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Article

Hamilton Coimbra Carvalho and Jose Afonso Mazzon

This paper aims to expose the inadequacy of social marketing to tackle complex social problems, while proposing an expansion in the discipline’ conceptual repertoire. The…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to expose the inadequacy of social marketing to tackle complex social problems, while proposing an expansion in the discipline’ conceptual repertoire. The goal is to incorporate complexity tools, in particular from the system dynamics field, and the promotion of mindware within a true transdisciplinary paradigm.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses literature review to support the proposed theoretical development. It also presents a short case study.

Findings

Most problems that plague our modern societies have a distinctive complex nature that is not amenable to traditional social marketing interventions. Social marketing has simplified the problem of bringing about societal change by thinking that upstream social actors can be influenced in the same way as downstream individuals. This paper shows that this is not the case while proposing a framework to close this gap.

Research limitations/implications

The proposed framework is a theoretical one. It depends on further refinements and actual application to wicked problems.

Practical implications

Complex social problems – or wicked problems – remain widespread in modern societies. Moreover, they are getting worse over time. The paper presents a proposal to redefine the limits of the social marketing discipline so it can be more useful to tackle such problems. Practical approaches such as measuring the success of mindware in the marketplace of ideas are implied in the proposed framework.

Social implications

The increase in complexity of social problems has not been accompanied by an evolution in the discipline of social marketing. The lack of proper conceptual tools has prevented the discipline from contributing to tackling these problems effectively. Some interventions may actually worsen the underlying problems, as illustrated in the paper.

Originality/value

This paper identifies two major gaps associated with the social marketing discipline, in particular the lack of complexity and systems thinking and the forsaking of ideas (mindware) as a legitimate goal of the discipline. This realization corroborates the claim that boundaries among disciplines are often artificial, hindering the proper understanding of complex social problems. In turn, only the use of adequate conceptual lenses makes it possible to devise interventions and programs that tackle actual causes (instead of symptoms) of complex social problems.

Details

Journal of Social Marketing, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-6763

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Article

Hamilton Coimbra Carvalho, José Afonso Mazzon and Joaquim Rocha Santos

The purpose of this paper is the development of a framework to address complex social problems. The paper proposes an integrative framework inspired in complexity…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is the development of a framework to address complex social problems. The paper proposes an integrative framework inspired in complexity sciences, using it to explain the demise of cigarettes in recent decades.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses the method of system dynamics to represent the complexity inherent in most social ecosystems where social marketers operate.

Findings

The framework identifies the major determinants of complex problems in social ecosystems, giving emphasis to the role performed by endogenous social structures. The paper presents the results of a simulation replicating the evolution of perceived attractiveness of cigarettes in recent decades, highlighting the role of the Surgeon General’s 1964 report in the USA as a catalyst force that accelerated the process of change.

Research limitations/implications

The limitations derive from the use of the system dynamics method, in particular the high level of aggregation of variables. Implications include the potential for increased cross-fertilization between social marketing and other disciplines concerned with social change.

Practical implications

The eight elements that compose the proposed framework can be identified or applied to any social ecosystem, helping in the identification of points with high leverage for social change.

Social implications

Proper understanding of how complex social problems arise is vital to increase the odds of success of social marketing interventions. The paper also highlights common threads in the development of problems in different social ecosystems.

Originality/value

The paper presents a novel framework for addressing the complexity inherent to the social ecosystems where social marketers operate.

Details

Journal of Social Marketing, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-6763

Keywords

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Article

Joaquim Rocha dos Santos, Eduardo Ferreira Franco, Hamilton Coimbra Carvalho, Stefano Armenia, Alessandro Pompei and Carlo Maria Medaglia

The purpose of this study is to analyze the impacts of different policies to address the water supply crisis experienced by the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo during…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to analyze the impacts of different policies to address the water supply crisis experienced by the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo during 2013 to 2015 and evaluate the resilience of its water supply system for the coming years.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology used in this study is based on the system dynamics simulation paradigm, combined with empirical data obtained from the regional water authority.

Findings

The results from the simulations suggest that the first layer of sustainability of the water supply in the region strongly depends on how the system’s operator responds to crises, in particular how it balances policies acting on the supply and demand for the resource.

Practical implications

Severe water crises typically make salient the perception that water is a finite and public resource. Long-term, sustainable management of the system requires a paradigm shift from widespread, old-fashioned beliefs that water is an infinite resource. It also requires active management to increase the system’s preparedness to withstand events caused by climate change.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the system dynamics and water resource management literature by presenting an integrative model to evaluate the resilience of a particular water supply system. Although there are previous studies on this subject, the present one focuses on the role that the water authority plays in a crisis and especially on a specific combination of policies to address an episode of crisis in a system unprepared for it.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 48 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

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Article

Bassiro Só, Eduardo Ferreira Franco, Hamilton Coimbra Carvalho, Joaquim Rocha dos Santos and Stefano Armenia

This paper aims to understand and explore the causal relationship of elements responsible for the macro vicious cycle of poverty in Guinea-Bissau, and discuss policies to break it.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to understand and explore the causal relationship of elements responsible for the macro vicious cycle of poverty in Guinea-Bissau, and discuss policies to break it.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology used in this study is based on the system dynamics simulation paradigm.

