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Book part
Publication date: 15 December 1998

J.D. Addison and B.G. Heydecker

This paper investigates the temporal inflow profile that minimises the total cost of travel for a single route. The problem is formulated to consider the case in which the…

Abstract

This paper investigates the temporal inflow profile that minimises the total cost of travel for a single route. The problem is formulated to consider the case in which the total demand to be serviced is fixed. The approach used here is a direct calculation of the first order variation of total system cost with respect to variations in the inflow profile. Two traffic models are considered; the bottleneck with deterministic queue and the kinematic wave model. For the bottleneck model a known solution is recovered. The wave model proves more difficult and after eliminating the possibility of a smooth inflow profile the restricted case of constant inflow is solved. As the space of possible profiles is finite dimensional in this case, the standard techniques of calculus apply. We establish a pair of equations that are satisfied simultaneously by the optimal inflow and time of first departure.

Details

Mathematics in Transport Planning and Control
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-08-043430-8

Article
Publication date: 1 October 2003

Mohammed B. Hemraj

Analyses the emergence of tortious liability on solicitors and the damages awarded against them for negligence in preparing wills, ie testamentary disposition, when this…

Abstract

Analyses the emergence of tortious liability on solicitors and the damages awarded against them for negligence in preparing wills, ie testamentary disposition, when this causes losses to beneficiaries recognisable in law; it is no longer the case that actions by clients against solicitors are always for breach of contract. Traces how negligence has been established as an independent tort, and shows how absence of privity does not debar a claim. Discusses the landmark case of Ross v Caunters, which showed that liability could be to a third party, ie the beneficiary of a will that was made void by solicitor negligence; discusses how the duty of care was ascertained in this and other cases. Outlines the control mechanisms that a third party has to prove before a court decides that a solicitor is liable: reliance on the solicitor, whether there is a causal link between negligence and loss, proximity and foreseeability; there is also the concept of fair, just and reasonable. Covers lastly the issues of unjust enrichment of unintended beneficiaries, professional indemnity insurance, social policy objectives for awarding damages, and the bounds of liability.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 May 2022

Mustafa Onur Savaşkan and Ozan Önder Özener

This article presents a case study on the Heritage Building Information Modeling (H-BIM) application in a historic village in Bursa, Turkey. The study addresses how…

Abstract

Purpose

This article presents a case study on the Heritage Building Information Modeling (H-BIM) application in a historic village in Bursa, Turkey. The study addresses how tailor-made and highly structured H-BIM approaches can effectively be implemented in preservation applications for historic vernacular buildings in the rural architecture context.

Design/methodology/approach

Using inexpensive digital photogrammetry techniques tightly combined with an object-oriented BIM ontology, parametric meta-modeling and object/system propagation methods, the study employed a holistic H-BIM approach for capturing the materiality, building object behaviors and indigenous construction principles of a characteristic vernacular house that were synthesized in a parametric H-BIM model. The followed stages, steps and connected methods were systematized and articulated in a prototypical H-BIM implementation framework.

Findings

The study findings suggested that the developed parametric H-BIM approach can return effective results with the combined use of low-cost and practical digital photogrammetry with BIM methods. The flexibility and adaptability of the parametric H-BIM implementation framework facilitated the synthesis of a comprehensive H-BIM model and allowed an in-depth evaluation of local architectural heritage with its physical, spatial and environmental characteristics. The proposed H-BIM approach also provided significant documentation and system-specific assessment benefits for preserving the vernacular examples which are prone to extinction especially due to structural and systemic deterioration.

Originality/value

The study proposes a feasible, practical and replicable H-BIM implementation methodology for vernacular preservation applications. The knowledge-embedded H-BIM approach, flows and techniques presented in this study provide a holistic and systematic H-BIM framework – with the integrated use of digital photogrammetry and parametric meta-modeling methods – that has the potential for the democratization of H-BIM applications in education and practice.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 May 2022

Yanfei Lu, Futian Weng and Hongli Sun

This paper aims to introduce a novel algorithm to solve initial/boundary value problems of high-order ordinary differential equations (ODEs) and high-order system of…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to introduce a novel algorithm to solve initial/boundary value problems of high-order ordinary differential equations (ODEs) and high-order system of ordinary differential equations (SODEs).

