervisors on empowerment behaviors, and training all employees on the benefits of personal empowerment and efficacy and ways to increase them.

Social implications

A number of ways to increase levels of empowerment of both front-line employees and managers have been identified. These include increasing employee participation in decision-making, delegating authority and control to these employees, creating more challenging work roles through job redesign, leaders sharing more information and leaders providing more coaching and mentoring to their staff. At the micro level, increasing levels of employee self-efficacy through training and more effective use of their work experiences will increase personal empowerment and improve work outcomes.

Originality/value

Relatively little research has been undertaken on women in management and human resource management in Egypt.

Keywords

Citation

El-Kot, G., Burke, R.J. and Fiksenbaum, L.M. (2019), "Egyptian women supervisory empowerment behaviors on well-being outcomes", Gender in Management, Vol. 34 No. 5, pp. 350-365. https://doi.org/10.1108/GM-12-2018-0165

Publisher

:

Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2019, Emerald Publishing Limited


Introduction

Research and writing on the role and benefits of empowerment in organizations began almost 20 years ago. Herrenkohl et al. (1999, p. 375) define empowerment as “a set of dimensions that characterize an environments interaction with persons in it so as to encourage their taking initiative to improve procedures and to take action”. Spreitzer (1996, p. 1005) described two types or levels of empowerment: the macro organizational environment of policies approaches to decision-making, structure, locus of control and the micro feelings of empowerment of employees that recognizes risk taking, showing initiative and seeking out information on organizational priorities.

Measures of empowerment at both levels have been developed and validated. These include Mathews et al. (2003) at the macro level, Arnold Arad et al. (2000) assessing leader empowerment behavior and Spreitzer (1996, 1995) at the individual micro level. Other researchers have identified characteristics of an empowering workplace. These include Bowen and Lawler (1995, 1992) and Seibert et al. (2011). Organizations have become more interested in increasing levels of organizational and psychological empowerment. Lawler et al. (2001) write that over 70 per cent of organizations undertake some form of empowerment initiative in some parts of their workforce in the USA. These efforts were initially more common in the service sector (Zemke and Schaef, 1989) but have now spread to other functions and sectors.

Human resource management in the Egyptian context

The Egyptian economy has been performing at a low level for several decades. Unemployment rates, particularly among women and recent university graduates, are high (Burke and El-Kot, 2014; El-Kot, 2016). Egypt has high rates of poverty, a low standard of living and relatively high rates of illiteracy. Economic and political uncertainty is high as Egypt has had six different governments since the Arab Spring revolution in 2011. Tourism, manufacturing and construction were particularly damaged. Corruption and nepotism were major problems in the public sector, the largest employer in Egypt.

El-Badawy (2014) in an analysis of the effects of globalization on human resource management in the Egyptian public sector, identified shortcomings in this sector including limited training, poor performance appraisal systems, poor employee benefit packages and bureaucratic non-meritocratic structures, these reflecting outdated management practices. Thus the need to improve productivity and organizational performance is high. Unfortunately, many managers are not knowledgeable about effective human resource management practices and policies. These factors may, in the short run, increase interest in human resource management practices, in making greater use of their employee talents, with empowerment being an element in these efforts. There has been relatively little research attention paid to human resource management practices in Egypt, and the Middle East as a whole, but this picture is slowly changing, with both review articles and edited collections emerging (Budhwar and Mellahi, 2016, 2005, 2006; Afiouni et al., 2014), with El-Kot (2016) and Burke and El-Kot (2014) reviewing human resource practices in Egypt.

El-Kot writes (2016) in her review of human resource management in Egypt that most organizations cover the basic human resource functions (e.g. recruitment, training, compensation) with little understanding of what the best practices in these areas today are. In addition, employment rates are significantly higher in the public sector than one might hope for. Foreign investment is low and needs to be increased substantially. New technologies need to be identified and implemented. Sidani and Thornberry (2009) also express concern about the fact that the existing Arab work ethic is not conducive to development and change to an energetic and committed workforce. Finally, Egyptian managers do not seem particularly interested in adopting newly emerging human resource management practices from the West.

