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Article
Publication date: 14 October 2021

Christine Armstrong, Alicia Kulczynski and Stacey Brennan

Online consumer complaint behaviour that is observable to other consumers provides the firm with an opportunity to demonstrate transparency and service quality to the…

Abstract

Purpose

Online consumer complaint behaviour that is observable to other consumers provides the firm with an opportunity to demonstrate transparency and service quality to the public eye. The purpose of this paper is to assist practitioners with a strategy to increase perceived accommodativeness in complaint management on social media and reduce the social risk associated with online consumer complaint behaviour using a social exchange theory perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

Six online experiments with 1,350 US Facebook users were conducted to investigate the effect of supportive and non-supportive virtually present others, and employee intervention on a consumer’s choice to complain, likelihood to make an observable complaint (on the Facebook page) and likelihood to make a non-observable complaint (via Facebook Messenger). The mediating role of perceived accommodativeness and subsequent social risk is also examined.

Findings

Supportive comments made to the complainant by virtually present others were found to influence participants’ decision to complain, heighten participants’ likelihood to complain about the Facebook page and reduce their likelihood to complain via Facebook Messenger. This effect was reversed in the presence of non-supportive virtually present others and was explained by perceived social risk. Further, a participant’s likelihood to complain about the Facebook page was increased when an employee intervention was directed at a non-supportive comment made to a complainant, by a virtually present other. This effect was explained by the perceived accommodativeness of the employee interaction.

Research limitations/implications

The findings advance research on online consumer complaint behaviour by investigating how employee intervention can be used to increase the likelihood of an observable complaint. This research is limited in that it does not incorporate individual characteristics, such as introversion/extroversion and propensity to respond to peer pressure, which may affect participant responses.

Practical implications

This research shows that perceptions of social risk are most effectively reduced by employee intervention directed at a non-supportive comment (made to a complainant) of a virtually present other. Consumer complaint management strategies aimed at minimising perceptions of social risk and encouraging observable online complaint behaviour are proposed.

Originality/value

This research extends the consumer complaint behaviour taxonomy by introducing the term “observable complaining”, that is, visible complaints made on a Facebook page, and broadens understanding of the organisation’s role in managing non-supportive virtually present others to assuage perceptions of social risk in potential complainants.

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Article
Publication date: 20 July 2021

Chern Li Liew

While memory institutions' use of social media has proliferated, research and scholarly literature on risks, resulting from social media use, memory institutions' social

Abstract

Purpose

While memory institutions' use of social media has proliferated, research and scholarly literature on risks, resulting from social media use, memory institutions' social media risk-aware culture and, in particular, social media risk management remains scant. This study addresses this knowledge gap and identifies aspects of social media risk management from other sectors that could inform the cultural heritage sector.

Design/methodology/approach

This research involves a review of the scholarly and professional literature that contribute to social media risk management discourses. These include those that discuss the different categories of social media risks, social media policies, risk-aware culture and social media risk management strategies and processes. Works discussing social media risk management models and frameworks are also included in the review. Based on the insights gained from these reviews, a pillar framework to guide social media risk management in memory institutions is developed.

Findings

The proposed framework outlines the baseline components relevant for the cultural heritage sector and underlines the evolving and continual nature of these components. Elements particularly important to memory institutions are highlighted. Notably, that social risks as a risk category must be recognised. Also noted is that the conventional apolitical stance still taken by many memory institutions need to be reviewed. The importance of memory institutions to be not overly risk-averse to the point of failing to take advantage of the affordances of social media platforms, thereby stifling potential innovations around services and engagement with their users/audience is discussed.

Originality/value

This research offers an extensive review of the social media risk management literature, both scholarly and professional across different domains. The ensuing insights inform the development of a pillar framework to guide social media risk management in memory institutions. The framework outlines a baseline mapping of the governance, processes and systems components. The expectation is that this framework could be extended to account for contextual and situational requirements at more granular levels to reflect the nuances, variances and complexities that exist among different types of memory institutions and to account for varying attributes, mandates and priorities in the cultural heritage sector.

