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Article
Publication date: 1 September 1996

Marilyn Stephens

Global marketing expansion is being widely promoted in both the professional and domestic communities. Domestic markets alone cannot provide the revenue and growth…

Abstract

Global marketing expansion is being widely promoted in both the professional and domestic communities. Domestic markets alone cannot provide the revenue and growth opportunities required by many business organizations. Many business firms want to sell in international markets but lack the expertise and financial resources to sell overseas effectively. In domestic markets, manufacturers’ representatives currently provide the sales function for many such firms, especially small manufacturers. Investigates the potential role that manufacturers’ representatives will play in global marketing expansion. A survey of 119 representative agencies was made to identify and study their experiences and/or perceptions about expanding their client base to world markets. Results show that 60 per cent of representatives were optimistic about their future opportunities in a global economy but were hardly aggressive (up to now) when it comes to entering world markets. Over 80 per cent of the representatives had enquiries from foreign principals, but only 47 per cent initiated the contacts. Moreover, only 23 per cent sought global markets for their current principals’ products.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 14 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

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Article
Publication date: 2 March 2021

Xiaobing Zhao

This paper investigates the global financial integration of the Gulf Cooperation Council markets, which is important for financial economists, global investors and policymakers.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper investigates the global financial integration of the Gulf Cooperation Council markets, which is important for financial economists, global investors and policymakers.

Design/methodology/approach

The first step is to estimate a benchmark one-factor model and multifactor models over the entire sample period to obtain the time-invariant global integration estimates for the Gulf Cooperation Council markets. Because the global integration of the Gulf Cooperation Council markets may be time varying, the second step is to use 24-month rolling regressions to estimate the time-varying integration estimates. To explicitly test for structural breaks in global integration, this study applies a supremum Wald test to endogenously search for structural breaks.

Findings

Empirically, consistent evidence suggests that the Gulf Cooperation Council markets are increasingly integrated with international equity markets at different levels of financial development and from different regions. However, compared to other emerging and frontier markets, the global integration of the Gulf Cooperation Council markets is still relatively low, suggesting that these markets still offer significant diversification benefits for global investors.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the literature by systematically investigating the global integration of the Gulf Cooperation Council markets with monthly data (to account for the gradual information diffusion in international equity markets) and a longer sample period (to more robustly identify the trend in the global integration).

Details

Journal of Economic and Administrative Sciences, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1026-4116

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Article
Publication date: 24 September 2020

Mehmet Emin Yildiz, Yaman Omer Erzurumlu and Bora Kurtulus

The beta coefficient used for the cost of equity calculation is at the heart of the valuation process. This study conducts comparative analyses of the classical capital…

Abstract

Purpose

The beta coefficient used for the cost of equity calculation is at the heart of the valuation process. This study conducts comparative analyses of the classical capital asset pricing model (CAPM) and downside CAPM risk parameters to gain further insight into which risk parameter leads to better performing risk measures at explaining stock returns.

Design/methodology/approach

The study conducts a comparative analysis of 16 risk measures at explaining the stock returns of 4531 companies of 20 developed and 25 emerging market index for 2000–2018. The analyses are conducted using both the global and local indices and both USD and local currency returns. Calculated risk measures are analyzed in a panel data setup using a univariate model. Results are investigated in country-specific and model-specific subsets.

Findings

The results show that (1) downside betas are better than CAPM betas at explaining the stock returns, (2) both risk measure groups perform better for emerging markets, (3) global downside beta model performs better than global beta model, implying the existence of the contagion effect, (4) high significance levels of total risk and unsystematic risk measures further support the shortfall of CAPM betas and (5) higher correlation of markets after negative shocks such as pandemics puts global CAPM based downside beta to a more reliable position.

Research limitations/implications

The data are limited to the index securities as beta could be time varying.

Practical implications

Results overall provide insight into the cost of equity calculation and emerging market assets valuation.

Originality/value

The framework and methodology enable us to compare and contrast CAPM and downside-CAPM risk measures at the firm level, at the global/local level and in terms of the level of market development.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

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Article
Publication date: 31 October 2008

Van R. Wood, Dennis A. Pitta and Frank J. Franzak

This paper aims to contend that four significant ideas must be comprehended, and their connection and interaction understood if successful marketing to the 4 to 5 billion…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to contend that four significant ideas must be comprehended, and their connection and interaction understood if successful marketing to the 4 to 5 billion undeserved bottom of the pyramid (BOP) people in the world, by multinational firms is to be realized. These ideas are: the bottom of the pyramid (BOP) market itself; share of the heart versus consumer animosity; the nature and influence of global “umbrella” brands and responsible marketing as a guiding principle for all firms including those focusing on the BOP. Each of these ideas, in and of itself, represents an important dimension in today's global business environment, but taken together they offer a clearer understanding of how companies, particularly multinational companies, can do well (profit) and do good (improve humanity).