Human resource management and performance in Egyptian organizations

There are however examples of the benefits to Egyptian organizations from the application of human resource management practices. Ateya (2012) collected data from 549 supervisors working in the petroleum industry. Human resource practices included training, use of rewards and incentives, performance evaluation, recruitment, selection and career development efforts. She reported that greater use of these human resource management practices influenced job performance indirectly through job satisfaction, organizational commitment, organizational citizenship behaviors, lower intentions to quit and less criticism of their organizations.

Burke and El-Kot (2014), using data from 88 Egyptian small- and medium sized enterprises, reported that greater use of various human resource management practices was associated with greater perceived effectiveness of their small and medium-sized enterprises and generally higher effectiveness this year than last. Hafez et al. (2017) describe, in a sample of 105 employees at an Egyptian public university, how aspects of talent management influenced both job satisfaction and employee retention. Employee talent, skill, knowledge and engagement are increasingly important organizational resources and managing talent has become a higher priority in many workplaces. The talent management measure involved motivating outstanding employee performance, training and development, and job enrichment. Unfortunately the introduction of this initiative is not described. In addition, respondents generally rated their experiences as relatively negative across the board.

El-Fakey (2015), using both qualitative and quantitative methods, reported that human resource development practices increased the organizational learning capacity of units in the Egyptian banking sector. Training and development initiatives had the strongest effect, followed in turn by organizational development and career development initiatives. Seleim et al. (2006) note the key role of superstar software developers played a key role in their workplaces because of their outstanding productivity. Wahba and Elmanadily (2015) in a study, including both service and product sector employee samples, found that human resource management practices increased employer branding in only the service sector. Human resource management practices contribution to these positive effects included recruitment, training, reward systems, performance appraisal and career management practices.

We undertook an earlier study in Egypt of empowerment effects in a sample of 77 men and 44 women in managerial and professional jobs (Burke et al., 2016, 2018). The 2016 manuscript considered sex differences. Consistent with other Egyptian findings, males were older, more likely to be married and to be parents, were at higher organizational levels and were more likely to hold supervisory duties and had longer organizational tenures. There were no significant differences in full-time work status, education, job tenure and organizational size. Interestingly, both males and females reported similar levels of supervisory empowerment behaviors and self-reported feelings of empowerment. Surprisingly, there were very few sex differences on work and well-being outcomes; males were more organizationally committed, worked more hours and earned more income. Males tended to be more job satisfied and more work engaged as well. Burke et al. (2018) using the combined male and female sample (n = 121), studied potential benefits of perceived supervisory empowerment behaviors and felt personal empowerment on a range of work and well-being outcomes. Supervisory empowerment behaviors predicted employee self-reports of empowerment, and both these empowerment measures had positive effects on job satisfaction, work engagement, organizational commitment, learning opportunities and engaging in voice behaviors but no effects on quit intentions and psychological well-being. Finally, both perceived supervisory empowerment behaviors and personal empowerment were reported at only moderate levels.

Women managers and professionals in Egypt

Very little research has been devoted to understanding the work and career experiences of managerial and professional women in Egypt or the Middle East in general. At the macro level, women in Egypt receive less education and are less represented in the workforce than men. They face bias and discrimination in the workplace (Elsaid abd Elsaid, 2012; Mostafa, 2003) experience high levels of sexual harassment (Amin and Darrag, 2011; World Bank, 2014) contributing to gendered beliefs about the existence of a glass ceiling limiting their development and advancement (Khedr, 2017). These experiences are couched in societal values supporting patriarchy, women’s subservience, and gender inequality (Elsaid and Elsaid, 2012; World Bank, 2014). Egypt was ranked 134th out of 144 countries in terms of the existence of a gender gap in women’ economic status in 2017 (OECD, 2017). Jamali et al. (2010) and Kauser and Tlaiss (2011) lay out the huge challenges facing Egypt and other Middle East countries in reducing these sources of inequality and addressing gender related issues at work immediately.

Empowering supervisors, psychological empowerment and performance benefits

Some employees are more likely to embrace empowerment than others. Fong and Snape (2015) underline the importance of analyzing both within-group and between-group differences in empowering leadership and their effects on individual attitudes and behaviors. Spreitzer et al. (1999) found that supervisors who reported higher levels of empowerment were seen by their subordinates as more innovative, upward influencing and inspirational. Taktaz et al. (2012) concluded that the employee's psychological empowerment is the most important factor effect on the employees’ performance. In the same direction, Bowen and Lawler (1995) noted that empowerment is a cognitive state among employees created by high-involvement management practices. Park (2017) added that some employees may feel and act in empowered ways regardless of the extent to which employees are given a voice and are involved in decision-making. Employees being more highly educated, more committed to their profession, being at higher organizational levels, and having more self-efficacy are likely to feel and act more empowered. Individuals then have some influence on their levels of psychological empowerment.

