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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2006

Otto M.J. Adang, Robert J. Kaminski, Megan Q. Howell and Jos Mensink

Purpose – This paper examines potential correlates of the effectiveness of oleoresin capsicum (OC) or pepper spray and police officer satisfaction with its performance…

Abstract

Purpose – This paper examines potential correlates of the effectiveness of oleoresin capsicum (OC) or pepper spray and police officer satisfaction with its performance during use‐of‐force encounters. Design/methodology/approach – Based on surveys completed by police officers, superior officers, and substitute prosecutors, data on nearly 800 uses of OC by Dutch police forces occurring between June 1, 2001 and December 31, 2002 were obtained. Ordered and generalized ordered logistic regressions are used for the analysis. Findings – The paper shows that although OC was generally effective, it was less effective on suspects under the influence of drugs, violent suspects, minority suspects, and suspects who were warned before being exposed to OC. Officers with more job experience reported OC as being more effective than officers with less experience. OC reduced aggressiveness among suspects already aggressive, but it induced aggression among initially non‐aggressive subjects. The vast majority of officers were satisfied with OC's performance during the study period, although ratings were affected by its ability to ease arrests, incapacitate suspects, and reduce suspect aggressiveness. Research limitations/implications – The OC incidents on which the analysis is based are a subset of all actual uses, and thus may not be representative. Several of the regressors are based on officer perception, and may be subject to measurement error. Practical implications – The findings in this paper have implications for police policy, practice, and training, and officer and suspect safety. Originality/value – This is one of very few studies to use multiple‐regression to examine correlates of OC effectiveness and officer satisfaction, and it expands upon the prior literature by including additional measures of OC performance. The results should be of value to law enforcement agencies and officers using OC, and those considering its adoption.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 29 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1997

Robert Panzarella and Justin O. Alicea

In recent years police departments have responded to increasing numbers of incidents involving mentally disturbed people. Data for this study were drawn from a survey of…

Abstract

In recent years police departments have responded to increasing numbers of incidents involving mentally disturbed people. Data for this study were drawn from a survey of 90 officers in a special unit mandated to respond to such situations and from their detailed descriptions of 90 specific incidents. Explores the types of incidents, their relative frequency, the characteristics of such incidents, and especially police tactics considered to be effective or ineffective. Discusses the findings in terms of police department organizational structure as well as individual officers’ beliefs about the mentally disturbed and tactical choices.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 20 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 28 August 2007

David Klinger

To provide readers with some basic information about the use of impact munitions in modern American police work.

Abstract

Purpose

To provide readers with some basic information about the use of impact munitions in modern American police work.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper identifies various sorts of impact munitions and places key findings from previous studies of these devices in a broader historical context of police force options.

Findings

Impact munitions are an increasingly popular feature of contemporary American policing that rarely lead to serious injury, but can, under certain circumstances, cause fatal injuries.

Originality/value

The paper provides interested academics and professional with information about an increasingly popular police force option.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 30 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1999

Robert J. Kaminski, Steven M. Edwards and James W. Johnson

This article investigates the effectiveness of pepper spray as a means of aiding arrest. The authors aim to provide a more rigorous study than has previously been…

Abstract

This article investigates the effectiveness of pepper spray as a means of aiding arrest. The authors aim to provide a more rigorous study than has previously been achieved. Data from the Baltimore County Police Department have been used in this analysis. The evaluation undertaken has taken into account the “effective‐ineffective” dichotomy of the incapacitating effects of pepper spray as well as whether those being arrested were drunk, under the influence of drugs or mentally disturbed. Five variables of age, weight, height, race and sex were also recorded, the latter three having little or no effect. The overall conclusion which is drawn is that using pepper spray eases arrest in the majority of instances. The conclusions drawn leave the way open for further detailed analysis of the use of the spray to ease arrest.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1970

Maureen O Connor

Children do not come to school barefoot any more: but they might take a few days off while their only shoes are mended, and there are still the delinquents whose court…

Abstract

Children do not come to school barefoot any more: but they might take a few days off while their only shoes are mended, and there are still the delinquents whose court appearances eventually take them away from school altogether, the children from homes where the walls stream in winter and crawl with bugs in summer, reducing them to permanent ill‐health, and those whose home circumstances are so emotionally disturbed that the wonder is not that they have fits of violence but that they ever behave normally.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 12 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2000

Robert J. Homant and Daniel B. Kennedy

A typology of suicide by police was created by separating 143 such incidents from a database of 174 police shooting incidents. The 143 incidents were found to consist of…

