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Article
Publication date: 27 July 2021

Cong Liu, Yanguo Yin, Baohong Tong and Guotao Zhang

This study aims to investigate the effect of MoS2 powder on tribological properties of sliding interfaces.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the effect of MoS2 powder on tribological properties of sliding interfaces.

Design/methodology/approach

Loose MoS2 powder was introduced in the gap of point-contact friction pairs, and sliding friction test was conducted using a testing machine. Friction noise, wear mark appearance, microstructure and wear debris were characterized with a noise tester, white-light interferometer, scanning electron microscope and ferrograph, respectively. Numerical simulation was also performed to analyze the influence of MoS2 powder on tribological properties of the sliding interface.

Findings

MoS2 powder remarkably improved the lubrication performance of the sliding interface, whose friction coefficient and wear rate were reduced by one-fifth of the interface values without powder. The addition of MoS2 powder also reduced stress, plastic deformation and friction temperature in the wear mark. The sliding interface with MoS2 powder demonstrated lower friction noise and roughness compared with the interface without powder lubrication. The adherence of MoS2 powder onto the friction interface formed a friction film, which induced the wear mechanism of the sliding interface to change from serious cutting and adhesive wear to delamination and slight cutting wear under the action of normal and shear forces.

Originality/value

Tribological characteristics of the interface with MoS2 powder lubrication were clarified. This work provides a theoretical basis for solid-powder lubrication and reference for its application in engineering.

Peer review

The peer review history for this article is available at: https://publons.com/publon/10.1108/ILT-04-2020-0150/

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 73 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 3 June 2014

Alicja Laber

The purpose of this paper is to present the results of research into using an additive to SAE 15W/40 engine oil during operation and its influence on lubricating…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present the results of research into using an additive to SAE 15W/40 engine oil during operation and its influence on lubricating properties (normalised tests) on weld point Pz, non-seizure load Pn, load wear index Ih and on seizure load Pt. The friction pair consisted of a group of four balls and the tested lubricant. Moreover, the author tested the influence of an additive to engine oil (non-normalised tests) on tribological properties, including friction force, wear and the temperature of friction area for the C45 steel/210Cr12 steel friction joint. She also determined the influence of an additive to engine oil on the formation of the operating surface layer. The research results helped to build the model of the boundary layer that was formed as a result of adding an additive to engine oil.

Design/methodology/approach

The lubricant properties of engine oil and engine oil to which an additive was added during operation were determined according to PN-76/C-04147. The following are the indexes of lubricant properties: weld point Pz, load wear index Ih, non-seizure load Pn, seizure load and average scar diameter. The Pz, Pn and Ih indexes were determined at abruptly increasing load to the moment of welding of the friction pair. The Pt index was determined at the increasing load of the friction pair from 0 to 800 daN at the speed of 408.8 N/s. The tests of tribological properties (friction force, wear and the temperature of friction area) were conducted for the C45/210 Cr12 friction pair in the presence of a lubricant and a lubricant with an additive.

Findings

The modification of SAE 15W/40 engine oil with the additive added during operation resulted in improved indexes of lubricant properties Pz, Pn, Ih and Pt and average scar diameter. The boundary layer for the modified oil breaks after a longer time and at lesser friction force. The modification of the engine oil reduced the wear of the friction pair. After the friction process, element composition in the surface layer of the wear trace and its distribution were determined in relation to applied lubricants. A significant amount of sulphur, phosphorus and oxygen, as well as an insignificant amount of copper, was observed in the wear trace after the friction process in the presence of the lubricant medium. The distribution of elements in the wear trace when the engine oil with the additive was used is steady in the wear trace and outside it. Some sulphur, phosphorus and chlorine were found in the wear trace.

Originality/value

The results of tests on tribological properties (non-normalised tests) confirmed the positive affect of the additive to engine oil on lubricant properties (normalised tests). The modification of the engine oil caused reduced friction force and the reduced wear of the friction pair. The reduction of friction force and wear was the result of the formation of the surface of a greater amplitude density of unevenness tops in the friction process. Moreover, the operating surface layer, created in the friction process when the additive was added to the engine oil, had greater load participation at 50 per cent C. This operational surface layer improved tribological properties, i.e. it reduced value of friction force and wear. The test results were used to build a model of the boundary layer created as a result of the additive added to engine oil.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 66 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 2 October 2018

Kang Yang, Hongru Ma, Xiyao Liu and Yangming Zhang

This paper aims to study the micro-structure evolution of friction layers to optimize the friction and wear behaviors of TiAl-based material. It further enlarges the scope…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to study the micro-structure evolution of friction layers to optimize the friction and wear behaviors of TiAl-based material. It further enlarges the scope of using TiAl alloys and increase in the service life of TiAl alloy-made mechanical components, especially under some extreme conditions.

Design/methodology/approach

To study the structure evolution of friction layers, the HT-1000 tribometer is used to study the friction and wear properties of as-prepared samples. With the assistance of field emission scanning electron microscopy and an electron probe micro-analyzer, the stratified structures in cross-sections and a surface morphology of the wear scars are well characterized. A ST400 surface profiler helps in better understanding of the three-dimensional texture profiles of wear scars. X-ray diffractometer (XRD) is also used to analyze phases in the as-prepared samples.

