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Article

Robert A. Baron, Suzanne P. Fortin, Richard L. Frei, Laurie A. Hauver and Melisa L. Shack

Two studies were conducted to investigate the impact of socially‐induced positive affect on organizational conflict. In Study I, male and female subjects were provoked or…

Abstract

Two studies were conducted to investigate the impact of socially‐induced positive affect on organizational conflict. In Study I, male and female subjects were provoked or not provoked, and then exposed to one of several treatments designed to induce positive affect among them. Results indicated that several of these procedures (e.g., mild flattery, a small gift, self‐deprecating remarks by an opponent) increased subjects' preference for resolving conflict through collaboration, but reduced their preference for resolving conflict through competition. In addition, self‐deprecating remarks by an opponent (actually an accomplice) increased subjects' willingness to make concessions to this person during negotiations. In Study 2, male and female subjects were exposed to two treatments designed to induce positive affect (humorous remarks, mild flattery). These were presented before, during, or after negotiations with another person (an accomplice). Both treatments reduced subjects' preferences for resolving conflict through avoidance and increased their preferences for resolving conflict through collaboration, but only when delivered during or immediately after negotiations. Together, the results of both studies suggest that simple interventions designed to induce positive affect among the parties to conflicts can yield several beneficial effects.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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Article

Stephan Grzeskowiak and Jamal A. Al‐Khatib

Retailers are increasingly forced to enter negotiations with new suppliers and have less time to develop trusting relationships prior to awarding sourcing contract. Such…

Abstract

Purpose

Retailers are increasingly forced to enter negotiations with new suppliers and have less time to develop trusting relationships prior to awarding sourcing contract. Such supplier negotiations are often guided by self‐interest‐seeking behavior. However, not all exchange partners behave opportunistically when given the opportunity and little is known about how and when opportunism actually occurs. This research seeks to develop a multidimensional perspective of exchange partners' Machiavellianism that reveals different types of opportunistic motivations in exchange relationships and to extend knowledge of socialization as a safeguard by investigating the efficacy of signaling trustworthiness as a means of reducing the risk of opportunistic behavior in exchanges with partners with different moral standards about opportunism.

Design/methodology/approach

The data consist of a sample of 259 purchasing professionals who are members of the Institute of Supply Chain Management and report on their negotiation behavior. Moderated regression analysis is used to analyze the research model.

Findings

The results show that opportunistic behavior originates from a multidimensional set of moral convictions held by an exchange partner. Interestingly, signaling a trusting relationship only reduces opportunistic behavior that is due to deceit, but is not effective against cynicism or flattery.

Originality/value

To date, retail managers have addressed potential partner opportunism by designing contractual agreements or by implementing structural and social safeguards. Little is known about how these approaches address partner‐specific causes of opportunism. The study demonstrates the extent to which trust, a popular socialization mechanism in retailing, moderates the degree to which an exchange partner's moral conviction leads to opportunism.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 37 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Abstract

Details

The Business of Choice: How Human Instinct Influences Everyone’s Decisions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-071-7

Abstract

Details

Women in Management Review, vol. 22 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-9425

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Article

Jimena Yolanda Ramirez-Marin and Saïd Shafa

The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to define social rewards, as acts and expressions which specifically signal respect, courtesy and benevolence to the other…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to define social rewards, as acts and expressions which specifically signal respect, courtesy and benevolence to the other party, based on cultural scripts found in honor cultures. Second, to explore whether social rewards mitigate competitive aspirations and foster collaboration in competitive settings, with honor values being a culturally relevant mechanism for this effect.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper reports on two experiments assessing high-honor and low-honor culture participants’ aspirations and behavioral decisions. In study 1, participants described a personal situation where they were praised by close others (social reward) or praised themselves (control condition), before responding to a buyer/seller negotiation scenario. In study 2, participants were either complimented (social reward) or not complimented (control condition), before engaging in live competition with a confederate for monetary outcomes.

Findings

Both studies indicate that social rewards diminish competitive aspirations and offers among high-honor culture participants, but not among low-honor culture participants. Results of study 1 indicate that endorsement of honor values mediates this effect. In conclusion, social rewards can improve interactions with members of honor cultures.

Research limitations/implications

These studies advance our understanding of cultural differences in negotiations and provide insight into social rewards as one of the mechanisms necessary to successfully manage intercultural negotiations and collaboration. Future research should address the effect of social rewards on self-worth and empowerment.

Originality/value

This research is the first to shed light on the relevance and importance of social rewards as a device to facilitate social interactions in honor cultures.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

Keywords

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Article

Ainsworth Anthony Bailey

Even though there has been anecdotal evidence regarding the use of ingratiation techniques in retail salesperson-shopper interactions, surprisingly, there has been limited…

Abstract

Purpose

Even though there has been anecdotal evidence regarding the use of ingratiation techniques in retail salesperson-shopper interactions, surprisingly, there has been limited research on the nature of these ingratiatory techniques and their impact on consumers’ perceptions and attitudes. The research reported here was conducted to determine the extent to which different ingratiation techniques that have been identified as techniques used in non-retailing domains are also used by retail salespersons in salesperson-shopper interactions. In addition, it sought to assess whether there are additional ingratiation techniques used by retail salespersons in salesperson-shopper interactions that have not been identified in existing ingratiation literature. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Two studies, drawing on research on ingratiation in other domains, were conducted in pursuit of realising the purpose. Study 1 was a survey involving a sample of 282 participants, which yielded 267 useable critical incident reports and 283 discrete examples of ingratiatory behaviours. Participants responded to various questions including a critical incident question. Cross-tabulations were, for the main part, used in assessing responses. A second survey involving 158 participants was undertaken as a verification study. This Study 2 yielded 144 useable responses.