The present study

In this study, we consider the relationship of Egyptian female managers and professionals perceptions of supervisor/leader empowerment attitudes and behaviors, levels of felt psychological empowerment and important work and well-being outcomes (e.g. job satisfaction, work engagement, intent to quit and psychological well-being). We examine the following general hypothesis: both supervisory empowering behaviors and managerial employees’ feelings of psychological empowerment will be related to more positive work and well-being outcomes in this all female sample, controlling for the effects of personal demographic and work situation characteristics. It not only adds to greater understanding of the experiences of women in management and human resource management practices in Egypt but also the potential value of a set of ideas developed in the West in a different country environment.

Method

Procedure

All data were collected using anonymously completed questionnaires in English. Data were collected between March 2018 and June 2018 on voluntarily basis from MBA students at Arab Academy for Science, Technology and Maritime Transport, Alexandria, Egypt. A team of MBA students and managerial and professional women approached employees in a range of organizations in Alexandria and Cairo soliciting their participation. The students were asked to participate in this research as female managers and professionals, plus distributing the questionnaires among their female managers and professionals at their organizations too. Ended up with one hundred and fifty-five surveys were returned, either immediately or within a short period of time. The majority of the MBA students were working in some organizations at Cairo and Alexandria; therefore these cities are the only cities included in this research. The data collected mainly from females working in different organizations by distributing the questionnaires at work place and collected them back and send them to the researchers after being completed. The sample is best described as a convenience sample; as we do not have any record on the number of the females who are working in each organization, and this was a try to figure out the Egyptian women supervisory behaviors based on the available female managers and professionals who agreed to participate in this research.

Respondents

Table I presents the personal demographic and work characteristics of our sample (n = 155). Most worked full time (85 per cent), were 35 years of age or younger (63 per cent), were single (66 per cent), without children (66 per cent), had university educations (100 per cent), worked in their present organizations and positions for five years or less (43 and 73 per cent, respectively), held lower level management positions (34 per cent), had supervisory responsibilities (74 per cent), worked between 31 and 40 h per week (60 per cent) a majority earned more than 75,000 Egyptian pound salaries (42 per cent), worked in organizations of varying sizes up to several thousand with a majority working in firms of 1,000 to 5,000 employees (42 per cent) and worked in a variety of departments (e.g. education, logistics, research and development).

Measures: some measures were employed in this study as follows

Personal and work situation demographics.

Personal and work setting characteristics were assessed by a number of single items. The former included: gender, age, current work status, current marital and parental status, income and level of education. The latter included hours worked per week, organizational level, job tenure, organizational tenure, organizational size and whether respondent had supervisory duties. These items served as control variables in our analyses.

Supervisory empowerment behaviors.

Arnold; Arad; Rhoades and Drasgow (2000) created a measure of empowering leader behaviors that included five dimensions: Coaching, Informing, Leading by example, Participative decision-making, and Showing concern/Interacting with their team. Each was measured by five items. Respondents indicated how frequently their supervisor exhibited each behavior on a five point Likert Scale (1 = Never, 3 = Sometimes, 5 = Always).

Leading by example: (α = 0.90) An item was “Leads by example”.

Participative decision-making: (α = 0.85) One item was “Encourages work group members to express their ideas/suggestions”.

Coaching: (α = 0.95) An item was “Suggests ways to improve my work group’s performance”.

Informing: (α = 0.94) One item was “Explains h9ow my work group fits into the company”.

Showing concern/Interacting with the team: (α = 0.92) An item was “Shows concern for work group members’ well-being”.

Scores on these five dimensions of leader empowerment were significantly and positively correlated (p < 0.001). Thus, the five dimensions were combined into a total leader empowerment measure (α = 0.96).

Psychological empowerment.

Psychological or personal feelings empowerment was measured by a 12-item scale developed and validated by Spreitzer (1996, 1995). This measure included four dimensions, each addressed by three items. Respondents indicated their agreement with each item on a seven-point Likert scale (1 = Very strongly disagree; 4 = Neutral, 7 = Very strongly agree).

