To read this content please select one of the options below:

Egyptian women supervisory empowerment behaviors on well-being outcomes

Ghada El-Kot (College of Management and Technology, Arab Academy for Science Technology and Maritime Transport, Alexandria, Egypt)
Ronald J. Burke (Schulich School of Business, York University, Toronto, Canada)
Lisa M. Fiksenbaum (Department of Psychology, York University, Toronto, Canada)

Gender in Management

ISSN: 1754-2413

Article publication date: 15 July 2019

Issue publication date: 23 July 2019




This paper aims to examine the relationship of perceived supervisor empowerment behaviors and feelings of personal empowerment with important work and well-being outcomes in a sample of Egyptian women managers and professionals.


Data were collected from 155 managerial and professional women using anonymously completed questionnaires. Respondents were relatively young; had university educations; had the short job and organizational tenures; held various levels of management jobs; and worked in a range of functions. All measures used here had been used and validated previously by other researchers.


Work outcomes included job satisfaction, career satisfaction, work engagement, work-family and family-work conflict, emotional exhaustion/burnout, life satisfaction and intent to quit. Both perceived levels of supervisory/leader empowerment behaviors and self-reported feelings of empowerment had significant relationships with the majority of work and well-being outcomes.

Research limitations/implications

Data were collected using self-report questionnaires with the small risk of response set and common method biases. Second, all data were collected at one point in time making it challenging to address issues of causality. Third, all respondents came from the two largest cities in Egypt, Cairo and Alexandria; thus, the extent to which our findings would generalize to managerial and professional women and men is indeterminate. Fourth, it was not possible to determine the representativeness of our sample as well.

Practical implications

Practical implications of these findings along with future research directions are offered. Practical applications include training supervisors on empowerment behaviors, and training all employees on the benefits of personal empowerment and efficacy and ways to increase them.

Social implications

A number of ways to increase levels of empowerment of both front-line employees and managers have been identified. These include increasing employee participation in decision-making, delegating authority and control to these employees, creating more challenging work roles through job redesign, leaders sharing more information and leaders providing more coaching and mentoring to their staff. At the micro level, increasing levels of employee self-efficacy through training and more effective use of their work experiences will increase personal empowerment and improve work outcomes.


Relatively little research has been undertaken on women in management and human resource management in Egypt.



The author Ghada El-Kot states that it was a pleasure working with Ron Burke over the past 10 years (from January, 2009 till February 2019). He was a terrific scholar and she was lucky to work with him for all these years. Ghada El-Kot also states that she will definitely miss working with him in the next coming years. They had published lots of articles in peer-reviewed journals over these years; they also had worked together as editors for some journals. They worked together in publishing some book chapters plus were working together in a big project focusing in Egypt. This article is one of the last works between them out of project about Egypt; they still have another paper to be published. Ghada El-Kot feels sad not to be working together again as co-authors. With all the love and respect from Ghada El-Kot, may Ron Rest in Peace.


El-Kot, G., Burke, R.J. and Fiksenbaum, L.M. (2019), "Egyptian women supervisory empowerment behaviors on well-being outcomes", Gender in Management, Vol. 34 No. 5, pp. 350-365.



Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2019, Emerald Publishing Limited

Related articles