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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2003

Leonidas C. Leonidou

Notwithstanding the significant progress of exporting research in recent decades, extensive reliance on the neoclassical microeconomic paradigm has been responsible for…

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Abstract

Notwithstanding the significant progress of exporting research in recent decades, extensive reliance on the neoclassical microeconomic paradigm has been responsible for its recent stagnation or even decline. This paper advances the viewpoint that one way to circumvent this problem is by augmenting the analysis of exporting phenomena using the relational paradigm. In doing so, it attempts to link extant knowledge on export pre‐engagement, initiation, development, and sustainment, with ideas, concepts, and theories advanced within the sphere of relationship management. The paper concludes that export management is basically a process of managing relationships with foreign customers, as well as other parties operating inside or outside the company's supply chain.

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International Marketing Review, vol. 20 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 1989

Leonidas C. Leonidou

Some light is shed on the behavioural aspects of the workingrelationship between developing country‐based exporters and developedcountry‐based importers in manufactured…

Abstract

Some light is shed on the behavioural aspects of the working relationship between developing country‐based exporters and developed country‐based importers in manufactured consumer markets. The interest is focused on the issues of exercised power, conflict and co‐operation which comprise the atmosphere of a business relationship and the resulting satisfaction/dis‐satisfaction derived from it. Thirty‐four Cypriot exporters and 21 British importers provided the research sample. The exporter‐importer relationship was shown to be characterised by low levels of conflict, high levels of co‐operation and the exercise of asymmetrical power, directed by the importers to the exporters.

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European Journal of Marketing, vol. 23 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 6 November 2007

Leonidas C. Leonidou, Constantine S. Katsikeas, Dayananda Palihawadana and Stavroula Spyropoulou

Although exporting can offer many benefits to smaller manufacturers, a large number of these firms refrain from export operations as a result of insufficient stimulation…

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6562

Abstract

Purpose

Although exporting can offer many benefits to smaller manufacturers, a large number of these firms refrain from export operations as a result of insufficient stimulation. This paper seeks to critically analyse and creatively synthesise the reasons that may stimulate a smaller firm to export, based on a review of 32 empirical studies conducted in various parts of the world during the period 1974‐2005.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 40 export stimuli were systematically identified from the extant empirical literature, which, for analytical purposes, were divided into internal and external, as well as proactive and reactive. Within each study, stimuli were ranked in terms of their importance, frequency, or intensity, and the aggregate impact of each stimulus in all studies under review was evaluated.

Findings

The review revealed that export stimulation stems from a variety of factors, and may vary according to time, spatial, and industry contexts. Irrespective of contextual factors, there are certain motives that systematically play a key role in encouraging smaller firms to export, such as the desire to achieve extra sales, profits, and growth, utilise better idle production capacity, exploit a unique/patented product, avoid the threats of a saturated domestic market, reduce home market dependence, and respond to unsolicited orders from abroad. Some of these motives may lead to an opportunistic approach to exporting, while others denote deliberate export adoption. It was also shown that, although there are numerous other stimulating factors, with a lower impact on exporting, these should not be underestimated because their role may increase under certain conditions or become complementary to export stimuli with a stronger impact.

Research limitations/implications

The findings of the study have serious implications for both public and company policy makers. Policy makers may use this insightful analysis of export stimulation as a guide to developing proper export promotion programmes and sound export marketing strategies.

Originality/value

The paper offers a comprehensive review and synthesis of all factors with a possible stimulating effect on exporting; evaluates the aggregate effect of each factor, as collectively derived from all empirical studies conducted on the subject; and provides an in‐depth analysis of the nature and the stimulating mechanism of each factor.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 24 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 11 July 2016

Pantelitsa P. Eteokleous, Leonidas C. Leonidou and Constantine S. Katsikeas

Although corporate social responsibility (CSR) has been an issue of major concern for marketers for more than half a century, only recently has it attracted the attention…

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6628

Abstract

Purpose

Although corporate social responsibility (CSR) has been an issue of major concern for marketers for more than half a century, only recently has it attracted the attention of international marketing researchers. During the last two decades, this body of research has experienced an increasing trend, which, however, is very fragmented and diverse. In response, the purpose of this paper is to review, assess, and synthesize extant research on the role of CSR activities in international marketing.