Meaning: (α = 0.96) “The work I do is meaningful to me”.

Competence: (α = 0.90) “I am confident about my ability to do my job”.

Self-determination: (α = 0.91) “I have significant autonomy in determining how I do my job”.

Impact: (α = 0.84) “My impact on what happens in my department is large”.

Scores on these four dimensions were significantly and positively correlated (p < 0.001). Thus, scores on the four dimensions were combined into an overall psychological empowerment measure (α = 0.92).

Work outcomes: Eight work outcomes were included.

Job satisfaction was assessed by a seven item scale (α = 0.82) developed by Taylor and Bowers (1972). Respondents indicated their agreement with each item on a five-point Likert scale (1-Very dissatisfied, 3 = Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied; 5 = Very satisfied. One item was “all in all, how satisfied are you with the persons in your work group?”

Career satisfaction was measured by a five item scale (α = 0.90) developed by Greenhaus et al. (1990). Respondents indicated their satisfaction with each item on a five point scale (5 = Very satisfied, 3 = Neutral, 1 = Very dissatisfied. An item was “I am satisfied with the success I have achieved in my career”.

Work engagement. Three aspects of work engagement were assessed using measures created by Schaufeli et al. (2002). Respondents indicated their agreement with each item on a five-point Likert scale (1 = strongly disagree, 3 = neither agree nor disagree, 5= strongly agree)

Dedication was measured by five items (α = 0.82). One item was “I am proud of the work I do”.

Vigor was assessed by six items (α = 0.89). An item was “At my work I feel bursting with energy”.

Absorption was measured by six items (α = 0.73). One item was “I am immersed in my work”.

Scores on these three measures were positively and significantly inter-correlated (p < 0.001); thus, they were combined to form a composite work engagement measure (α = 0.88).

Work–family and family–work conflict.

These two measures, work–family conflict (α = 0.88) and family–work conflict (alpha = 0.76), contained four items each. Respondents indicated their agreement with each item on a five point scale (5 = Strongly agree; 3 = Neither agree nor disagree; 1 = Strongly disagree; A work–family conflict item was “After work, I come home too tired to do some of the things I’d like to do.” A family-work conflict item was “My personal demands are so great that it takes away from my work”.

Emotional exhaustion/burnout was measured by a nine item scale (α = 0.95) developed by Maslach et al. (1996). Respondents indicated how frequently they experienced the job-related feelings in each item on a seven point scale (7 = Daily; 4 = A few times a month), 1 = Never during the past year. An item was “I feel emotionally drained from my work”.

Life satisfaction was assessed by a five item scale (alpha = 0.83) developed by Diener et al. (1985). Respondents indicated their agreement with each item on a seven-point scale (7 = Strongly agree; 4 = Neither agree nor disagree; 1 = Strongly disagree). One item was “In most ways my life is close to my ideal”.

Intent to quit was measured by two items (α = 0.81) used by Burke (1991). Respondents indicated “yes or no” for both items. One item was “Are you currently looking for a different job in a different organization?”

Results

Supervisor empowerment behaviors, psychological empowerment and work and well-being outcomes

Table II presents the results of hierarchical regression analyses in which the seven work and well-being outcomes were separately regressed on three blocks of predictors. The first block of predictors (n = 11) included personal demographics and work situation characteristics. The second block of predictors included the measure of perceived supervisor/leader empowerment behaviors (n = 1). The third and final block of predictors was the measure of psychological empowerment (n = 1). When a block of predictors accounted for a significant amount or increment in explained variance on a given dependent variable (p < 0.05), individual items or measures within these blocks having significant and independent relationships with this variable (p < 0.05) were identified.

Considering job satisfaction, all three blocks of predictors accounted for significant increments in explained variance. Two personal demographic characteristics had significant relationships with job satisfaction. Women at higher organizational levels and women with more job tenure were more job satisfied (βs = 0.32 and 0.17, respectively). Perceptions of higher levels of supervisory empowerment behaviors and higher levels of personal empowerment were associated with increases in job satisfaction as well.

All three blocks of predictors also accounted for increases in career satisfaction. Women at higher organizational levels and women without children were also more satisfied with their careers (βs = 0.35 and −0.23, respectively.

