Looks at the current status of retail distribution in the European Economic Community. Forecasts likely future developments and problems, suggesting that decisions on…
Looks at the current status of retail distribution in the European Economic Community. Forecasts likely future developments and problems, suggesting that decisions on distribution will increasingly be made on a supra‐institutional level.
At one level, the function of a marketplace is to enable sellers andbuyers to meet, to agree to terms and conditions, and effect contracts.At another level, however, a…
At one level, the function of a marketplace is to enable sellers and buyers to meet, to agree to terms and conditions, and effect contracts. At another level, however, a marketplace is a mechanism for ensuring that information which might affect the terms and conditions is readily available to all participants, so that the pricing for sales will not be unduly influenced by participants with special information or other advantages, but rather will approach the theoretical price at which the market will settle. Information technology is increasingly being applied to support the exchange of goods and services. It may be used simply to automate existing practices. Alternatively, the introduction of technology into the market may provide an opportunity to rationalize the arrangements. In some instances, however, the implementation of IT may be grasped as a strategic weapon, by a buyer, a seller, or by an organization which provides marketplace services to buyers and sellers. Considers another kind of strategic use of IT in relation to marketplaces. This is the enforcement of fairness in the setting of prices, by drawing participants into a marketplace in which key differences in market power are equalized. Evaluates the outcomes of an electronic exchange supporting trading in chilled and frozen meat.
The long‐awaited NEDO report on the distributive trades in Europe is published this month. It sets out to draw the attention of British distributors to the opportunities resulting from UK membership of the European Economic Community. The booklet examines opportunities for direct expansion by British distributors into other member countries, and also outlines ways in which British distributors could form links with similar organisations in other countries to exchange information or to ensure effective representation of their joint interest within the EEC Commission. The report was initiated by the EDC for the Distributive Trades, who set up a Common Market Working Group to prepare it. Members of this Working Group are listed in the panel opposite; the Chairman was Dr. James Jefferys of the International Association of Department Stores. The bulk of the report consists of a detailed examination of the distributive trade structure in each of the nine member countries of the EEC; this adheres to a regular pattern of a brief description of the retail scene, statistics on manpower and sales, comparative share of sales by form of organisation, and lists of leading retail companies. This section is preceded by an overview of the retail trades and the wholesale trades in Europe, and a description of existing methods of collaboration in European distribution. The third part of the report consists of two case‐studies — a UK company which diversified into Europe, and a French company which expanded into Italy. Finally there are ‘Check lists for Action’ — a list of points for consideration by companies contemplating entry into the EEC; and a suggested method of assessment of how changes in prices of supplies may affect distributors' purchasing policy. In the following pages we confine ourselves to a summary of the first — and most significant — part of the report: present situation and future prospects, an examination of the comparative retail and wholesale structures in the EEC countries, and the opportunities for the UK distributor which are presented. The central section of the report — on ‘Country Studies’ — contains a mass of essential data and statistics, much of it not previously available, which does not easily lend itself to condensation.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate and assess the trends of bilateral services trade in the world segmented by trade for final consumption and intermediate usage…
The purpose of this paper is to investigate and assess the trends of bilateral services trade in the world segmented by trade for final consumption and intermediate usage across several service sectors. The differential trends, if any, are studied while examining the role of free trade agreements which have a chapter on services trade as well as the role of services trade restrictions. The study unravels differences across service sectors in this respect.
The author uses an augmented gravity model to address the above using OECD- World Trade Organization (WTO) TiVA data for bilateral trade in intermediates and final products (October 2015 release) and World Bank Services Trade Restrictions Index (STRI). The poisson pseudo maximum likelihood estimation technique is used in light of the structure of the data. Trade creating and diverting effects are identified controlling for time and country-time specific effects. The following sectors are specifically looked at: total business sector services, computer and related services, financial intermediation, post and telecommunication, transport and storage, R&D and other business services, hotels and restaurants, construction, and wholesale and retail trade.
First, services free trade agreements (FTAs) have had a trade creating impact with no trade diverting impact for services trade in aggregate with stronger effects on services traded for intermediate usage. Second, financial intermediation and post and telecommunication have been left unaffected by services FTAs. While no trade diversion is concluded for any sector, R&D and other business services, transport and storage and wholesale retail trade show maximum trade creation effects in response to FTAs. Third, trade restrictions of mainly OECD countries are responsible for lowering exports for most sectors. Finally, in terms of policy implications, at a general level, the author does not find a significant difference in the author’s results for services traded for intermediate usage or final consumption except for a stronger effect of FTAs on intermediate services trade. Hence, the policies to foster services trade on both counts are concluded to be the same and deal with behind-the-border policies of domestic industrial policy reforms like national treatment of foreign firms, licensing requirements, FDI policies, etc.
Statistics for services trade are limited. The data are only available for the years 1995, 2000, 2005, 2008, 2009, 2010 and 2011. Additionally, the conclusions on services trade restrictions are based on statistics for 2011 alone, since this is the only year for which the statistics are available. A complete time series for the entire sample period would increase robustness of the study with a better time variant version of the trade restrictiveness variable. Finally, in the construction of the OECD-WTO-TiVA database of a world IO table, there may have been approximations in constructing statistics for services traded for intermediate usage and final consumption. The results remain sensitive to the same but this is the best possible statistics available for the purposes.
This is the first study which looks at services trade segmented by trade for final consumption and intermediate usage taking advantage of the available data for a number of service sectors. The role of restrictions is also studied for the first time segmented by trade in intermediates and final consumption. The stronger effects of FTAs on intermediate services trade as well as financial intermediation and post and telecommunication services being insulated from effects of FTAs are important findings, especially since services are mainly thought to be traded for final consumption. Similar trends of results for services traded for intermediate usage and final consumption and restrictions affecting exports from exporter countries and imports by importer countries highlight the importance of behind-the-border domestic policies in facilitating or inhibiting services trade on both counts and more importantly for intermediate usage which, in turn, would improve goods tradability.
