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Article
Publication date: 20 December 2022

Kazem Askarifar, Yalda Dehbozorgi and Ali Alsafi

This study aims to examine the relationship between the risk-aversion level of return policies and customer trust in online shopping in three countries in the Middle East.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the relationship between the risk-aversion level of return policies and customer trust in online shopping in three countries in the Middle East.

Design/methodology/approach

In the first step, the different types of return policies of online shoppers and the risk-aversion level were determined by surveying 18 online shops and interviewing 21 customers. The risk-aversion level of these policies was found in the experts’ panel. In the second step, the experiences of 573 consumers when facing seller’s return messages, perceived risk and consumer trust in three countries (UAE, Iraq and Iran) were collected through a questionnaire. Finally, the gathered data were analyzed using structural equation modeling.

Findings

The results indicated that risk-averse return policies taken by online vendors led to lower consumer trust. Moreover, customer perceived risk mediated the relationship between return policies’ risk-aversion level and trust in Iraq and Iran. At the same time, there was no significant association between return policies and perceived risk in UAE. In addition, perceived risk wholly mediated the relationship between return policies’ risk aversion and trust in vendors in Iran, but this role was minor in Iraq.

Originality/value

Among the intercultural studies, especially in the Middle East, this is one of the first studies based on the marketing and sales management in an online shopper’s supply chain. Moreover, the investigation of return policies in online commerce is another innovative aspect of the present paper.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 October 2022

Saba Jokar, Payam Shojaei, Kazem Askarifar and Arash Haqbin

Social risk management has recently come to the fore as a significant feature of project management. This prominence is particularly evident in urban construction projects…

Abstract

Purpose

Social risk management has recently come to the fore as a significant feature of project management. This prominence is particularly evident in urban construction projects that take place in cultural heritage and tourism historic sites. Accordingly, this study aims to adopt social network analysis (SNA) to investigate social risks in construction projects occurring in urban districts rife with historically and culturally significant tourism sites.

Design/methodology/approach

The present study analyzed a real case study in Iran as an emergent economy and a developing country. Primarily, the study reviewed previous literature on social risks and relevant stakeholders. Next, the judgments of experts through the content validity ratio analysis confirmed 12 social risks and 9 key stakeholders. Finally, SNA is used to determine the relations between the social risks and stakeholders as well as the significance of each risk.

Findings

The investigation demonstrated that the most important social risks in the construction projects of the case study are “Psychological disorders”, “Environmental pollution” and “Cultural conflicts”.

Practical implications

The findings could help policymakers, urban planners and project managers in developing countries with a rich cultural heritage to reduce social risks and improve the efficiency of their projects.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, the present study is one of the first instances to investigate construction projects implemented in densely populated urban areas hosting cultural heritage and historic tourism sites.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

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