Findings

Based on a critical incident technique (CIT), other enhancement: compliment and praise was the ingratiation technique most frequently cited by participants in the first sample, with product-customer enhancement being second and favour-rendering third. The Study 2 confirmed other enhancement: compliment and praise and product-customer enhancement as the top two techniques. Four new categories of ingratiatory behaviours emerged in retail salesperson-shopper interactions, and many of the ingratiatory behaviours previously identified in non-retailing contexts also exist in this retailing context.

Research limitations/implications

Both samples are US samples, and the method used was the CIT. Though the US samples are appropriate for this study, the study could be extended to other groups and across cultures, to see whether cultural differences in the use of, and consumer responses to, ingratiation techniques exist. The study also did not look at the retail salespeople’s perspectives regarding the use of these techniques. Hence further research should address dyadic interpretations of a single ingratiatory encounter; and efforts should also be made to assess how consumers respond to ingratiation in retailing.

Practical implications

The studies result in a classification of the influence techniques used most often in retail settings in the USA. Retailers should be aware that customers may, therefore, expect certain kinds of influence tactics and may not respond in the same way when there is a departure from a “customary” influence tactic.

Originality/value

Not much research has explored the different kinds of ingratiation techniques used in retail contexts; nor has the stream of research sought to categorise them.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 43 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

Keywords

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Article

Many organizations like to get customers “onside” in their advertising by suggesting that they are somehow in business together. Slogans such as “Together we are stronger”…

Abstract

Many organizations like to get customers “onside” in their advertising by suggesting that they are somehow in business together. Slogans such as “Together we are stronger” are proffered partly as flattery and partly to imply thanks: We couldn’t have done it without you. There’s a touch of sanctimony about this. However, more genuinely, many organizations – particularly within the global information and communications technology (ICT) industry – are discovering the benefits of forming alliances to gain a strategic competitive advantage.

Details

Strategic Direction, vol. 19 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0258-0543

Keywords

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Article

IMITATION, IT appears, is not, after all, the sincerest form of flattery; the memorandum ‘Training for Skill’, produced jointly by the NUT and the ATTI contains severe…

Abstract

IMITATION, IT appears, is not, after all, the sincerest form of flattery; the memorandum ‘Training for Skill’, produced jointly by the NUT and the ATTI contains severe criticism of the Carr Report whose title it borrows. As one might imagine, educational organisations being as touchy as the rest, the exclusion from the Carr Committee of representatives of the professional educational bodies forms the subject of the opening attack. Although the Ministry of Education, the Scottish Education Department, the Association of Technical Institutions and the City and Guilds of London Institute now play some part in the deliberations of the Industrial Training Council, the NUT and the ATTI appear aggrieved that, despite their requests, they themselves have not secured representation. In questioning whether the Industrial Training Council is correctly constituted to perform its unenviable task, the memorandum highlights a fundamental problem, one that has been neglected.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 2 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

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Article

Laurence S. Moss

Mandeville's Fable of the Bees, ungenerously described by its author as a “rhapsody void of order and method”, actually developed several ideas about the functioning of…

Abstract

Mandeville's Fable of the Bees, ungenerously described by its author as a “rhapsody void of order and method”, actually developed several ideas about the functioning of markets that anticipate some of the concerns of contemporary subjectivist economics such as are expressed in the writings of the modern Austrian School. While it may be too much of an exaggeration to follow F.B. Kaye by declaring Mandeville a “founder” of laissez‐faire economics, it is also quite incorrect to reach the negative verdict of one recent author who concluded that Mandeville “did not advance free‐market economics on any issue”. Mandeville did advance economics in general (and free market economics, incidentally) when he emphasised how patterns of conduct that emerge from the clash of individual egos guided by the flattery of politicians often function to promote some degree of commodious social life that is especially enjoyed by those quick to condemn the conduct as “immoral”. This theme still has its adherents today. I shall group Mandeville's contributions among four overlapping subject headings as follows:

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International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 14 no. 3/4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article

HARRY C. BAUER

By filching a few words once used by Thackeray in another connection, a bibliographic name dropper may be neatly defined as a novelist who embellishes his romance with “a…

Abstract

By filching a few words once used by Thackeray in another connection, a bibliographic name dropper may be neatly defined as a novelist who embellishes his romance with “a personal allusion foreign to the question”. The best example of a gratuitous personal allusion that comes to mind is the one found in Henry James's brilliant story, The Liar. As the story opens, Oliver Lyon, a noted painter, has just arrived at a country estate for a weekend party among celebrities. While dressing for dinner, Lyon glances over the books in the guest room hopeful of gaining insight into the cerebral allergies and prejudices of his hosts. The setting permitted James to insert the extraneous allusion: There was the customary novel of Mr. Le Fanu jor the bedside, the ideal reading in a country house for the hours after midnight. James never wrote truer words, but why he chose to single out Le Fanu for recognition is indeterminable. Perhaps he sincerely liked Le Fanu. Certainly, no flattery could have been intended since Joseph Sheridan Le Fanu had died many years before The Liar was written. James may simply have desired to inform his readers that he, too, was not above mystery stories and popular novels of the day. Whatever his reason, pedagogues may be grateful. Imagine the wonderful diversion afforded a hard pressed lecturer by James's amiable digression. The writings of Henry James may be hard to elucidate, but any dilettante can expatiate for hours on the writings and doings of the versatile and talented Le Fanu who “did in his allotted hours … in this enormous world of ours, his halfpenny worth of work”.

Details

Library Review, vol. 17 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0024-2535

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