Design/methodology/approach

The review and assessment covered the period from 1993 to 2013 and all relevant articles were traced, using both electronic and manual search methods. Altogether, the authors identified 132 studies published in 106 articles that appeared in 63 journals. Each article was content analyzed by two coders who worked independently from each other, using a structured coding protocol. Due to the nominal nature of the finalized codes, these were statistically analyzed taking the form of percentage frequencies.

Findings

The results were organized in terms of theoretical, methodological, and empirical considerations. Theoretically, a third of the articles were not anchored on any theory, while the remainder employed various theoretical platforms, with stakeholder theory having a predominant role. Methodologically, this specific body of research is characterized by growing sophistication and rigor, with some room for improvement, especially as regards the use of longitudinal research, better sampling methods, wider geographic scope, and advanced statistical analysis. Empirically, a broad range of issues was covered, with the most widely studied being those focussing on the elements of international marketing strategy, external environmental influences, and CSR practices.

Originality/value

The authors review and assess 21 years of research conducted on a crucial and contemporary dimension of international marketing, namely CSR. The findings provide useful insights for public policymakers, business managers, academic scholars, and marketing educators. The authors also provide detailed directions for future research, extracted from the articles reviewed.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 33 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1989

Leonidas C. Leonidou

The buyer‐seller relationship in international consumer markets isinvestigated from the behavioural point of view. Seventeen matched‐pairrelationships between Cypriot…

Abstract

The buyer‐seller relationship in international consumer markets is investigated from the behavioural point of view. Seventeen matched‐pair relationships between Cypriot exporters and their corresponding British import customers comprised the research sample. The majority of these relationships were described as successful, with success being measured by the degree of satisfaction received from them. They exhibited the following common characteristics: exercise of an asymmetrical power which had an expertise base, prevalence of a low level of conflict of a functional and overt nature and existence of a high level of voluntary co‐operation. Overall, it was revealed that relationship management is a crucial component of a firm′s export behaviour and a determinant of its future export development.

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Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 1998

Leonidas C. Leonidou and Anna A. Kaleka

This article reports the findings of a study investigating the association of the atmosphere governing buyer‐seller relationships in international markets with the…

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2002

Abstract

This article reports the findings of a study investigating the association of the atmosphere governing buyer‐seller relationships in international markets with the company’s involvement in export business. Based on a sample of 100 export manufacturers from Cyprus, the study first classifies firms in three homogeneous groups using 15 clustering criteria of export involvement. It then identifies the underlying dimensions of ten behavioural factors describing the working relationship between exporters and their import customers. Finally, it traces differences in the relationship atmosphere according to the company’s involvement in export markets. Overall, the study revealed that the more a firm is involved in exporting, the more likely its relationships with overseas customers are to be characterized by greater resource and personnel commitment, more communication sufficiency, higher levels of cooperation, substantial partnership dependence, excessive levels of trust, and stronger feelings of satisfaction with both financial and behavioural performance. Certain theoretical and practical implications are derived from the study findings, as well as directions for further research.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 15 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 22 February 2011

Leonidas C. Leonidou, Constantinos N. Leonidou, Dayananda Palihawadana and Magnus Hultman

Consumer scepticism about the credibility of green advertising around the world is growing. The article aims to provide a comprehensive assessment and trend analysis of…

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18040

Abstract

Purpose

Consumer scepticism about the credibility of green advertising around the world is growing. The article aims to provide a comprehensive assessment and trend analysis of green advertising practices of international firms over a 20‐year period.

Design/methodology/approach

The study identifies 473 international green advertisements during the 1988‐2007 period and content‐analyses them on five major axes: advertiser profile, targeting features, message aspects, copy characteristics, and situation points.

Findings

The content analysis reveals significant trends in all major areas examined and identifies important interaction effects between certain dimensions of green advertisements.

Research limitations/implications

The findings could be augmented by combining them with changes in the external environment, input from consumers about advertising effectiveness, the views of advertisers and advertising agencies, and secondary data referring to the performance of the specific company/product advertised.

