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Article
Publication date: 18 May 2021

Shufeng Li, Zhang Jiaolei, Di Zhao and Le Deng

This study aims to further study the fire resistance of prefabricated concrete beam-column joints with end-plate connection. This paper aims to analyze the fire resistance…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to further study the fire resistance of prefabricated concrete beam-column joints with end-plate connection. This paper aims to analyze the fire resistance of this joint in prefabricated reinforced concrete frame structure (PRCS).

Design/methodology/approach

First, the accuracy of the model is verified by using the test data. Based on this, a refined finite element model of PRCS structure with two stories and two spans is established. The influence of four working conditions with different fire floors (positions) and different axial compression ratios on the deformation, failure and fire resistance of PRCS structure are analyzed.

Findings

The results show that under the four working conditions, the fire resistance of the PRCS structure under Condition 1 and Condition 2 is smaller. It shows that the beam deformation develops slowly in PRCS structure under four kinds of fire positions, and the large displacement emerges 60 min later, which is poles apart from that of prefabricated beam column members. With the increase of the fire time, the material is damaged and deteriorated, which leads to the eccentricity of the axial load, so that the column top appears large lateral displacement. Under the Conditions 1 and 3, the lateral displacement of the column gradually decreases as the axial compression ratio rises.

Originality/value

It is found that there is a distinct lack of researching on the fire resistance of prefabricated joints, and the existed research studies are limited to the fire resistance of members. Thus, it is necessary to strengthen the first floor and side column design of prefabricated frame structure.

Details

Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-2317

Keywords

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 4 May 2018

Sri Safrina Dewi, Dedi Satria, Elin Yusibani and Didik Sugiyanto

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop prototype of the web-based home fire early warning system using Wiznet W5500 Ethernet module. This system protocol helps…

Abstract

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop prototype of the web-based home fire early warning system using Wiznet W5500 Ethernet module. This system protocol helps users in sending information of fire through the internet with the internet of things (IoT) method using Wiznet Ethernet module as communication media to the user.

Design/Methodology/Approach – This paper presents the design of web-based home fire early warning system using Wiznet W5500 Ethernet module. The system prototype is built using flame sensors, MQ-02 smoke sensors, and LM35 temperature sensors as input components. While on the processor side using Arduino Uno microcontroller as sensor data processing. Processed data is sent to the Ethernet module as a web server resulting in a web-based early warning information system with an alarm notification on the browser along with home location status information and sensor data.

Findings – This research produces a prototype of the web-based home fire early warning system using Wiznet W5500 Ethernet module that has been able to provide notification to the security officer housing.

Research Limitations/Implications – In the implementation of measurement, the information system only accesses one house detector or one fire location.

Practical Implications – This research produces a prototype of the web-based home fire early warning system using Wiznet W5500 Ethernet module that has been able to distribute data of temperature, smoke, and fire.

Originality/Value – The development of fire monitoring systems using flame sensors, smoke sensors and integrated temperature sensors in internet-based communication systems of things via the Internet W5500 does not appear to have been published yet.

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Book part
Publication date: 11 May 2007

Ben Machin and Mark Hentze

Public agencies entrusted with fire management in the western U.S. are faced with a decision each time a fire starts: should it be suppressed, or should it be left to…

Abstract

Public agencies entrusted with fire management in the western U.S. are faced with a decision each time a fire starts: should it be suppressed, or should it be left to burn? In some cases, fires that have not been rapidly staffed and suppressed have later proved very expensive and dangerous to suppress; and in other cases, fires that would never have caused large impacts are suppressed, missing an opportunity to reduce fuel loading and to cycle nutrients. In this chapter, the command structure through which these decisions are made is reviewed in basic terms, and a description is provided of how a fire goes from initial detection to being staffed by firefighters involved in fire suppression. Initial attack resources are discussed with an emphasis on the aerially delivered firefighters who often are responsible for suppressing remote fires. Finally, opportunities to improve the process of making fire suppression decisions are explored, and potential decision-support systems integrating firefighter knowledge with emerging technologies are discussed.

Details

Living on the Edge
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-000-5

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Article
Publication date: 23 December 2020

Robert Kuehnen, Maged Youssef and Salah El-Fitiany

The design of buildings for fire events is essential to ensure occupant safety. Supplementary to simple prescriptive methods, performance-based fire design can be applied…

Abstract

Purpose

The design of buildings for fire events is essential to ensure occupant safety. Supplementary to simple prescriptive methods, performance-based fire design can be applied to achieve a greater level of safety and flexibility in design. To make performance-based fire design more accessible, a time-equivalent method can be used to approximate a given natural fire event using a single standard fire with a specific duration. Doing so allows for natural fire events to be linked to the wealth of existing data from the standard fire scenario. The purpose of this paper is to review and assess the application of an existing time-equivalent method in the performance-based design of reinforced concrete (RC) beams.

