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Article
Publication date: 5 March 2018

Reona Hoshino, Yoshifumi Okamoto and Shinji Wakao

Shape optimization using the level-set method is one of the most effective automatic design tools for electromagnetic machines. While level-set method has the advantage of…

Abstract

Purpose

Shape optimization using the level-set method is one of the most effective automatic design tools for electromagnetic machines. While level-set method has the advantage of being able to suppress unfeasible shape, it has a weakness of being unable to handle complex topology changes such as perforate at material region. With this method, it is only possible to define simple connected topology, and it is difficult to determine the optimal shape which has holes. Therefore, it is important to efficiently expand the searching area in the optimization process with level-set method.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, the authors introduce the newly defined hole sensitivity which is based on concept of topological derivatives, and combine it with level-set method to effectively create holes in the search process. Furthermore, they consider a variable bandwidth of gray scale, which indicates the transition width between air and magnetic body and combine it with the hole creation method described above. With these methods, the authors aim to expand the searching area in comparison with the conventional level-set method.

Findings

As a result of applying the proposed methods to a magnetic shielding problem, the multi-layered shielding which effectively reduces the magnetic flux in the target area, is successfully produced.

Originality/value

The proposed methods enable us to effectively create a hole and to expand the searching area in the topology optimization process unlike in the case of conventional level-set method.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 37 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

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Book part
Publication date: 31 July 2009

Rodney Lacey and Peer C. Fiss

The contrast of multilevel and comparative research may seem counterintuitive at first. After all, one might argue that comparative research on organizations by necessity…

Abstract

The contrast of multilevel and comparative research may seem counterintuitive at first. After all, one might argue that comparative research on organizations by necessity spans several levels of analysis (Rokkan, 1966). Yet, multilevel and comparative research on organizations present rather distinct traditions in organization studies, each with its own epistemological assumptions and associated methods. Accordingly, an approach that aims to incorporate both multilevel and comparative ideas needs to start with taking inventory of these prior literatures to situate itself. In the following, we thus turn to the literatures on multilevel and comparative research as different traditions with surprisingly little overlap.

Details

Studying Differences between Organizations: Comparative Approaches to Organizational Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-647-8

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1987

Edna M. White and Benito Flores

This paper addresses the importance of goal setting in the operations function. The importance of goal setting and its possible role in the implementation and operation of…

Abstract

This paper addresses the importance of goal setting in the operations function. The importance of goal setting and its possible role in the implementation and operation of production systems is considered with particular emphasis on Material Requirements Planning (MRP). It has been argued that an operative goal setting process can improve employees' performance in any area of the organisation. Likewise, companies with a high‐level MRP system are expected to show high performance levels. This paper offers empirical support for these claims and further argues that the combination and interaction of the two processes results in synergistic effects. To support these arguments the paper draws on both theoretical studies and the results of a small regional survey.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 7 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

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Article
Publication date: 13 August 2018

Cong Zhu and Xingchen Li

The money raised for projects on crowdfunding platforms is determined not only by the merit of the projects themselves but also, to a large extent, by the design of the…

Abstract

Purpose

The money raised for projects on crowdfunding platforms is determined not only by the merit of the projects themselves but also, to a large extent, by the design of the project introduction on the platforms. The purpose of this study is to identify the clear relationships between the financing result and the design factors to give preferable design suggestions to the fund initiators.

Design/methodology/approach

The data for this study were abstracted with Python from the Jingdong crowdfunding platform on a certain day. In all, 11 hypotheses are put forward in the study with the two main purposes of exploring the function of the quality signaling and level setting.

Findings

All design factors can impact the money raised for a project. However, the impact differs in certain situations. The level setting can significantly impact the amount of money raised. The quality of signals has a complex impact on the two dimensions.