Findings

An analysis method on the micro-structure evolution can provide better views to understand the influence of friction layers on the tribological behavior, at different wear stages. It finds that the micro-structure evolution of friction layers has an immediate effect on the friction coefficients and wear rates of TiAl-based material. It also proves to be a useful tool for evaluating the behaviors in friction and wear of TiAl-based material.

Originality/value

The findings of this paper provide better assistance to explore the effect of friction layers on the friction and wear behaviors of TiAl-based materials. The results help in deep understanding of the micro-structure evolution of friction layers. It also increases the service life of TiAl-based mechanical components.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 70 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2019

Peng Cai, Zhongfan Luo, Xuhua Duan and Xinshao Qin

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of reciprocating and unidirectional sliding motions on friction and wear of phenolic resin-based composite.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of reciprocating and unidirectional sliding motions on friction and wear of phenolic resin-based composite.

Design/methodology/approach

The phenolic resin-based composite was fabricated by hot press molding, and then the tribological properties were tested on a CSM tribometer with two types of friction motion modes – reciprocating friction and unidirectional friction.

Findings

The results showed that the composite exhibited low friction coefficient in unidirectional test. However, the wear factor recorded under unidirectional sliding condition was 12-16 times higher than the reciprocating friction results. The SEM and optical microscopy test results showed that changing the relative motion mode resulted in different topography of transfer film, which is responsible for the different friction and wear characteristics of the composite under reciprocating and unidirectional friction conditions.

Originality/value

Effect of different friction modes, reciprocating friction and unidirectional friction, on friction characteristics of the composite is sought. Different topography of transfer film formed under reciprocating and unidirectional friction conditions contributed to the different friction characteristics.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 71 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 4 September 2017

Wang Chengmin, Yang Xuefeng, Cai Xiguang, Ma Tao, Li Yunxi and Song Peilong

This paper aims to thrash out friction and wear properties of automobile brake lining reinforced by lignin fiber and glass fiber in braking process.

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to thrash out friction and wear properties of automobile brake lining reinforced by lignin fiber and glass fiber in braking process.

Design/methodology/approach

ABAQUS finite element software was used to analyze thermo-mechanical coupled field of friction materials. XD-MSM constant speed friction testing machine was used to test friction and wear properties of friction material. Worn surface morphology and mechanism of friction materials were observed by using scanning electron microscope.

Findings

The results show that when the temperature was below 350°C, worn mechanism of MFBL was mainly fatigue wear and abrasive wear, and worn mechanism of GFBL was mainly fatigue wear because MFBL contained lignin fiber. Therefore, it exhibits better mechanical properties and friction and wear properties than those of GFBL.

Originality/value

Lignin fiber can improve mechanical properties and friction and wear properties of the automobile brake lining.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 69 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 19 July 2019

Yanxin Zheng, Ying Liu, Feng Zheng, Qingsong Song, Caili Zhang, Jian Wang, Nan Dong, Aijuan Shi and Peide Han

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of iron content on the friction and wear performances of Cu–Fe-based friction materials under dry sliding friction

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of iron content on the friction and wear performances of Cu–Fe-based friction materials under dry sliding friction and wear test condition.

Design/methodology/approach

Cu–Fe-based friction materials with different iron content were prepared by powder metallurgy route. The tribological properties of Cu–Fe-based friction materials against GCr15 steel balls were studied at different applied loads and sliding speeds. Meanwhile, microstructure and phases of Cu–Fe-based friction materials were investigated.

Findings

Cu–Fe-based friction materials with different iron content are suitable for specific applied load and sliding speed, respectively. Low iron content Cu–Fe-based friction material is suitable for a high load 60 N and low sliding speed 70 mm/min and high iron content Cu–Fe-based friction material will be more suitable for a high load 60 N and high sliding speed 150 mm/min. The abrasive wear is the main wear mechanism for two kinds of Cu–Fe-based friction materials.

Originality/value

The friction and wear properties of Cu–Fe-based friction materials with different iron content were determined at different applied loads and sliding speeds, providing a direction and theoretical basis for the future development of Cu–Fe-based friction materials.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 71 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 17 April 2020

Yafeng Zhang, Shaohua Zhang, Gang Zhou, Jiang Zhang, Tao Qing and Ningning Zhou

Random point-contact between the space bearing retainer and the rolling elements may cause wear of the space bearing retainer. The paper aims to clarify the friction and

Abstract

Purpose

Random point-contact between the space bearing retainer and the rolling elements may cause wear of the space bearing retainer. The paper aims to clarify the friction and wear behaviors of polyimide bearing retainer under point-contact condition.

Design/methodology/approach

Space bearing retainers were cut into flat specimens and the tribological behaviors of the specimens were studied under point-contact condition using a friction and wear testing machine. Different sliding velocities and normal loads were used to simulate the running state of space bearing retainer. The wear behaviors of the space bearing retainer were analyzed by SEM and white light interferometer.