Design/methodology/approach

The assessment is established by computationally developing the moment-curvature response of RC beam sections during fire exposure. The sectional response due to natural fire and time equivalent fire are compared.

Findings

It is shown that the examined time equivalent method is able to predict the sectional response with suitable accuracy for performance-based design purposes.

Originality/value

The research is the first to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the moment-curvature diagram of RC beams using time-equivalent standard fire scenarios that model realistic fire scenarios.

Details

Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-2317

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Article
Publication date: 9 October 2019

Clare S. Allely

There is increasing attention on investigating the association between fire-setting and psychopathology and also the degree to which fire-setting is a manifestation of…

Abstract

Purpose

There is increasing attention on investigating the association between fire-setting and psychopathology and also the degree to which fire-setting is a manifestation of mental disorder. Despite the actual prevalence of pyromania remaining elusive, there is growing evidence in the literature highlighting the higher rates of psychiatric mental health disorders in fire-setters, the most common being: schizophrenia, mood disorders (such as anxiety and depression), personality disorders, alcohol abuse and intellectual disability. The purpose of this paper is to highlight more recent work on prevalence, pathways and assessment in offenders who have engaged in fire-setting.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper provides an overview of the literature on fire-setting and psychopathology with a focus on prevalence, pathways and assessment.

Findings

This review identified key literature which has identified a variety of distinct pathways to fire-setting and also highlights two assessments/measures for fire-setters. Such information is useful for clinicians when they encounter this group of offenders.

Practical implications

This paper has identified in the literature and recommends the use of the “Fire Setting Scale” and the “Fire Proclivity Scale” in clinical and/or forensic practice.

Originality/value

There is a very real need for additional empirical research in this area. There is also a need for an increased awareness and understanding of how various types of psychopathy can contribute to fire-setting in both a legal and clinical context.

Details

Journal of Criminal Psychology, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2009-3829

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Article
Publication date: 28 May 2020

András Jakab, Viktor Hlavicka, Ágoston Restás and Eva Lubloy

During the building designing, it is very important to deal with the fire resistance of the structures. The designed materials for escape routes should be selected to…

Abstract

Purpose

During the building designing, it is very important to deal with the fire resistance of the structures. The designed materials for escape routes should be selected to ensure the usability of the structures until the time of escape. Planning affects the glass structures similarly, so these can also be partition walls and load bearing structures, although the latter is less applied on escape routes. The heat protection of the glasses can be improved with heat-protective foils, while fire protection is provided by gel intumescent material.

Design/methodology/approach

To research the topic of fire resistance, laboratory experiments were carried out on small-scaled glass elements with thermal protection foil at Budapest University of Technology and Economics at the Department of Construction Materials and Technologies.

Findings

Fire protection of small model specimens was tested with blowtorch fire and furnace heat load. During the experiments, six foils were tested. Single pane glass, double layered and triple glazed specimens were tested with blowtorch fire.

Originality/value

Fire protection of small model specimens was tested with blowtorch fire and furnace heat load. During the experiments, six foils were tested. Single pane glass, double layered and triple glazed specimens were tested with blowtorch fire. In case of heat-protected glazing, the foils on the “protected” side of the single pane glass do not have a fire protection effect based on blowtorch fire test. For double glassed specimens, the P35 foil has a perceptible effect, even for the requirements of the flame breakthrough (E, integrity), when the foil is placed on the inner side (position 3) of the second glass layer. The stratification of each triple glazed specimens was effective against blowtorch fire load (3 M, S4&P35), so (EI, integrity and isolation) it can meet the requirements of flame breakthrough and thermal insulation.

Details

Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-2317

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Article
Publication date: 21 May 2021

Marion Charlier, Antoine Glorieux, Xu Dai, Naveed Alam, Stephen Welch, Johan Anderson, Olivier Vassart and Ali Nadjai

The purpose of this paper is to propose a simplified representation of the fire load in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to represent the effect of large-scale…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a simplified representation of the fire load in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to represent the effect of large-scale travelling fire and to highlight the relevance of such an approach whilst coupling the CFD results with finite element method (FEM) to evaluate related steel temperatures, comparing the numerical outcomes with experimental measurements.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper presents the setup of the CFD simulations (FDS software), its corresponding assumptions and the calibration via two natural fire tests whilst focusing on gas temperatures and on steel temperatures measured on a central column. For the latter, two methods are presented: one based on EN 1993-1-2 and another linking CFD and FEM (SAFIR® software).

