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Geology itself is a descriptive science (i.e., the description of landforms, rocks, etc.). To apply these observations geology depends heavily on the other sciences for…
Geology itself is a descriptive science (i.e., the description of landforms, rocks, etc.). To apply these observations geology depends heavily on the other sciences for data, theories, etc. Thus the geologist is very much dependent on works in chemistry, physics and biology (depending on his particular area of interest) in addition to those discussed here, and the reader is referred to the surveys in those fields.
This paper aims to review the known and anticipated medical geology problems in Ghana, to highlight the impact of some trace elements on human health and to reveal some…
This paper aims to review the known and anticipated medical geology problems in Ghana, to highlight the impact of some trace elements on human health and to reveal some essential aspects of medical geology on health.
Literature and empirical studies relating to medical geological issues in Ghana were reviewed. Secondary data were used in the present study such as case studies, reports, geological bulletins and published research studies.
High levels of heavy metals including arsenic, cadmium and mercury in gold extraction processes through artisanal small-scale mining have contributed to high concentrations of toxic elements in the environment. The distribution and availability of these elements in the environment are facilitated by the geological, chemical and local environmental activities that are irregularly spread exposing people mining areas to pollutions. Exposures to these elements in above and below baseline levels contributed to health implications including fluorosis, intellectual or developmental disability and death in some regions of Ghana. Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases linked to mining activities were also presented in this study. Similarly, non-communicable diseases can affect many people if correct measures are not considered. Following the geometric increase in mining activities, it is anticipated that deleterious environmental and health impacts associated with mining may persist in mining areas in Ghana. Reported implications and continuous contamination of water bodies in mining areas could result in high pollution levels beyond treatment for human use or destroy aquatic habitats and aquatic lives through acid drainage. Above-threshold concentrations of heavy metals in soils could bio-accumulate in crops, and this could pose deleterious public health implications on consumers. Continuous effects posed on the environment and public health may prompt communities, regulatory institutions and government to reduce or ban mineral development.
This review has significantly revealed potential public health issues from the impact on the natural environment and recommends that medical geologists work together with medical workers to devise preventive and therapeutic techniques to address many geology-related-health issues in Ghana.
The serial coverage and indexing policies of Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), Oceanic Abstracts, Biosis, and Georef were compared. Analyses indicated considerable overlap in serial sources in marine biology for ASFA, Oceanic Abstracts, and Georef. Biosis appeared to include the largest amount of material relevant to marine biology and Georef the largest relevant to marine geology. Oceanic Abstracts and Georef provided the most extensive general subject indexing, Biosis the most complete taxonomic indexing, and ASFA and Georef the easiest systems for geographic retrieval.
This chapter documents a study based on an international partnership between faculty members at SUNY Empire State College and Tecnológico de Monterrey-Chihuahua. The…
This chapter documents a study based on an international partnership between faculty members at SUNY Empire State College and Tecnológico de Monterrey-Chihuahua. The collaboration presented an excellent opportunity to integrate cultural issues into the geology course as well as interdisciplinary collaboration in the programming course. The objectives were to: (1) create and implement learning activities to help students understand that scientific and technological advances do not occur in isolation, and (2) to evaluate their effectiveness developing a multicultural perspective. We adapted and generalized the virtual team model of Hertel et al. (2005) to the design of group activities in an academic setting. A series of learning activities were developed, including an experiential learning group project aimed at helping with the first objective if the study. Overall, the collaboration was a success. We also discuss the challenges both we and the students faced.
Purpose – A geologist and sociologist have developed a pair of Earth resource courses to teach geology in global context and critical thinking and negotiation skills. The…
Purpose – A geologist and sociologist have developed a pair of Earth resource courses to teach geology in global context and critical thinking and negotiation skills. The energy and minerals courses emphasize the physical and geological sciences as well as an understanding of the political, social structural, cultural, economic, and environmental factors that influence resource extraction and use. We are seeking to develop the global citizenship skills students will need to participate in future discussions on Earth resource issues. To this end, active learning approaches involve students in group problem solving and negotiation.
Methodology – For five years we have been developing these courses and regularly assessing the accomplishment of course goals. Focus groups and before/after surveys guide course modifications.
Findings – Though limited, our evidence shows an increased awareness and willingness on the part of our students to engage in discussions searching for solutions to Earth resource issues. Geology students are enthusiastic about the content that goes beyond geology. Non-geology students appreciate knowing more of the science of Earth resources that help thereby providing critical insight and background for their interest in environmental and social problems.