Findings

Breaking the Guinean poverty cycle requires a multifaceted approach involving more resources and the building of several national capabilities. Traditional approaches tend to fail.

Research limitations/implications

Limitations come from the level of abstraction used in the model, which does not detail the processes for building specific capabilities and their interrelationships, and the necessary exclusion of variables that may have an impact in the process. Considering implications, the study models the evolution of human development index (HDI) in Guinea-Bissau, linking it to the economy and political sectors and allowing the simulation of different scenarios.

Practical implications

The study presents a critical stance towards common recommendations from international agencies, and it provides a blueprint for development of more effective public policies.

Social implications

Overcoming the poverty trap in sub-Saharan countries remains a challenge for the international community. The study aims at helping in the process of integrating different frameworks into a compact and manageable model.

Originality/value

The study contributes to the system dynamics and economic development literatures by presenting an integrative model of human development in Guinea-Bissau. There is no study in the system dynamics literature modelling the relationship of HDI to economy and political sectors while different and contradictory points of view characterize the economics literature, leaving well-meaning public officials in Guinea-Bissau at a loss of mental models to tackle the poverty trap in the country.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 47 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

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Article

Hamilton Coimbra Carvalho and José Afonso Mazzon

The purpose of this paper is to bring forth the limitations of some important models of cognition and behavior adopted by social marketers and present important findings…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to bring forth the limitations of some important models of cognition and behavior adopted by social marketers and present important findings from recent lines of research that contribute to a fine‐grained understanding of human behavior.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a conceptual paper that presents a review of several theoretical approaches to human cognition and behavior and their implications regarding social marketing campaigns.

Findings

It is concluded that the assumptions underlying traditional models of behavior need to be revised, especially the assumption that human beings are rational decision makers – the prototypical homo economicus. Behavioral science has revealed that people are far from being rational and are prone to be influenced by myriad factors, some deemed irrelevant under rational models. Social marketing interventions have greater probability of success when they rely on more realistic assumptions of human behavior.

Research limitations/implications

Social marketing needs to embrace the contributions of the several disciplines and lines of research centered on the study of all facets of human behavior, such as behavioral economics and dual‐system framework.

Practical implications

The main implications are: the recommendation to assume people are running on their System 1 when they are in contact with social marketing campaigns, the need to consider the interplay of systems and selves over time, the recommended emphasis on place strategies, and the need to avoid cash incentives and silver bullets.

Originality/value

The value of this paper is in contrasting the assumptions of traditional models of cognition and behavior widely used in social marketing with the evidence from several lines of research portraying influences in human behavior not accounted by those models.

Details

Journal of Social Marketing, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-6763

Keywords

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Article

Hamilton Coimbra Carvalho and Jose Afonso Mazzon

The purpose of this paper is to discuss a broader societal trend toward the full realization of human potential and the points of convergence with social marketing. The…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss a broader societal trend toward the full realization of human potential and the points of convergence with social marketing. The ultimate goal of social marketing is to increase social good. The paper defines social good in a new light and makes the connection to well-being clearer, proposing an agenda for social marketers and highlighting the opportunities for a better positioning of social marketing in the marketplace of ideas.

Design/methodology/approach

This conceptual paper presents an overview of concepts and evidence on the drivers of human well-being. It also discusses some important questions at a broader societal level, such as the role of money and income on happiness and well-being. It presents the connections between this body of knowledge and social marketing, including a literature review from both fields.

Findings

Eliminating ill-being no longer seems satisfactory from a societal point of view in the current Zeitgeist. Societies have been searching for ways to alleviate illnesses and to increase the well-being of its citizens. Social marketing, as a powerful social technology for behavior change, must be part of this broader movement, achieving a better positioning in the marketplace of ideas. The paper proposes a six-point agenda to reach these goals.

Research limitations/implications

The main theoretical implication is a call for social marketers to see the ultimate goal of the discipline (social good) under a new lens. This requires an update in the conceptual frameworks that orient the discipline. Another implication is the need for better upstream conceptual models in social marketing.

Practical implications

The paper suggest some practical implications, such as the opportunity to expand social marketing to countries that do not use it, the use of well-being drivers as inputs, means and outcomes in social marketing programs, and the role of the discipline in both alleviating poverty and in demarketing efforts.

Originality/value

The paper contributes by taking an outside perspective and a transdisciplinary approach. The fulfillment of human potential demands the attention to different drivers of human behavior and the search for new social solutions. It also requires a clear understanding of the role of factors like money and social connectedness. This paper approaches these questions with answers grounded on the existing evidence while providing some points for the development of social marketing theory and practice.

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Article

– This paper aims to review the latest management developments across the globe and pinpoint practical implications from cutting-edge research and case studies.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to review the latest management developments across the globe and pinpoint practical implications from cutting-edge research and case studies.

Design/methodology/approach

This briefing is prepared by an independent writer who adds their own impartial comments and places the articles in context.

