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Article

Xiaoting Xu, Mengqing Yang, Yuxiang Chris Zhao and Qinghua Zhu

Based on the examination of the roles of message framing and evidence type, this study made an analysis of the promotion methods of intention and information need towards…

Abstract

Purpose

Based on the examination of the roles of message framing and evidence type, this study made an analysis of the promotion methods of intention and information need towards HPV vaccination.

Design/methodology/approach

The study conducted a 2 (gain-framed messages vs loss-framed messages) × 2 (statistical evidence vs narrative evidence) quasi-experimental design built upon theories of message framing and evidence type. This experiment recruited college students who were not vaccinated against HPV as participants. The analysis of variance (ANOVA), the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), and the independent sample T-test were used to test the hypotheses.

Findings

The results (N = 300) indicate that (1) Loss-framed messages will lead to a more favorable intention towards HPV vaccination than gain-framed messages. (2) Statistical evidence will lead to a more explicit information need than narrative evidence. (3) Message framing and evidence type will interact and (a) for statistical evidence, loss-framed messages will lead to a more favorable intention towards HPV vaccination than gain-framed messages and (b) for narrative evidence, gain-framed messages will lead to a more favorable intention towards HPV vaccination than loss-framed messages. (4) Message framing and evidence type will interact and (a) for loss-framed messages, statistical evidence will stimulate more explicit information need of HPV vaccination than narrative evidence and (b) for gain-framed messages, narrative evidence will stimulate more explicit information need of HPV vaccination than statistical evidence.

Originality/value

This paper can help to further understand the important roles of message framing and evidence type in health behavior promotion. The study contributes to the literature on how health information can be well organized to serve the public health communication and further enhance the health information service.

Details

Aslib Journal of Information Management, vol. 73 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-3806

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Book part

Rose Jane Wilson, Tracey Chantler, Shelley Lees, Pauline Paterson and Heidi Larson

Relational autonomy proposes that persons are socially embedded, with decisions being made within social relationships. Through this theoretical lens, this article…

Abstract

Relational autonomy proposes that persons are socially embedded, with decisions being made within social relationships. Through this theoretical lens, this article explores how the healthcare professional–patient relationship can affect pregnant women’s decisions to accept pertussis and influenza vaccines.

Hackney was chosen as the study site as it has very low vaccine uptake rates. In-depth interviews were conducted with 40 pregnant and recently pregnant women, as well as 10 healthcare professionals. Interviews explored experiences of the UK's National Health Service (NHS) health care and views towards vaccination in pregnancy. An observation of a consultation between a pregnant patient and her General Practitioners (GPs) was also conducted in order to understand how the vaccination discussion takes place.

The findings of this study indicate that advice from friends and family can greatly influence a pregnant woman’s vaccination decisions. The patient’s social context, including influences on her decisions, must be understood by healthcare professionals, so that discussions about concerns can take place. If close relationships with patients are formed, healthcare professional advice is more likely to be trusted. With support from healthcare professionals, patients feel competent, empowered to make the right decision for them, and are more likely to vaccinate.

This research will help to inform contextualised policies aimed at increasing vaccination acceptance and reducing inequality in access to vaccination during pregnancy in Hackney.

To the author’s knowledge, this chapter is the first to apply the theory of relational autonomy to views towards maternal vaccination and decision making. It provides valuable insights into how healthcare professionals’ interactions with their pregnant patients can influence vaccination acceptance. The chapter contains advice on how both healthcare professionals and policy-makers can include mothers in vaccine decision-making processes in more personalised ways, by adopting a dialogue that appreciates and understands the social processes around vaccination concerns.

Details

Health and Health Care Concerns Among Women and Racial and Ethnic Minorities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-150-8

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Book part

Lauren D. Arnold and Vetta L. Sanders Thompson

Purpose – To provide an overview of racial/ethnic disparities in human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, HPV vaccination, and cervical cancer on domestic and international…

Abstract

Purpose – To provide an overview of racial/ethnic disparities in human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, HPV vaccination, and cervical cancer on domestic and international levels.

Design/methodology/approach – The literature, cervical cancer prevention guidelines, and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention resources were culled to aggregate information on epidemiology, racial/ethnic disparities, and knowledge and attitudes related to HPV, HPV vaccination, and cervical cancer. Original data supplement information about HPV and HPV vaccination knowledge and attitudes.