Value of the paper – The L(SC)2 paradigm we have developed can be adopted or adapted to a variety of possible partnerships between the sciences and the social sciences and humanities. Studying Earth resource issues in global context connects the immediate concerns of consumers to the practices and problems of Earth resource extraction and processing around the world to better foster citizen involvement.
The main objective of the study is to identify the vulnerable areas for river‐line and flash flood hazard and its mitigation through GIS Database Management System (DBMS…
The main objective of the study is to identify the vulnerable areas for river‐line and flash flood hazard and its mitigation through GIS Database Management System (DBMS) of geo‐hydrometeorological parameters. The Dabka watershed constitutes a part of the Kosi Basin in the Lesser Himalaya, India in district Nainital has been selected for the case illustration.
The Dabka DBMS is constituted of three GIS (Geographic Information System) modules, i.e. geo‐informatics (consists of geomorphology, soils, geology and land use pattern, slope analysis, drainage density and drainage frequency), weather informatics (consists of daily, monthly and annual weather data about temperature, rainfall, humidity and evaporation) and hydro‐informatics (consist of runoff, sediment delivery, and denudation). The geo‐informatics and weather informatics modules carried out by comprehensive field work and GIS mapping than both modules used to carry out hydro‐informatics module. Through the integration and superimposing of spatial data and attribute data with their GIS layers of all these modules prepared Flood Hazard Index (FHI) to identify the level of vulnerability for flood hazards and their socio‐economic and environmental risks.
The results suggest that geo‐environmentally most stressed areas of barren land (i.e. river‐beds, flood plain, denudational hills, sites of debris flow, gullies, landslide prone areas etc.) have extreme vulnerability for flood hazard due to high rate of runoff, sediment load delivery and denudation during rainy season (i.e. respectively 84.56 l/s/km2, 78.60 t/km2 and 1.21 mm/year) whereas in geo‐environmentally least stressed dense forest areas (i.e. oak, pine and mixed forests) have low vulnerability due to low rate of stream runoff, sediment load delivery and denudation (i.e. respectively 20.67 l/s/km2, 19.50 t/km2 and 0.20 mm/year). The other frazzled geo‐environment which also found high vulnerable for flood hazard and their risks is agricultural land areas due to high rate of stream runoff, sediment load delivery and denudation rates (i.e. respectively 53.15 l/s/km2, 90.00 t/km2 and 0.92 mm/year).
For hydro‐informatics module it is quite difficult to monitor water and sediment discharge data from each and every stream of the Himalayan terrain due the steep and rugged topography. It requires strategic planning and trained man power as well as sufficient funds; therefore representative micro‐watershed approach of varied ecosystem followed for a three years (2006‐2008) period.
The study will have great scientific relevance in the field of river‐line flood and flash flood hazard and its socio‐economic and environmental risks prevention and management in Himalaya and other mountainous terrain of the world.
This study generated primary data on hydro‐informatics and weather informatics to integrate with geo‐informatics data for flood hazard assessment and mitigation as constitutes a part of multidisciplinary project, Department of Science and Technology (D.S.T.) Government of India.
The purpose of this paper aims to design an optimization control for tunnel boring machine (TBM) based on geological identification. For unknown geological condition, the…
The purpose of this paper aims to design an optimization control for tunnel boring machine (TBM) based on geological identification. For unknown geological condition, the authors need to identify them before further optimization. For fully considering multiple crucial performance of TBM, the authors establish an optimization problem for TBM so that it can be adapted to varying geology. That is, TBM can operate optimally under corresponding geology, which is called geology-adaptability.
This paper adopted k-nearest neighbor (KNN) algorithm with modification to identify geological conditions. The modification includes adjustment of weights in voting procedure and similarity distance measurement, which at suitable for engineering and enhance accuracy of prediction. The authors also design several key performances of TBM during operation, and built a multi-objective function. Further, the multi-objective function has been transformed into a single objective function by weighted-combination. The reformulated optimization was solved by genetic algorithm in the end.
This paper provides a support for decision-making in TBM control. Through proposed optimization control, the advance speed of TBM has been enhanced dramatically in each geological condition, compared with the results before optimizing. Meanwhile, other performances are acceptable and the method is verified by in situ data.
This paper fulfills an optimization control of TBM considering several key performances during excavating. The optimization is conducted under different geological conditions so that TBM has geological-adaptability.