Design/methodology/approach

The paper briefly overviews the BOP literature, highlighting those parts most relevant to this work; expands upon the notion of “share of heart” and its twin components consumer affinity and consumer animosity; delineates the nature and impact of global “umbrella” brands in BOP marketing; synopsizes the notion of “responsible marketing” in the BOP context, and proposes a conceptual scheme of how these ideas are connected, how they interact in today's business world, and how they can lead to ongoing business success.

Findings

Mutlinational firms (MNFs) wishing to successfully pursue BOP markets need to blend their understanding of BOP uniqueness, with a clear understanding of the other three concepts, namely share of heart, gobal umbrella brands and responsible marketing. Tapping the potential of the BOP requires not only radicallly lowered priced products but also consumers with higher income. Marketers must address both parts of the problem since acting on either in isolation will not be effective.

Originality/value

Global umbrella brands of the rich world (BrandAmerica, EuroBrand, BrandNippon, etc.) must also play a part in successful BOP marketing. The future of such global umbrella brands lies to a great degree with BOP markets as these markets are still growing, and thus represent and will continue to represent either enormous partners or enormous rivals. MNFs that truly understand the nature, scope and potential of BOP markets, and act in concert to market responsibly to consumers in such markets, will not only garner the needed share of heart related to long‐term success in such markets, but will see their own global umbrella brand continue to thrive and prosper in the ever evolving global market arena.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 25 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 23 August 2011

Sreedhar Madhavaram, Vishag Badrinarayanan and Elad Granot

This paper aims to attempt to develop an integrative theoretical framework that approaches global industrial marketing from a managerial cognition perspective.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to attempt to develop an integrative theoretical framework that approaches global industrial marketing from a managerial cognition perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing from the managerial cognition research, business strategy research, and international business research, this paper develops a theoretical framework that is relevant to global industrial marketing.

Findings

Global industrial marketing research has much to gain from the managerial cognition literature. The framework developed in this article presents relevant managerial cognition variables, their individual and firm level antecedents, and desirable outcomes.

Research limitations/implications

The framework presented in this paper provides strong theoretical foundation for further theory development in global industrial marketing research and managerial cognition research. However, given the conceptual nature of our research, empirical scrutiny and further conceptual and empirical research are required.

Originality/value

Given the growing importance of global industrial marketing, the authors hope that this article provides a theoretical foundation for future research. For practitioners, the framework provides a useful starting point for evaluating managerial cognition in their firms and effective usage of the managerial cognition concept.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 26 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article
Publication date: 8 July 2014

Ahmet Bayraktar and Nelson Oly Ndubisi

This research aims at contributing to international marketing literature by reconsidering the drivers of firms’ globalization and global market performance in the light of…

Abstract

Purpose

This research aims at contributing to international marketing literature by reconsidering the drivers of firms’ globalization and global market performance in the light of organizational mindfulness concept.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on industrial organization theory, resource-based view and literature on organizational mindfulness, a conceptual framework is presented to characterize how organizational mindfulness impacts firms’ globalization process and global market performance. In total, 14 propositions are extracted.

Findings

This paper proposes that organizational mindfulness plays a significant role in firms’ entry into foreign markets, global extension and global market performance. More specifically, organizational mindfulness positively moderates the relationships between external globalization drivers and the extent of firms’ globalization. In addition, organizational mindfulness is an antecedent to strategic processes, whereas it positively moderates the relationships between other internal drivers and firms’ globalization and global market performance. Furthermore, this paper suggests that country equity is a significant external globalization driver that also moderates the relationship between the extent of firms’ globalization and global market performance.

Research limitations/implications

The proposed framework contributes to international marketing research by integrating organizational mindfulness concept into the drivers of firms’ globalization and global market performance, and highlights its crucial role in the pursuit of opportunities in the global marketplace. The paper suggests that firms should create mindful organizations to expand its activities into global markets and achieve desirable global market performance. In other words, they should improve collective mindfulness to survive in today’s hyper-competitive markets.

Originality/value

The paper represents the first attempt that incorporates organizational mindfulness concept into firms’ globalization process. Highlighting the importance of developing mindful organizations, it reconsiders the drivers of firms’ global expansion and global market performance. Furthermore, it is the first attempt that introduces the country equity construct as an external driver of firms’ global extension and as a moderator between organizational reform measures and global market performance.

Details

Journal of Research in Marketing and Entrepreneurship, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1471-5201

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Article
Publication date: 4 February 2014

Jan-Benedict Steenkamp

The purpose of this paper is to propose a conceptual framework – the 4V model – for better understanding how global brands create firm value. Organized around the global

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a conceptual framework – the 4V model – for better understanding how global brands create firm value. Organized around the global brand value chain, the 4V model includes four sets of value-creating activities: first, valued brands; second, value sources; third, value delivery; and fourth, valued outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach is conceptual with illustrative examples.