Originality/value

Three major contributions are made by this paper. First, the level setting is explored after overcoming the difficulty of scrawling data. Second, the authors create the Success Index and Weighted Gap Index to measure the level of success from comprehensive dimensions and quantify the dispersion of the levels. Third, this study shows a comprehensive theoretical framework which can function as a reference for research in the future.

Details

Journal of Modelling in Management, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5664

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1987

EDWARD T. LEE

Fuzzy languages and level sets are defined and illustrated by examples. Properties of level sets are presented. A fuzzy regular language theorem may be proved through the…

Abstract

Fuzzy languages and level sets are defined and illustrated by examples. Properties of level sets are presented. A fuzzy regular language theorem may be proved through the use of the properties of level sets. Level sets offer what appears to be a useful tool in theorem proving in fuzzy languages, pictorial databases, natural language translation and processing, and many others. Through the use of level sets, results obtained in formal languages may be used in fuzzy languages and related areas.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

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Article
Publication date: 22 August 2017

Jikai Liu and Huangchao Yu

Structural performance of additively manufactured parts is deposition path-dependent because of the induced material anisotropy. Hence, this paper aims to contribute a…

Abstract

Purpose

Structural performance of additively manufactured parts is deposition path-dependent because of the induced material anisotropy. Hence, this paper aims to contribute a novel idea of concurrently performing the deposition path planning and the structural topology optimization for additively manufactured parts.

Design/methodology/approach

The concurrent process is performed under a unified level set framework that: the deposition paths are calculated by extracting the iso-value level set contours, and the induced anisotropic material properties are accounted for by the level set topology optimization algorithm. In addition, the fixed-geometry deposition path optimization problem is studied. It is challenging because updating the zero-value level set contour cannot effectively achieve the global orientation control. To fix this problem, a level set-based multi-step method is proposed, and it is proved to be effective.

Findings

The proposed concurrent design method has been successfully applied to designing additively manufactured parts. The majority of the planned deposition paths well match the principle stress direction, which, to the largest extent, enhances the structural performance. For the fixed geometry problems, fast and smooth convergences have been observed.

Originality/value

The concurrent deposition path planning and structural topology optimization method is, for the first time, developed and effectively implemented. The fixed-geometry deposition path optimization problem is solved through a novel level set-based multi-step method.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 23 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1983

P.N. Kirthisingha

Since the adoption in 1976 of the Integrated Programme for Commodities, only four international commodity agreements have been concluded, of which only one, the…

Abstract

Since the adoption in 1976 of the Integrated Programme for Commodities, only four international commodity agreements have been concluded, of which only one, the International Natural Rubber Agreement (1979), was new. The others are the International Sugar Agreement (1978), the International Cocoa Agreement (1980) and the International Tin Agreement (1981). In view of the broad political support for international commodity agreements, the progress towards concluding such agreements is slow. Moreover, in some of them universality is lacking. Several countries which account for a substantial proportion of world production and consumption of, and trade in, the commodity subject to an international agreement, have not ratified or acceded to the relevant agreements. The duration of the negotiations has been exceedingly long in comparison with experience on negotiations of the previous agreements. This outcome, several years after the adoption of the Integrated Programme for Commodities, is disappointing and unexpected, especially since the basic purpose of that Programme and the setting up of the Common Fund in accordance with it was “to act as a catalyst for international commodity agreements”. The purpose of this article is to examine the reasons for this outcome.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 22 November 2019

Miriam McGowan, Louise May Hassan and Edward Shiu

Consumers usually respond favourably to ingroups but negatively to dissociative groups and products linked to dissociative groups, termed the dissociative group effect…

Abstract

Purpose

Consumers usually respond favourably to ingroups but negatively to dissociative groups and products linked to dissociative groups, termed the dissociative group effect. Despite important implications for branding, advertising and celebrity endorsement, little is known about how to attenuate the effect. This paper aims to introduce a mechanism which attenuates the dissociative group effect by drawing on construal level theory.