All three blocks of predictors were associated with significant amounts of explained variance and significant increments in work engagement. Women working part time (β = −0.39), working in smaller organizations (β = −0.16), less educated women (β = −0.19) and older women (β = 0.18) indicated higher levels of work engagement.

Considering work-family conflict, six personal demographic characteristics had significant and independent relationships with this outcome. More educated women (β = 0.40), women with more and longer career breaks (β = 0.22), women working full time (β = −22), women having shorter job tenures (β = −24) and women at higher organizational levels (β = 0.18) indicated higher levels of work–family conflict. Interestingly, supervisory empowerment behaviors reduced work family conflict whereas feeling of personal empowerment increased work-family conflict (βs = −0.11 and 0.10, respectively).

Moving to family-work conflict, women with longer organization tenure (β = 0.60), more educated women (β = 0.55) and women working in larger organizations (β = 0.12) reported higher levels of family-work conflict. Both levels of supervisory empowerment and feelings of personal empowerment reduced levels of family-work conflict (βs = 0.18 and 0.10, respectively).

All three blocks of predictors accounted for significant relationships with levels of emotional exhaustion/burnout. Women working full-time (β = 0.41), with children (β = 0.40), who were married (β = 0.22) and had shorter job tenures (β = −0.18) reported higher levels of emotional exhaustion/burnout. Fortunately, both levels of supervisory empowerment behaviors and feelings of personal empowerment were associated with reductions in levels of emotional exhaustion/burnout (βs = −0.28 and −0.16, respectively

All three blocks of predictors accounted for significant increments in life satisfaction. Four personal demographics had significant and independent relationships with this outcome. Women who were married (β = 0.38), working part- time (β = −0.22), having supervisory duties (β = 0.22) and more education (β = 0.27) were more life satisfied. Women report in higher levels of personal empowerment reported gains in life satisfaction as well; β = 12).

Finally, considering intent to quit, which was relatively low in this sample of women, Women having more and longer career breaks (β = 0.28), shorter organization tenures (β = 0.44) and older women (β = 0.22) were more likely to intend to quit. Both perceptions of higher levels of supervisory empowerment behaviors decreased intentions to quit (β = −0.39).

Conclusion and practical implications

We found overall support for our hypothesis (Table II). First, levels of supervisory empowerment behaviors were significantly and positively related with most of the outcome measures (Burke et al., 2016, 2018). Second, levels of personal psychological empowerment were generally positively related with work and well-being outcomes, with the exception of employees’ quit intentions and levels of exhaustion/burnout. The variance on our measure of exhaustion/burnout – the absence of symptoms- was limited as the sample was generally young and in relatively good health.

Our results were generally consistent with previous writing and research carried out both in tourism and hospitality and other sectors reviewed above (Burke et al., 2016, 2018; Fong and Snape, 2015; Spreitzer et al., 1999; Taktaz et al., 2012; Bowen and Lawler, 1995 and Park (2017). In addition, these results replicate the findings from our previous work investigating these same concepts in a sample of service employees from five-star hotels in Turkey and managers and professionals in the manufacturing sector in Turkey. Third, levels of employee psychological empowerment were significantly and positively related with five of the eight work and psychological well-being indicators, neither with intent to quit nor psychological wellbeing/absence of psychological symptoms. Variance on these two outcomes was restricted as few respondents intended to quit and the relatively young age of the respondents resulted in relatively low levels of emotional exhaustion/burnout symptoms.

This investigation has shown that higher levels of supervisor empowering behaviors and greater feelings of employee empowerment was associated with positive outcomes, consistent with a large body of emerging research findings in studies carried out in various industrial sectors (Burke et al., 2015a, 2015b, Zemke and Schaef, 1989). The implementation of empowerment practices will be a difficult challenge (Ahearne et al., 2005). There is usually tension between management’s desire for control and employee feelings of empowerment. There is also a gap between manager’s opinions of levels of employee empowerment and employee feelings of empowerment (Hales, 2000). In addition, some cultures make it more difficult for mangers to give up their authority and control, particularly to women. Implementing an empowerment initiative is a major organizational change, and with all major organizational change efforts, many fail or fall short.