Details

Online Information Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

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Book part
Publication date: 25 November 2019

Helen Forbes-Mewett and Kien Nguyen-Trung

Since the late 1980s, social theorists championed for the birth of a new era, in which societies were increasingly exposed to growing global risks. The presence of…

Abstract

Since the late 1980s, social theorists championed for the birth of a new era, in which societies were increasingly exposed to growing global risks. The presence of increasing risks including natural disasters, technological errors, terrorist attacks, nuclear wars and environmental degradation suggests that human beings are becoming increasingly vulnerable. Therefore, an understanding of vulnerability is crucial. Vulnerability is often considered as the potential to suffer from physical attacks. This approach, however, has limited capacity to explain many forms of suffering including not only physical aspects, but also mental, social, economic, political and social dimensions. This chapter draws on the vulnerability literature to present an overarching framework for the book. It starts with an outline of the concept origins, then discusses its relationship with the risk society thesis before forming conceptualisation. The chapter then points out the key similarities and differences between vulnerability and other concepts such as risk, disaster, poverty, security and resilience. The authors rework an existing “security” framework to develop a new definition of the concept of vulnerability. Finally, the authors look into the root causes and the formation of vulnerability within social systems.

Details

Vulnerability in a Mobile World
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-912-6

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Book part
Publication date: 25 May 2021

Alessandra Girlando, Simon Grima, Engin Boztepe, Sharon Seychell, Ramona Rupeika-Apoga and Inna Romanova

Purpose: Risk is a multifaceted concept, and its identification requires complex approaches that are often misunderstood. The consequence is that decisions are based on…

Abstract

Purpose: Risk is a multifaceted concept, and its identification requires complex approaches that are often misunderstood. The consequence is that decisions are based on limited perception rather than the full value and meaning of what risk is, as a result, the way it is being tackled is incorrect. The individuals are often limited in their perceptions and ideas and do not embrace the full multifaceted nature of risk. Regulators and individuals want to follow norms and checklists or overuse models, simulations, and templates, thereby reducing responsibility for decision-making. At the same time, the wider use of technology and rules reduces the critical thinking of individuals. We advance the automation process by building robots that follow protocols and forget about the part of risk assessment that cannot be programed. Therefore, with this study, the objective of this study was to discover how people define risk, the influencing factors of risk perception and how they behave toward this perception. The authors also determine how the perception differed with age, gender, marital status, education level and region. The novelty of the research is related to individual risk perception during COVID-19, as this is a new and unknown phenomenon. Methodology: The research is based on the analysis of the self-administered purposely designed questionnaires we distributed across different social media platforms between February and June 2020 in Europe and in some cases was carried out as a interview over communication platforms such as “Skype,” “Zoom” and “Microsoft Teams.” The questionnaire was divided into four parts: Section 1 was designed to collect demographic information from the participants; Section 2 included risk definition statements obtained from literature and a preliminary discussion with peers; Section 3 included risk behavior statements; and Section 4 included statements on risk perception experiences. A five-point Likert Scale was provided, and participants were required to answer along a scale of “1” for “Strongly Agree” to “5” for “Strongly Disagree.” Participants also had the option to elaborate further and provide additional comments in an open-ended box provided at the end of the section. 466 valid responses were received. Thematic analysis was carried out to analyze the interviews and the open-ended questions, while the questionnaire responses were analyzed using various quantitative methods on IBM SPSS (version 23). Findings: The results of the analysis indicate that individuals evaluate the risk before making a decision and view risk as both a loss and opportunity. The study identifies nine factors influencing risk perception. Nevertheless, it must be emphasized that we can continue to develop models and rules, but as long as the risk is not understood, we will never achieve anything.

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Contemporary Issues in Social Science
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-931-3

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Article
Publication date: 7 October 2020

Chanho Song, Tuo Wang, Hyunjung Lee and Michael Y. Hu

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how the effects of referral rewards in referral reward programs (RRPs) are moderated through perceived social risk of a recommender.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how the effects of referral rewards in referral reward programs (RRPs) are moderated through perceived social risk of a recommender.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 717 consumers are accessed through Amazon's Mechanical Turk worker panel. The authors use t-test and analysis of variance to test the proposed hypotheses.

Findings

The findings show that consumers with high perceived social risk balance financial rewards with social risks, while low social risk consumers largely ignore these social risk elements surrounding a referral decision.

Originality/value

The inclusion of perceived social risk provides the opportunity to fully understand how a consumer goes about balancing social risk and referral rewards in making referral decisions. The concept of social risk has not been previously applied to this context.