Findings

The friction coefficient of the polyimide composites decreased with increase in sliding velocity from 1  to 5 mm/s. Moreover, with increase in sliding velocity and normal load, the wear rate of the polyimide composites decreased and increased, respectively. Moreover, the wear behaviors of the polyimide composites were mainly determined by the combined actions of ploughing friction and adhesive friction. The lubricating properties of transfer film and wear debris were limited under point-contact condition.

Practical implications

The paper includes implications for the understanding of the wear mechanism of the polyimide composites space bearing retainer under point-contact condition and then to optimize space bearing retainer materials further.

Originality/value

Under point-contact condition, wear debris can hardly participate in the friction process because of limited contact area. Consequently, the wear debris has limited impact on the wear process to decrease the friction and wear.

Peer review

The peer review history for this article is available at: https://publons.com/publon/10.1108/ILT-01-2020-0017/

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 72 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 25 September 2019

Ting Xie, Junjie Lai and Huaping Yang

This paper aims to simulate the effect of counterface roughness on the friction transfer and wear of the polymer material sliding against steel.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to simulate the effect of counterface roughness on the friction transfer and wear of the polymer material sliding against steel.

Design/methodology/approach

The dynamic process of friction transfer and wear of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) sliding against steel 45 was simulated by the software of particle flow code in two dimensions and a discrete element method. The effect of the counterface roughness was considered in the simulation. The definitions of the transferred particle and worn particle were given.

Findings

The simulation results showed that a transferred particle layer was formed on the surface of steel 45 during friction. The wear rate of PTFE can be effectively reduced by the formation of the transferred particle layer. The formation and stability of this particle layer is certainly affected by the counterface roughness (Rz). In this paper, the transferred particle numbers increased with Rz increase. And so did the worn particle numbers. However, there was little effect of Rz on the wear rate of PTFE.

Originality/value

The dynamic process of the friction transfer and wear of the PTFE/ steel 45 friction pair was reproduced at the micro-level. Then, the transfer and wear were quantitatively exhibited. The relations between the transfer or wear and counterface roughness was simulated and discussed. It will be meaningful for the optimization and effective control of friction and wear of polymer/metal sliding system.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 71 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 4 March 2014

Qiulin Niu, Xiaohu Zheng, Ming Chen and Weiwei Ming

Titanium alloy has the excellent performance and been widely utilized in aeroengine and airframe manufacture. However, improving the understanding of all aspects of…

Abstract

Purpose

Titanium alloy has the excellent performance and been widely utilized in aeroengine and airframe manufacture. However, improving the understanding of all aspects of titanium alloy is necessary. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the tribological properties of two typical titanium alloys against tungsten carbide under dry friction.

Design/methodology/approach

Reciprocating ball-disc friction tests were carried out at room temperature in different loading without lubricant to investigate the friction properties of TA19/WC-Co and TC18/WC-Co friction pairs. The influence of the load on the friction coefficient and friction force was analyzed. The worn surfaces of TA19 and TC18 specimens were observed by the digital microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). And the wear mechanism was discussed.

Findings

The results show that the friction coefficients decreased with the increase in the normal load. However, the reduction in the friction coefficient for the TC18 alloy was less than that for the TA19 alloy. The dynamic friction forces with time were not quite coincident with the variation trend of the friction coefficients during the sliding friction. The results observed by the SEM and EDS revealed that several grooving were the main type of frictional wear causing the surfaces of the TA19 and TC18 alloys.

Originality/value

It is shown in the paper that the tribological property of TA19 alloy was better than that of TC18 when sliding against tungsten carbide under the dry friction conditions. The main types of damage to the TA19/WC-Co friction pair were the ploughing, the delamination fatigue associate with abrasive wear and some diffusive wear. The ploughing and abrasion were the main wear mechanisms for the surface of TC18 alloy.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 66 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 4 January 2019

Guo-yuan Zhang, Jia-qi Dang, Wei-gang Zhao and Xiu-tian Yan

The serious friction and wear problem occurs on the mechanical seal’s faces during the start-up stage of the high-speed turbopump for a liquid rocket engine. This paper…

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Abstract

Purpose

The serious friction and wear problem occurs on the mechanical seal’s faces during the start-up stage of the high-speed turbopump for a liquid rocket engine. This paper aims to propose a kind of thick metal alloy coatings on the surface of the seal’s rotor so as reduce the friction and wear.

Design/methodology/approach

With the pin-disk (the graphite pin and the disk with the metal coating) tribology-tester, the tribological behaviors of four metal coatings are investigated. The special friction coefficients under the dry friction, boundary friction and different temperatures of water-lubricated conditions were obtained.

Findings

The test results show that the thick metal coating has a good performance of the wear resistance and friction reduction; and the friction coefficients of a Sn-Sb-Cu coating under the dry friction and water-lubricated conditions are 0.377 and 0.043, respectively, and the corresponding mass wear volumes are only 2.74 and 0.81 mg, respectively.

Originality/value

The thick metal coating scheme for the mechanical seal’s faces might lend itself to the harsh working conditions of the low-viscosity liquid rocket engine.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 71 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

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