Findings

This paper suggests that such an approach can allow for an acceptable representation of the travelling fire both in terms of fire spread and steel temperatures. The inevitable limitations inherent to the simplifications made during the CFD simulations are also discussed. Regarding steel temperatures, the two methods lead to quite similar results, but with the ones obtained via CFD–FEM coupling are closer to those measured.

Originality/value

This work has revealed that the proposed simplified representation of the fire load appears to be appropriate to evaluate the temperature of steel structural elements within reasonable limits on computational time, making it potentially desirable for practical applications. This paper also presents the first comparisons of FDS–SAFIR® coupling with experimental results, highlighting promising outcomes.

Details

Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-2317

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Article
Publication date: 29 April 2021

Philein Hafidz Al Kautsar and Nur Budi Mulyono

The purpose of this study is to develop an ecosystem-based DRR concept and explore how far the concept can be applied in a disaster-management context.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to develop an ecosystem-based DRR concept and explore how far the concept can be applied in a disaster-management context.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors used the ecosystem concept established by Tsujimoto et al. (2018) as the foundation of this study. They then conducted a literature search to adapt the ecosystem concept to fit the context of disaster management. Thus, they developed an ecosystem-based DRR concept. They used a case study method to test whether the adapted ecosystem concept can be applied to examine a real-life case of disaster management. For data collection, they used qualitative methods; a semi-structured interview with practitioners and other actors involved in disaster-management practice as well as document review. For data analysis, they used thematic analysis to find themes within the data.

Findings

By using this concept, the authors found some actors fulfil their role in the ecosystem toward the DRR effort, some actors are ill-equipped, and some actors are actively working against DRR effort. There are also implementation challenges, as numerous programs are only halfway done due to a lack of resources. However, the main problems of this disaster can be summarized into three categories: technical problems, socio-economic problems and law-enforcement problems. All three problems need to be addressed altogether because even neglecting only one problem would lead to a flawed solution.

Research limitations/implications

One of the limitations is the respondents' bias. This research aims to find out their part, or more accurately what they are representative of, regarding disaster management for forest and land fire case. As some of the questions may reveal unflattering action or may even hurting their credibility, respondents might not have provided an entirely honest answer. Another limitation is the differing respondents' roles within the disaster. As each of the respondents is a representative of an actor in disaster management, they all have different traits. Thus, this situation makes it challenging to produce similar quality and quantity data for each of them.

Practical implications

As concluded, the ecosystem-based DRR concept can be used as a framework to examine a real-life case of disaster management. It can be utilized to explain roles, relationships and the whole network of disaster-management actors. The authors hope that this concept could help decision-makers in designing their policies.

Social implications

The main problems of this disaster can be summarized into three categories: technical problems, socio-economic problems and law-enforcement problems. All three problems need to be addressed altogether for even neglecting only one problem would lead to a flawed solution. However, the yearly reoccurrences of fires and the widespread of illegal and dangerous practice, slash and burn agriculture, are evidence that the government mishandles the other two problems. There is a need for reform within legal institutions and government's treatment regarding local farmers. There is a need for trust, cooperation and synergy between disaster-management actors.

Originality/value

The ecosystem concept has been used widely in the field of management of technology and innovation. However, while ecosystem concept is commonly used in the management of technology and innovation, it is rarely used in a disaster-management context.

Details

International Journal of Emergency Services, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2047-0894

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Article
Publication date: 18 March 2014

Oliver Bahr

In fire safety engineering, the ISO standard fire often represents fire action. Nevertheless, it is often not clear how conservative the ISO standard fire is when compared…

Abstract

In fire safety engineering, the ISO standard fire often represents fire action. Nevertheless, it is often not clear how conservative the ISO standard fire is when compared to natural fires. Thus, numerical research on fires in office buildings was conducted. To assess the severity of the ISO standard fire, the author proposes a simple approach basing on the heat release rate. For two regarded office rooms, artificial heat release curves were established and used as input in the zone model ‘Ozone’. These heat release curves were adjusted in order to match gas temperatures defined by the ISO standard fire. Integration of these curves allows for determining the total energy released by the fire. If this energy is related to the compartment area, it becomes possible to compare the ISO standard fire to natural fires. Results from the limited investigations show that the ISO standard fire becomes more conservative for longer fire duration and that it is quite realistic for offices with moderate opening factors and fire durations of 60 min at most. Contrary, the ISO standard fire tends to be very conservative for offices with higher opening factors.

Details

Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-2317

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1990

Alan Porter

Looks at the importance of management in fire safety and the rangeof issues it covers. Covers organisation, procedures, structuralprovisions, maintenance, staff training…

Abstract

Looks at the importance of management in fire safety and the range of issues it covers. Covers organisation, procedures, structural provisions, maintenance, staff training, external contractors and tenants. Concludes that all provisions for fire safety ultimately depend on the quality of management.

Details

Property Management, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-7472

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