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Article

James Woodall

There is interest in promoting health in prison from governmental levels, but, to date, understanding how best to do this is unclear. This paper argues that nuanced…

Abstract

Purpose

There is interest in promoting health in prison from governmental levels, but, to date, understanding how best to do this is unclear. This paper argues that nuanced understanding of context is required to understand health promotion in prison. The purpose of the paper is to examine the potential for empowerment, a cornerstone of health promotion practice, in high-security prison establishments.

Design/methodology/approach

Independent prison inspections, conducted by Her Majesty’s Inspectorate of Prisons for England and Wales, form a critical element in how prisons are assessed. Documentary analysis was undertaken on all eight high-security prison reports using framework analysis.

Findings

Analysis revealed elements of prison life which were disempowering and antithetical to health promotion. While security imperatives were paramount, there were examples where this was disproportionate and disempowered individuals. The data show examples where, even in these high-security contexts, empowerment can be fostered. These were exemplified in relation to peer approaches designed to improve health and where prisoners felt part of democratic processes where they could influence change.

Practical implications

Both in the UK and internationally, there is a growing rhetoric for delivering effective health promotion interventions in prison, but limited understanding about how to operationalise this. This paper gives insight into how this could be done in a high-security prison environment.

Originality/value

This is the first paper which looks at the potential for health promotion to be embedded in high-security prisons. It demonstrates features of prison life which act to disempower and also support individuals to take greater control over their health.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

Keywords

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Article

James Woodall and Karina Kinsella

The purpose of this paper is to explore the conditions that create a “good” prison visit, focussing on the role that a dedicated third sector-run prison visitors’ centre…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the conditions that create a “good” prison visit, focussing on the role that a dedicated third sector-run prison visitors’ centre plays in creating a supportive environment.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper draws on a synthesis of empirical data gathering conducted over a decade at a voluntary sector-managed prison visitors’ centre based at a male prison in Northern England. The paper draws specifically on qualitative data gathered through four independent evaluations of the centre over a ten-year period.

Findings

An important point to emerge from the research is the unwavering importance of the prison visit in the life, well-being and regime of a prisoner. Prison visitors’ centres are shown to be an important part of creating positive visits experiences offering a space for composure and for support for families.

Originality/value

Many voluntary sector organisations are unable to commission large research and evaluation studies, but are often able to fund smaller pieces of work. Pooling qualitative evidence from smaller studies is a viable way to potentially strengthen commissioning decisions in this sector.

Details

Journal of Criminal Psychology, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2009-3829

Keywords

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Article

James Woodall, Kris Southby, Joanne Trigwell, Vanessa Lendzionowski and Rosana Rategh

A proportion of the working age population in the UK experience mental health conditions, with this group often facing significant challenges to retain their employment…

Abstract

Purpose

A proportion of the working age population in the UK experience mental health conditions, with this group often facing significant challenges to retain their employment. As part of a broader political commitment to health and well-being at work, the use of job retention services have become part of a suite of interventions designed to support both employers and employees. While rigorous assessment of job retention programmes are lacking, the purpose of this paper is to examine the success of, and distils learning from, a job retention service in England.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative methodology was adopted for this research with semi-structured interviews considered an appropriate method to illuminate key issues. In total, 28 individuals were interviewed, including current and former service users, referrers, employers and job retention staff.

Findings

Without the support of the job retention service, employees with mental health conditions were reported unlikely to have been maintained their employment status. Additional benefits were also reported, including improved mental health outcomes and impacts on individuals’ personal life. Employers also reported positive benefits in engaging with the job retention service, including feeling better while being able to offer appropriate solutions that were mutually acceptable to the employee and the organisation.

Originality/value

Job retention programmes are under researched and little is known about their effectiveness and the mechanisms that support individuals at work with mental health conditions. This study adds to the existing evidence and suggests that such interventions are promising in supporting employees and employers.

Details

International Journal of Workplace Health Management, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8351

Keywords

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Article

L.J. Salmon, L.J. Winn and L.J. Karminski

February 28, 1969 Damages — Special damage — Loss of earnings between accident and trial — “Compensationitis” — Plaintiff's minor physical injuries — Anxiety neurosis …

Abstract

February 28, 1969 Damages — Special damage — Loss of earnings between accident and trial — “Compensationitis” — Plaintiff's minor physical injuries — Anxiety neurosis — Functional pain for which no physical cause — Pain expected to vanish on determination of plaintiff's claim — Whether duty to prosecute action with due diligence — Plaintiff's dilatoriness in proceedings — Effect on special damage.

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 6 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

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Article

Rachael Dixey and James Woodall

This paper aims to discuss some of the obstacles to implementing policy and strategy related to health promoting prisons. It focuses on the role of prison officers and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to discuss some of the obstacles to implementing policy and strategy related to health promoting prisons. It focuses on the role of prison officers and raises issues concerning their conditions of service, training and organisational culture in a situation where the prison system faces security issues, overcrowding and high levels of ill health among prisoners.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper emerged as a result of significant overlapping themes between two separate studies conducted by the authors. The paper draws on the authors' qualitative data from these studies.