Details

International Journal of Bank Marketing, vol. 38 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-2323

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Article
Publication date: 22 April 2020

Natascha Loebnitz, Stephan Zielke and Klaus G. Grunert

This study aims to investigate the impact of social risk and inter-tier brand competition across traditional retailers and discounters on consumers' purchase intentions in the UK.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the impact of social risk and inter-tier brand competition across traditional retailers and discounters on consumers' purchase intentions in the UK.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conduct a 2 (social risk) × 3 (brand type) × 2 (retailer type) between-subjects design (n = 309; UK) experiment employing a Qualtrics online panel in the UK.

Findings

The study shows that while premium private labels (PPLs) are on par with national brands, discounter's PPLs outperform mainstream retailer's PPLs. Furthermore, consumers appear to purchase standard private labels and PPLs for themselves when shopping at a discounter but turn to national brands when shopping for socially risky situations.

Research limitations/implications

While Tesco's premium (Tesco Finest*) and standard private label (Tesco Everyday Value) explicitly make reference to the retailer's name, for Lidl's premium (Deluxe) and standard private label (e.g. Milbona), the discounter's name is not visible. This is something this study did not control for.

Practical implications

Given that Lidl has opened its first US store in 2017 with ambitious expansion plans, our findings provide in particular practical guidelines for how to promote PPLs in countries where the discounter landscape is less saturated than in Germany.

Originality/value

This study provides insights into the understanding of the influence of social risk on purchasing intentions of premium private labels vs standard private labels vs national brands offered by mainstream retailers or discounters in the UK.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 48 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 9 November 2010

Pekka Aula

This paper aims to discuss the emergence of corporate reputational risk in terms of social media, exploring its threats to and possibilities for organizations' strategic

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33771

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to discuss the emergence of corporate reputational risk in terms of social media, exploring its threats to and possibilities for organizations' strategic reputation management.

Design/methodology/approach

Reputation risk, the possibility of damaging one's reputation, presents a threat to organizations in many ways. Little is known, however, about the connections between reputation risk management and social media as a mediated business environment. Following the latest conceptualizations of strategic reputation management and social media, the paper identifies several challenges for organizations. To make sense of this issue, the paper proposes a novel context for strategic reputation management, founded on the metaphor of ambient publicity, which involves not only social media, but also organizations and their stakeholders.

Findings

The paper argues that social media expands the spectrum of reputation risks and boosts risk dynamics, and that social media can have notable effects on corporate‐level strategic endeavors, which must be considered in order to be successful in the modern business environment. Nine tenets for corporate leaders involved in strategic reputation management are presented.

Originality/value

The paper offers new insights on social media's relation to reputation risk and its management. The ambient publicity, for example, has value to leaders involved in strategic reputation management when trying to identify factors characterizing the changing business environment. Understanding ambient publicity as an environment of meaning indicates that organizations, their stakeholders, and the public create a “complex narrative web” surrounding reputation. The more unified this web is, the stronger the organization is in terms of reputation risk.

Details

Strategy & Leadership, vol. 38 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1087-8572

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Article
Publication date: 14 November 2016

Sunhee Seo and Sunjin Moon

The purpose of this study is to segment consumers according to their decision-making styles in the context of social commerce. Additionally, the differences among consumer…

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2532

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to segment consumers according to their decision-making styles in the context of social commerce. Additionally, the differences among consumer segments in consumer innovativeness, perceived risk, satisfaction and demographic characteristics are evaluated.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 384 respondents who shopped for restaurant deals through social commerce participated in this study through an online survey. Two-step cluster analyses were used to segment social commerce consumers into groups, using their decision-making styles.

Findings

The results showed three types of social commerce consumers of restaurant deals: innovative brand-preferring consumers; realistic consumers; and passive consumers. Innovative brand-preferring consumers chose specific brands and showed the most innovativeness, while realistic consumers and passive consumers were price-conscious and far more cautious in purchasing restaurant deals using social commerce. Passive consumers were, in addition, confused by overchoice. All three consumer groups perceived higher risks to privacy in purchases using social commerce. Passive consumers were especially aware of the risk, while the innovative brand-preferring consumers and the realistic consumers were less concerned about risk. Consumers were especially likely to perceive economic risk, performance risk, social risk, psychological risk, privacy risk and time risk. Innovative brand-preferring consumers were more likely to be innovative and showed a higher level of satisfaction, while passive consumers showed the lowest satisfaction and the least innovativeness.