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed method is based on Hermite polynomials and extreme learning machine (ELM) algorithm. The Hermite polynomials are chosen as basis function of hidden neurons. The approximate solution and its derivatives are expressed by utilizing Hermite network. The model function is designed to automatically meet the initial or boundary conditions. The network parameters are obtained by solving a system of linear equations using the ELM algorithm.

Findings

To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, a variety of differential equations are selected and their numerical solutions are obtained by utilizing the Hermite extreme learning machine (H-ELM) algorithm. Experiments on the common and random data sets indicate that the H-ELM model achieves much higher accuracy, lower complexity but stronger generalization ability than existed methods. The proposed H-ELM algorithm could be a good tool to solve higher order linear ODEs and higher order linear SODEs.

Originality/value

The H-ELM algorithm is developed for solving higher order linear ODEs and higher order linear SODEs; this method has higher numerical accuracy and stronger superiority compared with other existing methods.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 May 2022

Xiangqian Sheng, Wenliang Fan, Qingbin Zhang and Zhengling Li

The polynomial dimensional decomposition (PDD) method is a popular tool to establish a surrogate model in several scientific areas and engineering disciplines. The…

Abstract

Purpose

The polynomial dimensional decomposition (PDD) method is a popular tool to establish a surrogate model in several scientific areas and engineering disciplines. The selection of appropriate truncated polynomials is the main topic in the PDD. In this paper, an easy-to-implement adaptive PDD method with a better balance between precision and efficiency is proposed.

Design/methodology/approach

First, the original random variables are transformed into corresponding independent reference variables according to the statistical information of variables. Second, the performance function is decomposed as a summation of component functions that can be approximated through a series of orthogonal polynomials. Third, the truncated maximum order of the orthogonal polynomial functions is determined through the nonlinear judgment method. The corresponding expansion coefficients are calculated through the point estimation method. Subsequently, the performance function is reconstructed through appropriate orthogonal polynomials and known expansion coefficients.

Findings

Several examples are investigated to illustrate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method compared with the other methods in reliability analysis.

Originality/value

The number of unknown coefficients is significantly reduced, and the computational burden for reliability analysis is eased accordingly. The coefficient evaluation for the multivariate component function is decoupled with the order judgment of the variable. The proposed method achieves a good trade-off of efficiency and accuracy for reliability analysis.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 5 April 2022

Yang Liu and In-Mu Haw

For Chinese companies that cross-list in Chinese A share and Hong Kong (H share) markets, the H share price has been consistently lower than the A share price by an…

Abstract

Purpose

For Chinese companies that cross-list in Chinese A share and Hong Kong (H share) markets, the H share price has been consistently lower than the A share price by an average of 85% in recent years. This is puzzling because most institutional differences between the two markets have been eliminated since 2007. The purpose of this study is to explain the puzzle of the price difference of A+H companies.

Design/methodology/approach

Using all A and H share Chinese firms in the period 2007–2013 and a simultaneous equations approach, this study identifies three new explanations for the recent price difference.

Findings

First, utilizing a unique earning quality measure that is directly related to non-persistent components of fair value accounting under International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), this study finds that the lower the earnings quality, the lower the H share price relative to the A share price, and hence the greater the price difference. Second, the higher the myopic investor ownership in A share firms, the larger the A share price relative to the H share price. Third, the short-selling mechanism introduced to the A share market since 2010 helps reduce the price difference.

Originality/value

First, this study identifies three new explanations for the puzzle of the AH price difference which remains substantial even after the institutional and accounting standards differences between the two markets were eliminated. Second, we examine the impact of the implementation of fair value accounting under IFRS in an emerging market on the pricing difference of cross-listed shares and reveal that it can induce an unintended negative consequence on the pricing difference of cross-listed shares. Third, this study contributes to the literature on short sales by providing its mitigating role in pricing differences across two different markets. Finally, this study makes improvements in research design, which utilizes a unique measure of earnings quality that is directly related to the implementation of IFRS and a simultaneous equations approach that minimizes endogeneity concern.