Abstract

A typology of suicide by police was created by separating 143 such incidents from a database of 174 police shooting incidents. The 143 incidents were found to consist of three main categories: Direct Confrontations, in which suicidal subjects instigated attacks on police, Disturbed Interventions, in which potentially suicidal subjects took advantage of police intervention, and Criminal Interventions, in which subjects preferred death to submission. These three categories were then subdivided into nine types. Two judges obtained a reliability coefficient of 0.87 for distinguishing suicide by cop, and 0.58 for placement into the nine types. Meaningful distinctions among the types were found on three variables: subject age, real danger, and lethality.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Book part
Publication date: 28 January 2011

Frederick J. Brigham and Brittany L. Hott

All societies carry out sorting and classificatory actions, the way they view deviance changes over time for a variety of reasons that are sometimes unrelated to the…

Abstract

All societies carry out sorting and classificatory actions, the way they view deviance changes over time for a variety of reasons that are sometimes unrelated to the behavior or its consequences (Moynihan, 1993). Also, some behaviors that were considered to be illnesses or crimes at one time have been redefined in ways that remove them from the medical, psychological, or legal professions' guidelines for interpreting them as deviant behaviors. Homosexuality is one example of such a reclassification (Bowker & Star, 1999).

Details

History of Special Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-629-5

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Book part
Publication date: 22 February 2017

Joshua Bornstein

In a multicase qualitative study, inclusive school leaders attempted to move their schools from the excessive use of suspension; they employed positive behavioral…

Abstract

In a multicase qualitative study, inclusive school leaders attempted to move their schools from the excessive use of suspension; they employed positive behavioral intervention and support (PBIS) as an alternative they thought would be therapeutic rather than punitive. However, the PBIS system traded a disciplinary system of control for a medicalized system of restoring order. Unwanted behavior came to be defined as evidence of possible behavioral disability. Hence, the PBIS system exchanged one deficit identity of “disorderly” student for another of “disordered” student, subsuming other considerations of race, class, and gender identity. Following the study’s findings, this chapter proposes more liberatory practices for PBIS that interrupt dominant culture discourses of normal behavior and power, and hold promise for establishing justice, rather than simply reinstating order.

Details

The School to Prison Pipeline: The Role of Culture and Discipline in School
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-128-6

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Article
Publication date: 15 December 2020

Joy VerPlanck

The purpose of this exploratory study was to investigate the relationship between simulation training and police officers' ability to think creatively in crises.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this exploratory study was to investigate the relationship between simulation training and police officers' ability to think creatively in crises.

Design/methodology/approach

This quantitative study used instructional design principles including aspects of Cognitive Load Theory to explore the cognitive load and creative thinking of police officers training with a MILO Range use-of-force simulator.

Findings

When provided with scenarios requiring de-escalation of emotionally disturbed persons, and when encouraged to be creative or innovative in their approach to de-escalate, officers were observed being more creative after experiencing a second simulation with the same scenario; however, multiple repetitions of similar scenarios did not result in an innovative response.

Practical implications

The results of this study suggest that cognitive load could be affected by changing the manner in which the officers train in simulation. When a simulator curriculum is designed with the incorporation of cognitive load theory, there is potential to foster creative thinking in a situation where de-escalation is the goal.

Originality/value

Instructional design principles, consideration of cognitive load and creative problem-solving are nontraditional methods in the law enforcement field and in use-of-force training.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. 44 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 7 March 2008

Justin Ready, Michael D. White and Christopher Fisher

This paper sets out to encompass a comparative analysis of news reports and official police records of TASER deployments from 2002 to 2005.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper sets out to encompass a comparative analysis of news reports and official police records of TASER deployments from 2002 to 2005.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology involves a content analysis of all LexisNexis and New York Times articles involving police use of the TASER during the study period (n = 353). Regional (New York Times) and national (LexisNexis) news reports describing police use of the TASER are compared with police reports of all TASER deployments by the New York City Police Department (NYPD) during the same timeframe (n = 375).

Findings

Descriptive statistics and logistic regression are used to compare the data sources with respect to: the circumstances in which the weapon is deployed; the characteristics of the suspects involved in the TASER incidents; and the significant predictors of continued suspect resistance and repeated use of the TASER by an officer.

Research limitations/implications

The paper examines official police records on TASER deployments from one police agency. This limits the ability to generalize the research findings to other police agencies that have adopted different practices and policies regulating the deployment of CEDs. Additionally, the content analysis includes only articles in the mainstream print media.

Practical implications

The paper concludes with a discussion about some myths associated with news reports on police use of the TASER, and their potential impact on both public perception and police practices.

Originality/value

To date, research has not systematically compared media representations of the TASER with official reports on police deployments of the weapon. That is the focus of this paper.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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