Findings

The sources of global brand value and the processes through which global brands contribute to firm value differ systematically across types of global brands. This paper highlights interrelations and how different activities built upon and reinforce each other.

Research limitations/implications

The 4V model ties together broad strands of research conducted to date and offers insights into ways the paper might better understand and study global brands. It should inspire empirical research on the associations between the 4Vs.

Practical implications

International marketing managers should be able to develop and evaluate global brand strategies more effectively using the 4V model described in this paper. Linking their strategies to valued outcomes puts marketers more firmly at the level in the organization they deserve, namely, the C-Suite.

Originality/value

The framework offered in this paper is unique in that it blends insights obtained from multiple sources, namely, academic research, articles that appeared in the business press, case studies, and interactions with managers and policy makers around the world.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 18 September 2017

Nicholas Addai Boamah

The purpose of this paper is to examine the degree of integration of emerging markets with the world market and amongst them. Further, the impact of the 2008 global

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the degree of integration of emerging markets with the world market and amongst them. Further, the impact of the 2008 global financial crisis (GFC) on and structural breaks in the degree of integration are explored. The paper, additionally, analyses the behaviour of the level and the rate of change of the degree of integration around the period of the GFC.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper relies on the R2 from a single factor world and the incremental R2 from a two-factor world and emerging market models as proxies for the global and emerging markets degree of integration, respectively. Relying on the Quandt test for unknown structural breakdates, the paper examines structural breaks in the degree of integration.

Findings

The degree of global integration of emerging markets exceeds their degree of integration with themselves, particularly in the recent period. Additionally, the GFC is a significant driver of the recent increase in world market integration. We observe significant structural shifts in both the degree of the world and emerging markets integration measures. The breaks in the world market integration largely coincide with the GFC, whereas that of the emerging market integration is dispersed. Also, the level of the world market degree of integration has reversed recently, although, the degree of world market integration remains above pre-crisis point.

Practical implications

There exist high country-specific components in emerging market returns that are not accounted for by the world and emerging market factors despite the recent increase in global integration. Thusly, portfolios that diversify across emerging markets appear to have a high diversification potential. Additionally, substantial diversification gains may be realised with the inclusion of emerging market assets in global portfolios.

Originality/value

The paper shows that the emerging markets respond similarly to common global, although, diversely to emerging markets events. Additionally, evidence of the impacts of the GFC on the degree of global integration of emerging markets is presented.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

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Article
Publication date: 19 August 2011

Johny K. Johansson and Laurence Leigh

The purpose of this paper is to provide an empirical assessment of the degree to which global firms have penetrated markets in emerging countries in the new millennium…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide an empirical assessment of the degree to which global firms have penetrated markets in emerging countries in the new millennium. The focus is on the “big four” emerging countries of Brazil, Russia, India, and China (BRIC), and the study examines penetration in three product categories: beer, hair care, and carbonated soft drinks.

Design/methodology/approach

The conceptual development draws on a normative‐descriptive framework, predicting the behavior of multinationals from normative models of their strategic behavior. Predictions are evaluated against market share data for the multi‐domestic product categories.

Findings

Multinationals with strong global brands will introduce their global brands and be successful also in multi‐domestic local markets where preferences differ across countries. However, the key to success is not always their global brands, but could equally likely be an acquired local brand. Some local brands successfully defend their markets, and even venture abroad into neighboring regions.

Research limitations/implications

Globalization does not mean the success of global brands as much as success of global firms. In the end, the penetration of local emerging markets is not necessarily from global brands, but from global companies with acquired local brands.

Originality/value

The paper establishes that any fear of elimination of valued local brands is overblown. It also helps dispel the myth that emerging countries cannot develop strong international brands on their own. But one issue remains: the financial clout of global firms is difficult for emerging firms to counter.

Details

Multinational Business Review, vol. 19 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1525-383X

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2002

Göran Svensson

The topic of this article is the term “global marketing” and the phenomenon of the “globalization” of marketing activities. Global marketing is a theoretical concept that…

Abstract

The topic of this article is the term “global marketing” and the phenomenon of the “globalization” of marketing activities. Global marketing is a theoretical concept that in a managerial context is hardly applicable. Global marketing and the globalization of marketing activities have become a cliché among marketing scholars and marketing practitioners. Also introduced and discussed is the concept “glocal marketing” to fill the gap or vacuum between the theoretical concept of global marketing and the empirical phenomenon of the globalization of marketing activities applied both by marketing scholars and by marketing practitioners.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 40 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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