Research limitations/implications

This study provides additional insights on consumer decision-making styles in the context of social commerce in Korea.

Practical implications

Consumer decision-making styles can help restaurant managers to develop deals tailored to specific types of consumers, as well as create customized products and services.

Originality/value

This study is one of the very few attempts to investigate consumer decision-making styles in social commerce for restaurant deals, so it contributes to the literature on social commerce in the hospitality industry. This study shows that consumer decision-making styles are important in understanding the behavior of social commerce consumers.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 28 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 December 2017

Benjamin Fuchs

Poverty transitions can be explained by two opposing theories: the traditional sociological approach that focusses on social stratification and individualisation theory…

Abstract

Purpose

Poverty transitions can be explained by two opposing theories: the traditional sociological approach that focusses on social stratification and individualisation theory, which emphasises on life course risks for all strata. Both perspectives have been investigated extensively for income poverty while neglecting other important poverty indicators, such as deprivation or the receipt of social assistance. The purpose of this paper is to focus on the latter to investigate the impact of social stratification (e.g. social class), life course risks (e.g. health problems), and their interactions on the probability of social assistance entry for Germany.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis utilises survey data containing a sample of first-time social assistance entrants and a sample of the residential population. Applying case-control methodology, logistic regression is conducted to model the impact of social stratification determinants, life course risks, and their interactions on the probability of social assistance entry.

Findings

Social stratification determinants, particularly social class, have a significant effect. However, their effect is weaker than the effect of life course risks. Contrary to the prediction of individualisation theory, the poverty-triggering impact of life course risks varies substantially by social stratum. The combination of both theories yields high predictive power.

Originality/value

This paper is the first to comprehensively test social stratification and individualisation theory with respect to social assistance receipt as a poverty indicator. It is the first paper that investigates the entire population at risk of social assistance entry in Germany.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 37 no. 13/14
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Article
Publication date: 12 September 2016

Na Xiao

This research aims to provide new empirical evidence, showing that trivial attributes can exert a significant impact on product evaluation when they help to fulfill…

Abstract

Purpose

This research aims to provide new empirical evidence, showing that trivial attributes can exert a significant impact on product evaluation when they help to fulfill non-consumption goals (goal that goes beyond functional benefits).

Design/methodology/approach

The research presents two experimental studies that investigate the role of trivial product attributes in various non-consumption contexts.

Findings

Trivial attributes can have a significant impact on product evaluation when they help to fulfill non-consumption goals. First, in the non-competitive versus competitive choice settings, a trivial attribute becomes more important when it helps to make a choice (i.e. a non-consumption goal). Second, in the low versus high social risk settings, a trivial attribute becomes more important when it helps to reduce a social risk (i.e. a non-consumption goal). In addition, self-confidence is a moderator, which regulates consumers’ ability to rely on trivial attributes in making product choices.

Research limitations/implications

The social risk manipulations (high vs low) were operationalized by manipulating the impression motive related to social risk. The more important a goal is, the more risk consumers feel in decision making (Lazarus, 1991). Therefore, risk is a proxy of the goal strength or goal relevance. Future research is needed to examine goal strength’s sole influence on the perception of the trivial attribute.

Practical implications

From managerial perspective, trivial attributes can help companies to improve their sales. For example, a way to increase an attribute’s importance is to put the product in a competitive setting. Increasing a social risk further increases the influence of trivial attributes. When less confident consumers perceive the social risk is high, they prefer a brand with a trivial attribute. For consumers, the findings also suggest that consumers should not be tempted to consider trivial attributes in their purchase decisions. Reconsidering attributes and increasing self-confidence could help maintain focus on non-trivial attributes.

Originality/value

The study makes several contributions to theory and practice. This is the first study to systematically propose a framework of how trivial attributes’ role in product evaluation and choice change based on goals. The paper clarifies confusions about the definitions of trivial attributes and reconciles contradictory findings in literature. A trivial attribute can be instrumental in evaluation and choice when it helps to achieve a non-consumption goal. It is also the first study to introduce social risks into trivial attributes research in choices. The findings provide empirical evidence that social risks and self-confidence together drive consumers to prefer for trivial attribute.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 50 no. 9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

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