Findings – Cervical cancer is among the leading causes of female death worldwide, with substantial racial/ethnic and geographic disparities. In the United States, African American and Hispanic women suffer disproportionate cervical cancer incidence and mortality compared to their Caucasian counterparts. Globally, the greatest burden of cervical cancer (and HPV infection) is shouldered by developing regions. Prevention efforts, such as HPV vaccination and adaption of screening programs to resource-poor areas, have the potential to reduce such disparities, but cultural context is critical to successful development and implementation of such interventions.

Research limitations/implications – As this is not a systematic review, but rather a viewpoint on issues related to disparities in cervical cancer, the literature review is not exhaustive.

Practical implications – This chapter provides a context for examining cervical cancer disparities domestically and globally and serves as a starting point for formulating future research.

Originality – This perspective on HPV and cervical cancer presents disparities both within the United States and worldwide. The chapter supplements the literature with new data that provide additional insight into knowledge and attitudes about these health issues.

Details

Health Disparities Among Under-served Populations: Implications for Research, Policy and Praxis
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-103-8

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Book part

Jaro Kotalik

Objectives: To discuss whether, during an influenza pandemic, public health authorities could be ethically justified in implementing a mandatory vaccination program…

Abstract

Objectives: To discuss whether, during an influenza pandemic, public health authorities could be ethically justified in implementing a mandatory vaccination program directed at health care professionals.

Methods: Ethical analysis is carried out by examining arguments that can be made in favor or against such a mandatory measure and by seeking a reasonably balanced position between them. Arguments under consideration are based on the duties of health professionals and public health authorities, the consequences of their actions and on other ethical principles. The importance of relevant empirical data is stressed without any attempt to review or analyze them systematically.

Results: Mandatory vaccination of some health care professionals during a serious pandemic of influenza can be justified, but only under certain limited conditions.

Conclusions: In the throes of an influenza pandemic, health care professionals (and to a variable degree, other health care workers) have an ethical obligation to accept influenza vaccination if it is reasonably safe and effective. The ethical responsibility of public health authorities is to limit the impact of a pandemic on the population by all reasonable means, which clearly includes the appropriate use of vaccine. Consequently, the vaccination of health care staff can be made mandatory under certain conditions. However, a critical objection to this conclusion, which upholds that a voluntary vaccination program (an ethically much less problematic intervention) is just as effective, needs to be addressed.

Details

Ethics and Epidemics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-412-6

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Article

Terri MacDougall, Shawna Cunningham, Leeann Whitney and Monakshi Sawhney

The purpose of this paper is to share lessons learned from a quality improvement (QI) project that studied pediatric pain assessment scores after implementing additional…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to share lessons learned from a quality improvement (QI) project that studied pediatric pain assessment scores after implementing additional evidence-based pain mitigation strategies into practice. Most nurses will acknowledge they implement some practices to mitigate pain during injections. Addressing pain during vaccination is important to prevent needle fear, vaccine hesitancy and health care avoidance. The aim of this project was to reduce pain as evidenced by pain scores at the time of vaccination at the North Bay Nurse Practitioner-Led Clinic (NBNPLC).

Design/methodology/approach

The design for this study was quasi-experimental utilizing descriptive statistics and QI tools. The NBNPLC utilized the model for improvement to test change ideas. A validated observation tool to assess pain during vaccination with the pediatric population (revised Face Legs Activity Cry and Consolability) was used to test changes. The team deliberately planned improvements according to best practice guidelines to optimize use of strategies to mitigate pain during injections. QI tools and leadership skills were utilized to improve the pediatric experience of pain during vaccinations. Parents and clinicians provided qualitative and quantitative feedback to the project.

Findings

Nurses tested pain assessment tools and agreed to use a validated tool to assess pain during vaccinations. Parents agreed to use of topical anesthetic during vaccinations. Improved pain scores during vaccinations were demonstrated with the use of topical anesthetic. Parents agreed to use of standardized sucrose solution during vaccination. Reduced pain scores were observed with the use of standardized sucrose water. To sustain implementation of the guideline, a nursing documentation form was devised with nurses agreeing to ongoing use of the form.

Research limitations/implications

This is a QI project that examined the intricacies of moving clinical practice guidelines into clinical practice. The project validates guidelines for pain management during vaccinations. Leaders within clinics who want to improve pediatric pain during vaccinations will find this paper helpful as a guide.