Findings

Eliminating ill-being no longer seems satisfactory from a societal point of view in the current Zeitgeist. Societies have been searching for ways to alleviate illnesses and to increase the well-being of its citizens. Social marketing, as a powerful social technology for behavior change, must be part of this broader movement, achieving a better positioning in the marketplace of ideas. The paper proposes a six-point agenda to reach these goals.

Practical implications

The paper provides strategic insights and practical thinking that have influenced some of the world’s leading organizations.

Originality/value

The briefing saves busy executives and researchers hours of reading time by selecting only the very best, most pertinent information and presenting it in a condensed and easy-to-digest format.

Details

Strategic Direction, vol. 31 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0258-0543

Keywords

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Article

Joy Parkinson, Lisa Schuster and Rebekah Russell-Bennett

This paper aims to integrate existing thinking and provide new insights into the complexity of behaviours to improve understanding of the nature of these behaviours. This…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to integrate existing thinking and provide new insights into the complexity of behaviours to improve understanding of the nature of these behaviours. This paper expands social marketing theory by introducing the Motivation–Opportunity–Ability–Behaviour (MOAB) framework to assist in understanding the nature of social marketing behaviours by extending the Motivation–Opportunity–Ability (MOA) framework.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a conceptual paper that proposes the MOAB framework to understand the complexity of behaviours.

Findings

This new tool will provide social marketers with an improved understanding of the differences between behaviours targeted by social marketers. Specifically, it provides a definition and application of complexity in social marketing that will facilitate the development of consumer insights and subsequent social marketing programs that more sufficiently account for the complexity of target behaviours.

Research limitations/implications

This proposed MOAB framework offers a foundation for future research to expand upon. Further research is recommended to empirically test the proposed framework.

Originality/value

This paper seeks to advance the theoretical base of social marketing by providing new insights to understand the nature of the behaviour in social marketing to assist social marketers to move beyond attempts to treat all behaviours as if they are the same.

Details

Journal of Social Marketing, vol. 6 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-6763

Keywords

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Article

Fernanda Leão, Delfina Gomes and Garry D. Carnegie

The purpose of this paper is to study the portrayal of early accountants in the unfamiliar site of Portugal by examining Portuguese-language realist literature from the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the portrayal of early accountants in the unfamiliar site of Portugal by examining Portuguese-language realist literature from the second half of the nineteenth century.

Design/methodology/approach

Two popular literary works – Uma Família Inglesa (An English Family), written by Júlio Dinis and published in 1867, and Singularidades de uma Rapariga Loura (The Idiosyncrasies of a Young Blonde Woman), written by Eça de Queirós and published in 1873 – were examined through a qualitative content analysis.

Findings

The dimensions of the accounting stereotype discerned for the two early accounting practitioners featured in these works are portrayed as: modest; on-the-job trained practitioner; uncreative, conservative and unenergetic; honest financial manager; servant of the capitalist (i.e. merchant), and warm and sentimental. The accountant stereotype depicted from 1860s to 1870s period is similar to the conventional accountant stereotype, identified as the “traditional accountant” stereotype. Variations from this stereotype, however, are identified in the local, time-specific settings of Lisbon and Oporto.

Originality/value

The study’s portrayal of early accounting practitioners occurs during a period of transformation marked by liberalism. It augments an understanding of the image of early accounting practitioners, reflecting their social positioning at a time of significant social, economic, political and cultural changes, thereby contributing to an appreciation of the historical legacy of the accountant stereotype in continental Europe. Importantly, a taxonomy is proposed for content analysis that can be used and developed by future researchers.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 32 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

Keywords

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Article

Liwei Hsu and Yen-Jung Chen

Visual stimulation affects the taste of food and beverages. This study aimed to understand how latte art affects coffee consumption by collecting participants' brainwave…

Abstract

Purpose

Visual stimulation affects the taste of food and beverages. This study aimed to understand how latte art affects coffee consumption by collecting participants' brainwave data and their taste responses.

Design/methodology/approach

Seventy subjects participated in a two-stage experiment. Electroencephalography (EEG) was employed to measure brainwave activity. With an interval of one week, each stage involved coffee consumption with and without latte art. The responses to the taste of the coffee were also collected for analysis.

Findings

Significant differences were found in the participants' alpha and beta brainwave bands. When drinking coffee with latte art, the participants' alpha bands were significantly lower, whereas the beta bands were higher. These findings were supported by Bayesian statistics. A significant increase was found in the participants' taste of sweetness and acidity with latte art, and Bayesian statistics confirmed the results for sweetness although the evidence on the increase in acidity was anecdotal. No difference was found in the taste of bitterness.

Originality/value

This study highlights the effect of latte art on coffee consumption. The authors analysed the empirical evidence from this two-stage experimental study in the form of the participants' brainwave data and their responses to taste. This study's original contribution is that it explored the crossmodal effects of latte art on consumers' taste of coffee from a neuroscientific perspective. The results of this study can provide empirical evidence on how to effectively use latte art in practical business environments.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 123 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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