Based on our work and the work of others (Spreitzer, 2008 for a review) empowerment practices have the potential to yield positive outcomes for both employees and workplaces. A number of ways to increase levels of empowerment of both front line employees and managers have been identified (Dewettnick and van Ameijde, 2011; Hales, 2000; Bowen and Lawler, 1995, 1992; Cacioppe, 1998; Kazlauskaite et al., 2011). These include increasing employee participation in decision-making, delegating authority and control to these employees, creating more challenging work roles through job redesign, leaders sharing more information and leaders providing more coaching and mentoring to their staff. At the micro level, increasing levels of employee self-efficacy through training and more effective use of their work experiences will increase personal empowerment and improve work outcomes (Maddux, 2002).

Limitations of the research

The present research has shortcomings which should be noted to better consider the findings. First, all data were collected using self-report questionnaires with the small risk of response set and common method biases. Second, all data were collected at one point in time making it challenging to address issues of causality. Third, all respondents came from the two largest cities in Egypt; Cairo and Alexandria, thus the extent to which our findings would generalize to managerial and professional women and men is indeterminate. Fourth, it was not possible to determine the representativeness of our sample as well.

Future research directions

The size and nature of our sample made this an exploratory investigation of empowerment in Egyptian organizations, to our knowledge the first Egyptian study of empowerment among Egyptian female managers and professionals. The results, consistent with our hypothesis and previous research findings from other countries and other industries, indicated that supervisory empowering behaviors were associated with valued individual and organizational outcomes. As a consequence undertaking future research in Egypt which examines empowerment is warranted and should include larger and more representative samples of managers and professionals. In addition, including outcomes measures of a more objective nature such as absenteeism, managerial ratings of job performance and actual job performance evidence would strengthen conclusions about the potential benefits of empowerment in organizations. Finally, initiating efforts to increase levels of empowerment, where appropriate, and evaluating these efforts, would provide meaningful information to organizational leaders.

Demographic characteristics of sample

N (%)
Age
25 or less 26 16.8
26-30 34 21.9
31-35 37 23.9
36-40 33 21.3
41 and older 25 16.1
Education
Bachelors 63 40.6
Masters 72 46.5
Doctorate 20 12.9
Organizational size
500 or less 34 21.9
501-1000 29 18.7
1001-5000 65 42.0
5001 or more 27 17.4
Organizational tenure
5 years or less 67 43.2
6-10 years 33 21.3
11-15 years 37 23.9
16 years or more 18 11.6
Hours worked
29 or less 34 23.9
30 to 40 96 60.0
41 or more 25 16.1
Income
Below 10000 pounds 37 23.9
10000-15000 22 14.2
15001-20000 13 8.4
20001-25000 10 6.5
Over 25001 pounds 47 47.1
Employment status
Full time 132 85.2
Part time 23 14.8
Marital status
Married 52 33.5
Single 103 66.5
Parental status
Children 53 34.2
childless 102 65.8
Organizational level
Non-management 53 34.2
Lower management 40 25.8
Middle management 35 22.6
Senior management 27 17.4
Job tenure
1 to 5 years 123 79.4
6-10 years 20 12.9
11 years or more 12 7.7
Career breaks
None 111 71.6
2 years 27 17.4
3 years or more 17 11.0
Supervisory duties
yes 114 73.5
No 41 26.5