Design/methodology/approach

An experimental approach was used which included two-part between-subjects designs.

Findings

High identifiers prefer products linked to their ingroup over ones linked to a dissociative group, however, the opposite is true for low identifiers. The difference in preference is attenuated for high and low identifiers when they are placed in an abstract mind-set. The underlying mechanism of this effect is similarity focus.

Research limitations/implications

The same context was used to ensure that the attenuating effect found was not due to contextual factors. However, further studies should replicate the findings in a wider variety of contexts.

Practical implications

This research offers practical recommendations on how to manage multiple customer segments in increasingly diverse marketplaces. By inducing an abstract mind-set in customers, for example, via advertising copy, website architecture or contextual factors such as pitch of the music, marketers can increase the effectiveness of identity-linking marketing for consumers’ high/low in identification.

Originality/value

This is one of the first empirical studies to evidence the applicability of construal level theory within identity marketing and offers a novel mechanism to attenuate the dissociative group effect. The findings shed new light on how low identifiers relate and respond to identity-linked marketing.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 54 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2005

Kenneth D. Mackenzie

The process approach to multi-level organizational behavior is based on the assumption that multi-level organizational behavior is processual in nature. This article…

Abstract

The process approach to multi-level organizational behavior is based on the assumption that multi-level organizational behavior is processual in nature. This article defines group and organizational processes and their representation as process frameworks. Both functional and inclusional classes of levels exist, each of which has at least five categories of levels. All ten categories are special cases of process frameworks. This article provides examples of each category level, which it uses to illustrate new models of organizational work, extended models of interdependence, a new typology of theories based on their levels of processes, and a new tool for survey research called knobby analyses. After explaining the basic idea of knobby analysis, the article briefly describes the processual theory of the organizational hologram, the use of linear programming, and causal-chain analysis to provide multi-level explanations of employee opinion data. These ideas are embodied in conducting a strategic organizational diagnosis, which is the first stage of organizational design. Organizational design encompasses multiple stages, each of which itself involves multiple, multi-level phenomena and analyses. The basic point is that the processual nature of multi-level organizational phenomena gives more hope for improvements in theory building and their application if one uses the process approach rather than a variable approach.

Details

Multi-level Issues in Organizational Behavior and Processes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-269-6

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Article
Publication date: 14 August 2017

Padmavati Shrivastava, K.K. Bhoyar and A.S. Zadgaonkar

The purpose of this paper is to build a classification system which mimics the perceptual ability of human vision, in gathering knowledge about the structure, content and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to build a classification system which mimics the perceptual ability of human vision, in gathering knowledge about the structure, content and the surrounding environment of a real-world natural scene, at a quick glance accurately. This paper proposes a set of novel features to determine the gist of a given scene based on dominant color, dominant direction, openness and roughness features.

Design/methodology/approach

The classification system is designed at two different levels. At the first level, a set of low level features are extracted for each semantic feature. At the second level the extracted features are subjected to the process of feature evaluation, based on inter-class and intra-class distances. The most discriminating features are retained and used for training the support vector machine (SVM) classifier for two different data sets.

Findings

Accuracy of the proposed system has been evaluated on two data sets: the well-known Oliva-Torralba data set and the customized image data set comprising of high-resolution images of natural landscapes. The experimentation on these two data sets with the proposed novel feature set and SVM classifier has provided 92.68 percent average classification accuracy, using ten-fold cross validation approach. The set of proposed features efficiently represent visual information and are therefore capable of narrowing the semantic gap between low-level image representation and high-level human perception.

Originality/value

The method presented in this paper represents a new approach for extracting low-level features of reduced dimensionality that is able to model human perception for the task of scene classification. The methods of mapping primitive features to high-level features are intuitive to the user and are capable of reducing the semantic gap. The proposed feature evaluation technique is general and can be applied across any domain.

Details

International Journal of Intelligent Computing and Cybernetics, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-378X

Keywords

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