Studies concerning Soviet taxation demonstrate a diversity of opinions on the nature of turnover taxes. Four major views on the subject have emerged: (1) turnover taxes are simply a sales (excise) tax on articles' of consumption sold to the Soviet consumer; (2) not all turnover taxes are a sales tax, some of them are a substitute for rent on production of certain industrial materials; (3) in addition to being a sales (excise) tax on consumer goods and rent on some industrial materials, there exists a third type of turnover tax which is levied on agricultural production of the peasantry; (4) turnover taxes are a portion of the surplus product produced in industry and agriculture.
Describes key developments in public policy towards the distributive sector in various socio‐economic contexts. Attempts to explain its evolution in terms of the changes…
Describes key developments in public policy towards the distributive sector in various socio‐economic contexts. Attempts to explain its evolution in terms of the changes in economic structure and political priorities. Examines capitalist, socialist and Third World economies, respectively. Looks deeper at the USA and its distribution and pricing process: Japan is then scrutinised and, as in the USA, ‘free competition’ is the banner upheld; Sweden as a ‘midway’ system (between communism and capitalism) is next to be scrutinised, showing some unique features — such as a heavy consumer bias. Investigates patterns in advanced capitalist economies with public policy towards distribution the main point. Examines the socialist countries next, starting with the USSR as the oldest and economically most power socialist country; East Germany is next for scrutiny with its high level of industrial development key; China, with its unique place as a dominantly agrarian country, is discussed even though little is known of its distribution structure and policy. Further explores developments in Third World countries and these are named: Mexico, Tunisia and India. Concludes that public policy with regard to distribution in various socio‐economic contexts have been examined and further, that distribution is becoming an important concern of public policy in all socio‐economic contexts.
Stresses that, if the traditional UK wet fish organisations are to survive competition, then a changed approach to fish marketing is required. Attempts to trace recent…
Stresses that, if the traditional UK wet fish organisations are to survive competition, then a changed approach to fish marketing is required. Attempts to trace recent developments in the marketing system for fish, following on from Taylor's work in the late 1950s. Concerns itself with the system's attempt to bridge the spatial and temporal separations within marketing. Uses tables and figures to show channels of distribution and consumption in the UK and trends from 1948 to 1971. Sums up that changing consumption patterns present a ‘turbulent’ field for the fish marketing system to attempt to adapt to.
Purpose – This chapter examines the interactions among wholesale betel nut traders within Papua New Guinea’s (PNG’s) flourishing, contemporary, and indigenous betel nut…
Purpose – This chapter examines the interactions among wholesale betel nut traders within Papua New Guinea’s (PNG’s) flourishing, contemporary, and indigenous betel nut trade. It explores the nature of the “social embeddedness” of the trade and how particular “place-based” practices and ideas shape people’s engagements with markets.Methodology/approach – Multisited ethnographic research focused on betel nut traders.Findings – This chapter highlights how local ideas about sociality and exchange shape the copresent rivalry and companionship that characterize interactions among Mt. Hagen’s betel nut traders. Traders travel long distances and take great risks to buy betel nut. They travel together, share resources, and trade in the same places, and through this they become part of one another’s social networks. This creates the expectation that traders will cooperate, consider other traders in their actions, contribute to each other’s safe-keeping, and act collectively in their interactions with producers. This does not preclude competition, however. Traders compete for profits, but the competiveness of their interactions is also influenced by a concern for status. This copresence of companionship and rivalry, which pervades Hagen sociality more broadly, is central to shaping the trade as a whole.Originality/value of the chapter – Betel nut is the most important domestic cash crop in PNG, and selling betel nut is a prominent livelihood activity for rural and urban people. This chapter reports some of the findings of the first detailed study of the betel nut trade in PNG.
This article presents a conceptual framework for the analysis of vegetable supply chains in a South East Asian context and the role wholesale markets play in these chains…
This article presents a conceptual framework for the analysis of vegetable supply chains in a South East Asian context and the role wholesale markets play in these chains. Following a review of the literature on food marketing systems in developing countries and preliminary fieldwork in South East Asia, a holistic framework is proposed, including what are perceived to be the critical factors in the development of improved fresh food marketing systems: domestic legal and policy factors, international trade policies and food markets, history, geography, and cultural and social norms. The particular role of trust and collaboration among stakeholders in the Ho Chi Minh City vegetable marketing system is highlighted.
To understand how the external culture of an organization affects the internal decisions; to explore how employment stereotypes are used in recruitment; to grasp the…
To understand how the external culture of an organization affects the internal decisions; to explore how employment stereotypes are used in recruitment; to grasp the general understanding of how line managers give more value to the bottom line than “non-discrimination statement”; to understand the challenges while managing a diverse workforce; and to critically analyze hiring decision and recommend practical solution.
Asma Malik was hired as a management trainee around five years ago. After successful completion of her one year as a management trainee, she was placed in the finance department. She outperformed all of her targets and received multiple rewards of a star performer. However, Malik was passionate and eager to work in the field and to work with the sales team. It was her dream to be an outstanding salesgirl. Based on the company’s policy of equal opportunity employer, she quickly got herself promoted to the position of wholesale manager and she was the first one to be provided such a challenging position. However, the market dynamics and market acceptability in a country like Pakistan were quite thought-provoking for a girl to be a wholesale manager. And it was observed that sales were constantly declining, as she had assigned this role. Now Country Manager (CM) had to make a decision, whether to transfer her to any other position or to retain her in the same position.
Complexity academic level
Bachelor of Business Administration and MBA.
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CSS 1: Accounting and Finance.