Details

China Accounting and Finance Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1029-807X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 April 2022

Lei Zhang, Huanbin Xue, Zeying Li and Yong Wei

The purpose of this paper is to study the dynamic behavior of complex-valued switched grey neural network models (SGNMs) with distributed delays when the system parameters…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the dynamic behavior of complex-valued switched grey neural network models (SGNMs) with distributed delays when the system parameters and external input are grey numbers.

Design/methodology/approach

Firstly, by using the properties of grey matrix, M-matrix theory and Homeomorphic mapping, the existence and uniqueness of equilibrium point of the SGNMs were discussed. Secondly, by constructing a proper Lyapunov functional and using the average dwell time approach and inequality technique, the robust exponential stability of the SGNMs under restricted switching was studied. Finally, a numerical example is given to verify the effectiveness of the proposed results.

Findings

Sufficient conditions for the existence and uniqueness of equilibrium point of the SGNMs have been established; sufficient conditions for guaranteeing the robust stability of the SGNMs under restricted switching have been obtained.

Originality/value

(1) Different from asymptotic stability, the exponential stability of SGNMs which include grey parameters and distributed time delays will be investigated in this paper, and the exponential convergence rate of the SGNMs can also be obtained; (2) the activation functions, self-feedback coefficients and interconnected matrices are with different forms in different subnetworks; and (3) the results obtained by LMIs approach are complicated, while the proposed sufficient conditions are straightforward, which are conducive to practical applications.

Details

Grey Systems: Theory and Application, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-9377

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 April 2022

Tianmeng Fan and Yuhong Wang

The purpose of this study is to build a consensus model of social network group decision-making (SNGDM) based on improved PageRank algorithm. By objectively and fairly…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to build a consensus model of social network group decision-making (SNGDM) based on improved PageRank algorithm. By objectively and fairly measuring the evaluation ability of participants in the decision-making process, the authors can improve the fairness and authenticity of the weight solution of decision-makers (DM) in the decision-making process. This ensures the reliability of the final group consensus results.

Design/methodology/approach

This study mainly includes six parts: preference expression, calculation of DM's weight, preference aggregation, consensus measurement, opinion adjustment and alternative selection. First, Pythagorean fuzzy expression is introduced to express the preference of DMs, which expands the scope of preference expression of DMs. Second, based on the social network structure among DMs, the process of “mutual judgment” among DMs is increased to measure the evaluation ability of DMs. On this basis, the PageRank algorithm is improved to calculate the weight of DMs. This makes the process of reaching consensus more objective and fair. Third, in order to minimize the evaluation difference between groups and individuals, a preference aggregation model based on plant growth simulation algorithm (PGSA) is proposed to aggregate group preferences. Fourth, the consensus index of DMs is calculated from three levels to judge whether the consensus degree reaches the preset value. Fifth, considering the interaction of DMs in the social network, the evaluation value to achieve the required consensus degree is adjusted according to the DeGroot model to obtain the overall consensus. Finally, taking the group preference as the reference, the ranking of alternatives is determined by using the Pythagorean fuzzy score function.

Findings

This paper proposes a consensus model of SNGDM based on improved PageRank algorithm to aggregate expert preference information. A numerical case of product evaluation is introduced, and the feasibility and effectiveness of the model are explained through sensitivity analysis and comparative analysis. The results show that this method can solve the problem of reaching consensus in SNGDM.