Personal demographics, empowerment and work and well-being outcomes

B R R2 Δ R2 P
DV = Job satisfaction
Personal demographics 0.43 0.18 0.12 0.01
Organizational level (0.32***)
Job tenure (0.17*)
Supervisory empowerment (0.43***) 0.55 0.31 0.25 0.001
Personal empowerment (0.47***) 0.68 0.47 0.43 0.001
DV = Career satisfaction
Personal demographics 0.44 0.20 0.14 0.001
Organizational level (0.35***)
Parental status (0.23*)
Supervisory empowerment (0.18**) 0.46 0.22 0.15 0.001
Personal empowerment (0.57***) 0.67 0.44 0.37 0.001
DV = Work engagement
Personal demographics 0.54 0.29 0.24 0.001
Type of employment (0.38***)
Education (0.19*)
Organization size (−0.16*)
Age (0.18*)
Supervisory empowerment (0.21**) 0.56 0.32 0.26 0.001
Personal empowerment (0.51***) 0.71 0.50 0.46 0.001
DV = Work-family conflict
Personal demographics 0.60 0.36 0.31 0.001
Education (0.40***)
Career breaks (0.39***)
Type of employment (0.27**)
Organizational size (0.25***)
Supervisory empowerment (−0.13*) 0.61 0.37 0.32 0.001
Personal empowerment (0.09) 0.61 0.38 0.32 0.001
DV = family-Work conflict
Personal demographics 0.60 0.36 0.32 0.001
Organizational tenure (−0.60***)
Education (0.55***)
Type of employment (0.32***)
Organizational size (0.17*)
Supervisory empowerment (−0.18*) 0.62 0.39 0.34 0.001
Personal empowerment (−0.11) 0.63 0.40 0.34 0.001
DV = Exhaustion/burnout
Personal demographics 0.56 0.31 0.26 0.001
Type of employment (0.41***)
Parental status (0.40***)
Marital status (0.23*)
Job tenure (−0.18*)
Supervisory empowerment (−0.28***) 0.60 0.37 0.31 0.001
Personal empowerment (−0.16*) 0.62 0.38 0.33 0.001
DV = Life satisfaction
Personal demographics 0.53 0.28 0.23 0.001
Marital status (0.38***)
Type of employment (0.27**)
Supervisor duties (0.22**)
Education (0.22*)
Supervisory empowerment behaviors (0.02) 0.53 0.28 0.22 0.001
Personal empowerment (0.12) 0.54 0.30 0.23 0.001
DV = Intent to quit
Personal demographics 0.64 0.41 0.37 0.001
Organizational tenure (0.40***)
Career breaks (0.28***)
Age (0.22*)
Supervisory empowerment behaviors (−0.39***) 0.72 0.52 0.48 0.001
Personal empowerment (−0.05) 0.72 0.52 0.48 0.001
Notes:

*p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001

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Further reading

Abdalla, I.A. (2015), “Being and becoming a leader: Arabian Gulf women managers’ perspectives”, International Journal of Business and Management, Vol. 10, pp. 25-39.

Al-Asfour, A., Tlaiss, H.A., Kahn, S.A. and Rajasekar, J. (2017), “Saudi women’s work challenges and barriers to career advancement”, Career Development International, Vol. 22 No. 2, pp. 184-199.

Al-Manasra, E.A. (2013), “What are the ‘glass ceiling’ barriers effects on women career progression in Jordan?”, International Journal of Business and Management, Vol. 8, pp. 40-46.

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Acknowledgements

The author Ghada El-Kot states that it was a pleasure working with Ron Burke over the past 10 years (from January, 2009 till February 2019). He was a terrific scholar and she was lucky to work with him for all these years. Ghada El-Kot also states that she will definitely miss working with him in the next coming years. They had published lots of articles in peer-reviewed journals over these years; they also had worked together as editors for some journals. They worked together in publishing some book chapters plus were working together in a big project focusing in Egypt. This article is one of the last works between them out of project about Egypt; they still have another paper to be published. Ghada El-Kot feels sad not to be working together again as co-authors. With all the love and respect from Ghada El-Kot, may Ron Rest in Peace.

Corresponding author

Ghada El-Kot can be contacted at: gelkot@aagsb.aast.edu

About the authors

Professor Ghada El-Kot is a consultant; researcher, trainer and reviewer in the HR and OB field in Egypt and internationally, in addition of being a university Professor. Her main research interests focus on investigating the HRM practices effect on organizational performance and employees’ effectiveness. She earned her PhD from University of Plymouth, UK 2001. She received an outstanding paper award on one of her researches on 2011. She has published many papers in international peered review Journals and books. She did many consultations and provided many training programs as a trainer to many organizations in Egypt, Arab countries and Europe.

Professor Ronald J. Burke’s work has focused on the relationship between the work environment and individual and organizational health. Over the past 40 years, has published several journal articles and book chapters and has presented numerous papers at academic conferences around the world. Professor Burke was the Founding Editor of the Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences, and is a Fellow of the Canadian Psychological Association. He has served on several editorial boards and has also edited or co-edited 55 books to date with several publishers. He passed away in March 2019.

Lisa M. Fiksenbaum, PhD, is a Lecturer of psychology at a number of universities and was a statistical consultant at York University in Toronto, Canada for several years. Her area of research includes stress, coping, burnout, work-family conflict and economic psychology.