Findings

The findings demonstrate the ambiguities and tensions in changing organisational cultures and among prison staff. Alongside the qualitative data, the paper draws on theory regarding policy implementation at the micro‐level to show how staff can block or speed up that implementation.

Practical implications

Prison officers are an essential part of health promoting prisons, but have been relatively ignored in the discussion of how to create healthier prisons.

Originality/value

The contribution that prison staff make to creating health promoting prisons has been under‐explored, yet pertinent theory can show how they can be more effectively involved in making changes in organisational culture.

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Article

James Woodall

There is a strong political imperative to regard the prison as a key social setting for health promotion, but evidence indicates that drug misuse continues to be a…

Abstract

Purpose

There is a strong political imperative to regard the prison as a key social setting for health promotion, but evidence indicates that drug misuse continues to be a significant issue for many prisoners. This paper aims to examine the social and environmental factors within the setting that influence individuals' drug taking.

Design/methodology/approach

Focus groups and interviews were conducted with prisoners and staff in three male training prisons in England. The sampling approach endeavoured to gain “maximum variation” so that a broad based understanding of the prison setting could be gathered. The data were analysed in accordance with Attride‐Stirling's thematic network approach.

Findings

The findings suggest a myriad of social and environmental factors influencing drug use. While staff recognised the scale of the drugs problem, they struggled to cope with creative inmates who were not perturbed by taking risks to gain their supplies. Fellow prisoners played a major role in individuals' decision making, as did the boredom of institutional life and Mandatory Drug Testing (MDT) policies within the institutions.

Practical implications

Drug treatment is an essential component of prison healthcare, but it only forms a small part of creating a health‐promoting setting. If the health‐promoting prison is to be fully realised, a more radical, upstream and holistic outlook is required.

Originality/value

The settings approach is an important theoretical and practical approach in health promotion. In comparison to other settings (such as schools), however, there has been limited research on the prison as a health‐promoting environment.

Details

Health Education, vol. 112 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-4283

Keywords

Abstract

Details

The Journal of Mental Health Training, Education and Practice, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-6228

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Article

James Woodall, Jane South, Rachael Dixey, Nick de Viggiani and William Penson

Formalised support services for prisoners that rely on peer methods of delivery show promising health and social outcomes but there is also conjecture that negative…

Abstract

Purpose

Formalised support services for prisoners that rely on peer methods of delivery show promising health and social outcomes but there is also conjecture that negative effects, both at an individual and organisational level, can occur. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Individuals with recognised professional expertise from various sectors (including ex-prisoners) were invited to contribute to an expert symposium to share their perceptions of the positive and negative effects of peer interventions in prison. Discussions and debate were audio recorded with the consent of all delegates and verbatim transcripts were analysed using framework analysis.

Findings

According to the participants, peer interventions in the prison setting created both positive and negative impacts. It was clear from the evidence gathered that peer interventions in prisons can impact positively on health outcomes, but these effects were perceived to be more well-defined for peer deliverers. The notion that peer deliverers can be subjected to “burnout” suggests that supervisory processes for peer workers need to be considered carefully in order to avoid the intervention from being counter-productive. Organisationally, one of the salient issues was the adverse effects that peer interventions cause to the security of the prison.

Originality/value

To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first time an expert symposium has been conducted to specifically examine peer interventions in prison and to consider the effects, both positive and negative, of such schemes.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

Keywords

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Article

James Woodall, Jenny Woodward, Karl Witty and Shona McCulloch

The purpose of this paper is to assess the effectiveness of a toothbrushing intervention delivered in primary schools in Yorkshire and the Humber, a Northern district of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess the effectiveness of a toothbrushing intervention delivered in primary schools in Yorkshire and the Humber, a Northern district of England. The toothbrushing intervention was designed with the intention of improving the oral health of young children. The paper reports the effectiveness of the intervention and explores process issues related to its co-ordination and delivery.

Design/methodology/approach

The evaluation had three data gathering approaches. These were: in-depth case studies of three selected schools participating in the toothbrushing programme; interviews with oral health promoters responsible for the programme in the district; and a small scale questionnaire-based survey which was sent to the 18 schools participating in the intervention.

Findings

The intervention was accepted by children and they enjoyed participating in the toothbrushing scheme. Children had often become more knowledgeable about toothbrushing and the consequences of not regularly cleaning their teeth. The scheme was contingent on key staff in the school and the programme was more successful where school's embraced, rather than rejected the notion of improving children's health alongside educational attainment. Whether the intervention made differences to brushing in the home requires further investigation, but there is a possibility that children can act as positive “change agents” with siblings and other family members.

Practical implications

This paper suggests that schools can be an effective setting for implementing toothbrushing interventions.

Originality/value

Toothbrushing in schools programmes are a relatively new initiative that have not been fully explored, especially using qualitative approaches or focusing on the views of children. This paper makes a particular contribution to understanding the process and delivery of toothbrushing interventions delivered in primary schools. The implications for programmes outside of the UK context are discussed.

Details

Health Education, vol. 114 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-4283

Keywords

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Abstract

Details

Persistence and Vigilance: A View of Ford Motor Company’s Accounting over its First Fifty Years
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-998-9

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