Originality/value

Green advertising research mainly focuses on domestic rather than international advertisements; examines important issues in isolation from other issues; partially analyses message, copy, and situation characteristics; and covers a short period. This study fills these gaps by systematically evaluating international green advertisements over a long period and using an integrated framework of analysis that is based on the extant literature. It also explores potential interaction effects between key dimensions describing these advertisements.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 28 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1991

Leonidas C. Leonidou

An attempt is made to shed some light on the marketingcharacteristics which prevail in the countries of the Persian Gulfregion. This attempt was stimulated by the…

Abstract

An attempt is made to shed some light on the marketing characteristics which prevail in the countries of the Persian Gulf region. This attempt was stimulated by the increasing consumer demand in the area (especially after the end of the Gulf War) as well as the lucrative, but at the same time complex, character of these countries. The analysis focuses on the external marketing environment of the region, the prevailing consumer behaviour patterns and the marketing tools which are available to the international marketer. A good understanding of all these parameters and the adoption of scientific marketing methods are of paramount importance for the success of any firms wishing to operate in the Gulf area.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 29 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1995

Leonidas C. Leonidou

Provides insights into the distribution system of consumer goods inSaudi Arabia. The investigation derives information from both secondaryand primary sources and centres…

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1695

Abstract

Provides insights into the distribution system of consumer goods in Saudi Arabia. The investigation derives information from both secondary and primary sources and centres on three distribution dimensions, namely structure, operation and behaviour. Finds that structural characteristics are inextricably linked to the idiosyncratic demographic, economic and sociocultural environment of the Kingdom, and that operating elements are greatly affected by environmental forces, as well as by rising competitive pressures and demanding customers. Behavioural aspects reveal the powerful role of distributors/agents and wholesalers in the distribution scene, as well as signs of channel conflict and competition. Overall, the study demonstrates that the Saudi distribution system is unique, complex and transient, and one where traditional and modern elements coexist. A thorough understanding of this system, therefore, is critical in gaining a foothold in such a lucrative but difficult market.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 13 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

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Article
Publication date: 14 September 2010

Leonidas C. Leonidou, Bradley R. Barnes, Stavroula Spyropoulou and Constantine S. Katsikeas

Growing globalization in recent decades has been responsible for the emergence of a new stream of research focusing on international marketing. However, compared to…

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5028

Abstract

Purpose

Growing globalization in recent decades has been responsible for the emergence of a new stream of research focusing on international marketing. However, compared to domestic marketing knowledge, this field has received relatively less attention from mainstream marketing journals. The purpose of this paper is to report the findings of a study that assesses the contribution of leading mainstream marketing journals to the international marketing discipline.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 508 international marketing‐focused articles were identified from the top ten mainstream marketing journals during the period 1975‐2004. Each article was content‐analyzed in terms of six major aspects: article nature, authorship characteristics, research design, scope of research, research methodology, and thematic areas.

Findings

The paper revealed that: although there was an increase in the number of articles with an international focus over time, in most journals their share was limited; most of the articles were of an empirical nature, with an increasing trend over time; articles were mainly written by multiple authors, who were in most cases US‐based; research designs of the studies reported were increasingly more formalized and causal, as well as statistical and cross‐sectional; the scope of research provided a balanced coverage of country settings, product groups, and units of analyses; methodological aspects, especially sample sizes, response rates, and analytical methods, improved over time; and a wide array of thematic areas was examined, with issues pertaining to the macro‐environment, marketing mix, and buyer behaviour attracting heightened attention.

Originality/value

Although many insightful attempts have been made in the past to review, assess, and consolidate extant research on international marketing, this paper focuses specifically on the contribution of top mainstream marketing journals to the international marketing field. This can assist in identifying possible gaps in the international marketing literature that have to be filled by future research on the subject. It specifically helps: to reveal the actual involvement of these influential journals as outlets for publishing research that focuses on international dimensions of marketing; to identify the characteristics of scholars publishing international marketing articles in such journals; to evaluate the methodological content of these international marketing‐related articles; and to establish trends regarding the evolution of the international marketing field from the standpoint of leading mainstream journals.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 27 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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