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In the 1950s, a combination of technological and scientific advancement, political competition, and changes in popular opinion about spaceflight generated public policy in…
In the 1950s, a combination of technological and scientific advancement, political competition, and changes in popular opinion about spaceflight generated public policy in favor of an aggressive space program. This and that of 1960s moved forward with a Moon landing and the necessary budgets. Space exploration reached equilibrium in the 1970s, sustained through to the present. The twenty-first-century progresses signals that support for human space exploration is waning and may even begin declining in the coming years. This chapter reviews this history and analyzes five rationales suggested in support of continued human spaceflight: discovery and understanding, national defense, economic competitiveness, human destiny, and geopolitics.
Technology assessment is a difficult task at the Mission Control Center (MCC). The difficulty is inherent in the unavailability of structured information and exacerbated…
Technology assessment is a difficult task at the Mission Control Center (MCC). The difficulty is inherent in the unavailability of structured information and exacerbated by the lack of a systematic assessment process. New technology deployment to the MCC requires testing and certification in three labs: Quest 1, 2, and 3. The Mission Control Center Systems (MCCS) architecture team, a multidisciplinary group of MCC experts and scientists is chartered to redefine the next generation of MCCS by developing a systematic process to assess and certify new technologies. Quest 123 is a benchmarking tool that was successfully implemented at the Johnson Space Center to assess and certify new technology initiatives for each lab before final deployment to the MCC. Quest 123 integrates the analytic hierarchy process with an additive multi‐criteria decision‐making model into a dynamic benchmarking framework.
Spaceflight presents a unique environment in which multiteam coordination is often required for mission success. This chapter will explore the topic of multiteam systems…
Spaceflight presents a unique environment in which multiteam coordination is often required for mission success. This chapter will explore the topic of multiteam systems (MTSs) and their functioning in this environment.
This chapter describes the MTS case of human spaceflight in terms of a specific subset of the system involved in current human spaceflight missions: NASA Mission Control and the NASA astronauts aboard the International Space Station. In addition to describing the system itself, this chapter describes notable advantages and disadvantages of this particular MTS, along with potential future issues in human spaceflight and research directions for use of MTSs in spaceflight.
More than 40 years of successful human spaceflight missions have demonstrated many of the benefits and drawbacks of MTSs across some of the most challenging environments faced by any teams attempting coordination. These environmental challenges include extreme distances, limited modes of communication, complex systems, novel problems, and coordination between teams from multiple countries with differing goals and priorities. The specific advantages and drawbacks of MTSs in this environment, and the impacts of the aforementioned environmental challenges, are discussed.
This chapter examines a known operational and successful MTS that operates in an environment in which many of the standard assumptions regarding teams and MTSs may not apply.
The US manned space flight program is interpreted as an expression of American culture. Since the inception of the program one can detect a regression in the projected…
The US manned space flight program is interpreted as an expression of American culture. Since the inception of the program one can detect a regression in the projected image from that which the original astronauts built around themselves to that which NASA constructed with Christa McAuliffe — the “teacher‐in‐space”. The first represents the theme of the American attaining immortality through competence. The second, characterized by the “denial of difference,” represents the American as a participant at “Disneyland‐in‐space”. The capacity to manage technological achievement is present in the former and absent in the latter, in which the concept of technology is replaced by the concept of magic. It is suggested that the same cultural regression may be found in the recent history of American organizational culture.
Contemporary cinema and video games express considerable skepticism toward the colonization of further planets. Contemporary films including Elysium and Passengers depict…
Contemporary cinema and video games express considerable skepticism toward the colonization of further planets. Contemporary films including Elysium and Passengers depict space travel as the prolongation of inequalities within human civilization, while others such as Gravity and The Martian predict a rebirth of the human species through technological advances and space travel limited to a lucky few. Games, meanwhile, explore topics ranging from private spaceflight to the genetic modification required for long-term space habitation, especially in EVE Online, which we focus on in this chapter. Although both contemporary films and games celebrate technological advances, these media also show that multiple inequalities lurk behind the celebratory human renewal into a multiplanetary species.
To study the application of three‐dimensional differential geometric (DG) guidance commands to a realistic missile defense engagement, and the application of the Newton's…
To study the application of three‐dimensional differential geometric (DG) guidance commands to a realistic missile defense engagement, and the application of the Newton's iterative algorithm to DG guidance problems.
The classical differential geometry theory is introduced firstly to transform all the variables in DG guidance commands from an arc length system to the time domain. Then, an algorithm for the angle‐of‐attack and the sideslip angle is developed by assuming the guidance curvature command and guidance torsion command equal to its corresponding value of current trajectory. Furthermore, Newton's iteration is utilized to develop iterative solution of the stated algorithm and the two‐dimensional DG guidance system so as to facilitate easy computation of the angle‐of‐attack and the sideslip angle, which are formulated to satisfy the DG guidance law.
DG guidance law is viable and effective in the realistic missile defense engagement, and it is shown to be a generalization of gain‐varying proportional navigation (PN) guidance law and performs better than the classical PN guidance law in the case of intercepting a maneuvering target. Moreover, Newton's iterative algorithm has sufficient accuracy for DG guidance problem.
Provides further study on DG guidance problem associated with its iterative solution.