This paper studies organizational change following a shift in an industry environment, in the context of how a focused factory adapts to a change in its manufacturing…
This paper studies organizational change following a shift in an industry environment, in the context of how a focused factory adapts to a change in its manufacturing objectives. We use the organizational nature of production operations to suggest that the effectiveness of adaptation will depend on how well the manufacturing requirements of the new objectives match manufacturing capabilities at the production line level. We test our hypotheses using primary data from the Hartselle, Alabama compressor manufacturing focused factory of the Copeland Corporation. The results suggest that factors that influence adaptability derive from individual and organizational competence, and that the direction and extent of their influence depends on the systemic nature of the operational activity concerned. The results highlight roles of carefully designed complexity in operations and of process-oriented decision making on the shop floor in successful adaptation. This work contributes to our understanding of how business organizations overcome constraints to change.
Social scientists have recently turned their attention to the important consequences of industrial districts or so-called agglomeration economies on economic growth and…
Social scientists have recently turned their attention to the important consequences of industrial districts or so-called agglomeration economies on economic growth and firm performance. This paper explores an important but unanswered question involving agglomeration economies: does geographic location within an agglomeration affect firm performance? I assess this question by examining the effects of different geographic office locations (by zip code) on the failure rates of all corporate law firms located in Silicon Valley from 1969 to 1998. Empirical estimates reveal that Silicon Valley corporate law firms benefit from the increased volume of client referrals that comes from being near mutualistic firms that offer a different range of legal services, the lower labor costs and more specialized division of labor that come from being near a large joint supply of lawyers, and the increased business that comes from being near important clients (i.e. venture capital firms).
In addition, corporate law firms that locate in certain municipalities of Silicon Valley, including Palo Alto, San Jose, and Santa Clara, have significantly increased failure rates, even controlling for many firm-specific differences. Younger corporate law firms (under the age of 11 years) are helped disproportionately by being near important environmental resources and harmed disproportionately by being in certain perilous areas of Silicon Valley. All told, a law firm’s office location within Silicon Valley has significant consequences for its survival.
Reports that measurable amounts of polymer degradation occur during the fabrication of objects from polymer coated ceramic powders by selective laser sintering (SLS)…
Reports that measurable amounts of polymer degradation occur during the fabrication of objects from polymer coated ceramic powders by selective laser sintering (SLS). Argues that because the binder is important in achieving strong green parts that can be handled with minimal breakage during post‐processing operations, it is essential to minimize the extent of binder losses. As the first step towards understanding the mechanisms of binder degradation, this paper presents a thermal model of the physical system, noting that the agreement between theory and experiment are good. The model is used to help determine the most influential parameters affecting binder losses during fabrication from polymer coated powders. Predicts that adjustments to laser beam diameter, laser scanning distance and gaseous environment will strongly affect polymer binder degradation during processing. Further predicts correctly that polymer degradation during SLS processing is not sensitive to the inherent degradation kinetics of the polymer.
In order to succeed in an action under the Equal Pay Act 1970, should the woman and the man be employed by the same employer on like work at the same time or would the woman still be covered by the Act if she were employed on like work in succession to the man? This is the question which had to be solved in Macarthys Ltd v. Smith. Unfortunately it was not. Their Lordships interpreted the relevant section in different ways and since Article 119 of the Treaty of Rome was also subject to different interpretations, the case has been referred to the European Court of Justice.
ELSEWHERE in this number we list libraries which have Esent us copies of their annual reports which we are glad to have. Now and again we are able to elaborate on these, but in the present issue that has not been possible. We would say, however, that these reports are deserving of the attention of librarians generally, and of students at the library schools. They are records of work in progress, and they do suggest the development of library policy. The best of them are of textbook value.
The purpose of this paper is to propose a theoretical framework for researching gender equality implications of Clinical Microsystems, a new public management‐based model…
The purpose of this paper is to propose a theoretical framework for researching gender equality implications of Clinical Microsystems, a new public management‐based model for multi‐professional collaboration and improvement of health care delivery.
The paper draws on literature from gender in organizations, new public management, multi‐professional collaboration and organizational control to critically analyze the Clinical Microsystem model.
While on the surface an egalitarian and consensus‐based model, it nevertheless risks reinforcing a gendered hierarchical order. The explicit emphasis on social competencies, on being collaborative and amenable to change risks, paradoxically, disfavoring women. A major reason is that control becomes more opaque, which favors those already in power.
The paper calls for researchers as well as practitioners to incorporate concerns of equality in the work place when introducing new work practices in health care. For research, the authors propose a useful theoretical framework for empirical research. For practice, the paper calls for more transparent conditions for multi‐professional collaboration, such as formalized merit and advancement systems, precisely formulated performance expectations and selection of team members based strictly on formal merits.
A gender analysis of a seemingly anti‐hierarchical management model is an original contribution, adding to the literature on Clinical Microsystem in particular but also to critical studies on new public management. Moreover, the paper makes a valuable practical contribution in suggesting ways of avoiding the reproduction of gender inequalities otherwise implied in the model.
This double volume presents a collection of 23 papers on how institutions matter to socio-economic life. The papers delve deeply into the practical impact an institutional…
This double volume presents a collection of 23 papers on how institutions matter to socio-economic life. The papers delve deeply into the practical impact an institutional approach enables, as well as how such research has the potential to influence policies relevant to critical institutional changes unfolding in the world today. In Volume 48A, the focus is on the micro foundations of institutional impacts. In Volume 48B, the focus is on the macro consequences of institutional arrangements. Our introduction provides an overview to the two volumes, identifies points of contact between the papers, and briefly summarizes each contribution. We close by noting avenues for future research on how institutions matter. Overall, the volumes provide a cross-section of cutting edge institutional thought and empirical research, highlighting a variety of fruitful directions for knowledge accumulation and development.
One cannot think about suburbia without considering at the same time its intrinsic point of reference, namely the modern capitalist industrial city of the 19th century. As is generally known, disastrous social, sanitary, and hygienic conditions prevailed especially in the growing working class neighborhoods. These quarters were regarded as places from which considerable dangers for public order, health, safety, and morals emanated. At the same time, large parts of the middle classes interpreted the growing social meaning of the industrial city, in comparison to that of the countryside, as a menacing omen of the working classes gaining political power.