Practical implications

Pain management in the pediatric population will be touched on in the context of parental expectations of pain. QI tools, lessons learned and suggestions for nurses will be outlined. Leadership plays an influential role in translating practice guidelines into practice.

Originality/value

This paper outlines how organizational supports were instrumental to give clinicians time to deliberately challenge practice to improve quality of care of children during vaccinations.

Details

International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, vol. 32 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0952-6862

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Article

Syeda Nazish Zahra Bukhari, Salmi Mohd Isa and Goh Yen Nee

The purpose of this study is to empirically examine the determinants of purchase intention of Halal vaccination and compare the results between Muslim consumers in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to empirically examine the determinants of purchase intention of Halal vaccination and compare the results between Muslim consumers in Malaysia and Pakistan. It focuses on analyzing the influence of various factors on the purchase intention of Halal vaccination and determining whether the relationships are significantly different in the two Muslim-majority countries.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is based on the extended theory of planned behavior and self-congruity theory. The variable of religiosity was added with the three variables of the theory of planned behavior, i.e. attitude toward Halal vaccinations, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control. It shows the congruity between Muslim consumer and Islamic brands and proposes a wider range of determinants in the framework. The study’s sample size was 378, and the respondents were Muslim consumers in Malaysia and Pakistan. Purposive sampling technique was used to extract the sample from three cities in each country. Partial least square (PLS) was used to statistically analyze the data using PLS–structural equation modeling approach. The measurement model was analyzed, and invariance of the measurement model was established. Afterward, the hypotheses were tested, and multi-group analysis was performed through Henseler’s multi-group analysis (MGA) and Permutation test.

Findings

The results indicate a lack of significant relationships between the independent variables and the purchase intention of Halal vaccination except in the case of subjective norms. This construct has a significant but inverse relationship in the case of Pakistan’s Muslim consumers, which can be attributed to the presence of consumer skepticism regarding the issue of Halal vaccination. The MGA results reveal a statistically significant difference in the influence of religiosity on purchase intention between the two countries, depicting differences in the brand–self congruity perceptions of consumers in the two countries.

Research limitations/implications

The sample size was relatively small due to the limited time duration.

Originality/value

The area of Halal vaccination has been given limited attention in academic literature. This study addresses this area that has limited research and is greatly attractive to a large number of brands targeting the Muslim consumer market. The results of the study can form a foundation for creating the branding strategy of this product category and assessing its demand in various Muslim markets.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

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Article

Nidhi Ghildayal

Hepatitis A is a prevalent disease that is largely preventable by vaccine usage. The vaccine for this illness is highly underused in most regions. In an attempt to find…

Abstract

Purpose

Hepatitis A is a prevalent disease that is largely preventable by vaccine usage. The vaccine for this illness is highly underused in most regions. In an attempt to find the strategies that are most beneficial in regard to quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and cost in current environments, the purpose of this paper is to conduct cost-effectiveness analyses to investigate vaccination strategies in a more economically developed country (MEDC), generally known as a “developed” area: the USA, and a less economically developed country (LEDC), generally known as a “developing” area: the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used a dynamic transmission model for comparative effectiveness analyses. The model ran two different scenarios. The two regions studied have different policies and strategies for Hepatitis A vaccination currently, and also used different strategies in 2009. In the USA, a universal vaccination policy was modeled, along with a scenario in which it was removed. In Rio de Janeiro, a no vaccination policy was modeled, along with a scenario in which a universal vaccination policy was effected.

Findings

The comparison of resulting incremental cost-effectiveness ratio values to accepted threshold values showed universal vaccination to be cost-effective in both the USA and Rio de Janeiro as compared to no vaccination. When episode and vaccination costs and vaccination efficacy were varied, this still remained true. Universal vaccination was found to result in lower incidence of Hepatitis A in both the USA and Rio de Janeiro. Over the twenty-year time horizon, universal vaccination is projected to prevent 506,945 cases of symptomatic Hepatitis A in the USA and 42,318 cases of Hepatitis A in Rio de Janeiro. Other benefits include a projected increase in cumulative QALYs through the use of universal vaccination.

Originality/value

This analysis showed universal vaccination to be cost-effective as compared to no vaccination, and portions of the study’s approach had not previously been applied in tandem to investigate Hepatitis A interventions. The results may help foster higher compliance rates for Hepatitis A vaccination and even greater per-person economic benefits of universal vaccination, particularly in the USA. The purpose of this study is also to encourage elevated levels of surveillance on age of infection in developing regions and consistent reevaluation utilizing dynamic transmission models in both the USA and Brazil, as well as other rapidly developing regions, in order to prevent future epidemics and costs associated with the disease.