Originality/value

Different DMs may have different judgment criteria for the same decision-making problem, and the angle and depth of considering the problem will also be different. By increasing the process of mutual evaluation of DMs, the evaluation ability of each DM is judged only from the decision-making problem itself. In this way, the evaluation opinions recognized by most DMs will form the mainstream of opinions, and the influence of corresponding DMs will increase. Therefore, in order to improve the fairness and reliability of the consensus process, this study measures the real evaluation ability of DMs by increasing the “mutual judgment” process. On this basis, the defect of equal treatment of PageRank algorithm in calculating the weight of DMs is improved. This ensures the authenticity and objectivity of the weight of DMs. That is to improve the effectiveness of the whole evaluation mechanism. This method considers both the influence of DMs in the social network and their own evaluation level. The weight of DMs is calculated from two aspects: sociality and professionalism. It provides a new method and perspective for the calculation of DM’s weight in SNGDM.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 April 2022

Shijie Dai, Wenhua Zhang, Wenbin Ji, Yufeng Zhao, Hongwei Zheng, Jiaheng Mu, Pengwei Li and Riqing Deng

Considering the influence of environmental noise and modeling error during the process of the robotic automatic grinding aero-engine blade, this study aims to propose a…

Abstract

Purpose

Considering the influence of environmental noise and modeling error during the process of the robotic automatic grinding aero-engine blade, this study aims to propose a method based on the extended state observer (ESO) to reduce the fluctuation of normal grinding force.

Design/methodology/approach

First, the measurement range of the six-dimensional force sensor is calibrated according to the maximum acceleration of end-effector and grinding force. Second, the gravity and zero drift compensation model is built to compensate for measurement error. Finally, the switching function is designed based on the difference between the expected grinding force and the actual feedback value. When the value of function stays within the switching band, a nonlinear active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) loop is applied. When the function value reaches outside the switching band, an ESO-based sliding mode control (SMC) loop is applied.

Findings

The simulated and experimental results show that the proposed control method has higher robustness compared with proportion-integral-derivative (PID), Fuzzy PID and ADRC.

Research limitations/implications

The processing parameters of this paper are obtained based on the single-factor experiment without considering the correlation between these variables. A new control strategy is proposed, which is not only used to control the grinding force of blades but also promotes the development of industrial control.

Originality/value

ESO is used to observe environmental interference and modeling errors of the system for real-time compensation. The segment control method consisting of ESO-based SMC and ESO-based ADRC is designed to improve the robustness. The common application of the two parts realizes suppression of fluctuation of grinding force.

Details

Industrial Robot: the international journal of robotics research and application, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 April 2022

Khursheed Muhammad, Tasawar Hayat and Bashir Ahmad

This study aims to explore the combined impacts of velocity and thermal slips on hybrid nanomaterial (GO+Ag+kerosene oil) bounded between two parallel infinite walls…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore the combined impacts of velocity and thermal slips on hybrid nanomaterial (GO+Ag+kerosene oil) bounded between two parallel infinite walls (plates). Both the walls are separated by a distance. The upper wall is subjected to squeezing with velocity, while the lower wall stretches with velocity. A uniform magnetic field acts normally to the flow. Moreover, heat transmission is analyzed in the presence of Joule heating. Heat transport characteristics are investigated by imposing the Cattaneo–Christov (C–C) heat flux model. The behavior of velocities, skin friction and temperature under sundry variables are examined graphically.

Design/methodology/approach

The obtained partial differential equations (PDEs) related to the considered problem are nondimensionalized by choosing appropriated variables. These nondimensional PDEs are then solved by the numerical technique, finite difference method (FDM). For implementation of this method, the obtained nondimensional PDEs are converted into finite difference equations (FDEs) using forward difference (FD) toolkits.

Findings

Velocity of the hybrid nanomaterial decreases with higher Hartman number and velocity slip parameter, while it increases with increase in Reynolds and squeezing numbers. Temperature of the hybrid nanomaterial increases for large Hartman number, Eckert number and squeezing parameter, while it is reduced by higher thermal slip parameter, thermal relaxation time parameter and nanoparticle volume fractions for graphene oxide (GO) and silver (Ag). Skin friction is controlled through higher Reynolds number, while it intensifies with nanoparticle volume fractions for GO and Ag.

Originality/value

Here, the authors have investigated 2D flow of hybrid nanomaterial bounded between two parallel walls. The lower and upper walls are subjected to stretching and squeezing, respectively. The authors guarantee that all outcomes and numerical technique (FDM) results are original, neither submitted nor published in any journal before.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 273000