Details

International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, vol. 32 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0952-6862

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Article

Wesley D. Kufel, Dennis M. Williams and David Jay Weber

Payment for healthcare services in the USA has shifted from fee for service to compensation based on value and quality. The indicators used for payments are a variety of…

Abstract

Purpose

Payment for healthcare services in the USA has shifted from fee for service to compensation based on value and quality. The indicators used for payments are a variety of clinical measures, including administration of vaccines to patients. The purpose of this paper is to describe the implementation of programs in health systems to improve vaccination rates and patient outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

A search of the literature was conducted to find examples of vaccine programs in US health systems, and also to identify policies to improve immunization rates.

Findings

Successful programs for improving vaccination rates require advocacy and support of leadership, a systematic and multidisciplinary approach, and an evaluation of local resources and capacity. Numerous examples exist of medical, nursing, and pharmacy led programs that improve vaccination rates. The department in charge has relied on the support of other groups to ensure the success.

Social implications

Mandatory vaccination of healthcare personnel (HCP) in the health system has been a growing trend in the USA. Although there has been some resistance to mandatory vaccinations for HCP, the standards and requirements have resulted in improved rates in health systems, which ultimately improve efficiency and protects patients.

Originality/value

This review describes considerations for implementing a successful vaccination program in a health system and provides examples of specific strategies. An overview of mandatory vaccinations for HCP is also described.

Details

International Journal of Health Governance, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-4631

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Article

Kuan Yang, Ermei Wang, Yinggao Zhou and Kai Zhou

The purpose of this paper is to use analytical method and optimization tools to suggest time-optimal vaccination program for a basic SIR epidemic model with mass action…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to use analytical method and optimization tools to suggest time-optimal vaccination program for a basic SIR epidemic model with mass action contact rate when supply is limited.

Design/methodology/approach

The Lagrange Multiplier Method and Pontryagin’s Maximum Principle are used to explore optimal control strategy and obtain analytical solution for the control system to minimize the total cost of disease with boundary constraint. The numerical simulation is done with Matlab using the sequential linear programming method to illustrate the impact of parameters.

Findings

The result highlighted that the optimal control strategy is Bang-Bang control – to vaccinate with maximal effort until either all of the resources are used up or epidemic is over, and the optimal strategies and total cost of vaccination are usually dependent on whether there is any constraint of resource, however, the optimal strategy is independent on the relative cost of vaccination when the supply is limited.

Practical implications

The research indicate a practical view that the enhancement of daily vaccination rate is critical to make effective initiatives to prevent epidemic from out breaking and reduce the costs of control.

Originality/value

The analysis of the time-optimal application of outbreak control is of clear practical value and the introducing of resource constraint in epidemic control is of realistic sense, these are beneficial for epidemiologists and public health officials.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 44 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

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Article

Heather Allen and Alexandra Taylor

The purpose of this paper is to examine the experiences of the USA and other nations with developed veterinary infrastructure and identify the critical factors that led…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the experiences of the USA and other nations with developed veterinary infrastructure and identify the critical factors that led the evolution of the US foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) response strategy.

Design/methodology/approach

A thorough literature review was conducted, including official reports of US FMD outbreaks and peer-reviewed articles on outbreaks in previously FMD-free countries. Textual analysis was conducted on past and current publicly available US FMD response plans, identifying the use of the term “vaccination” or “emergency vaccination” indicating the potential use of these strategies.

Findings

The USA has shifted from a strategy of exclusively stamping-out to a response strategy that would consider emergency vaccination, including vaccinate to slaughter and vaccinate to live, in any FMD outbreak. The factors that led to this shift in policy include economic factors, the emergence of new vaccine technologies, the changed landscape of the US livestock industry, and the experiences of other typically FMD-free countries.

Originality/value

An outbreak in the USA is likely to rapidly outpace the current capacity for stamping-out. Experience from other FMD outbreaks, and lack of publicly available literature from the USA, indicates that it is critically important that further consideration, sufficient attention, and stakeholder deliberation need to occur to ensure vaccination strategies (to live and to slaughter) are implementable in an outbreak.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

Keywords

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