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Book part
Publication date: 20 March 2001

Abstract

Details

Edwin Seligman's Lectures on Public Finance, 1927/1928
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-073-9

Article
Publication date: 29 June 2012

Dan Herman

The purpose of this paper is to seek to apply Polanyi's theory of the double movement as a response to the effects of economic liberalization and globalization to the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to seek to apply Polanyi's theory of the double movement as a response to the effects of economic liberalization and globalization to the pre‐2007 American economy. In so doing, it seeks to ascertain the reasons why this assumed double movement did not materialize until after the post‐2007 global economic crisis.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is structured as a theoretical and historical analysis, building upon Polanyi's nineteenth century observations and applying them to contemporary policy economic and social experience in the USA in the late twentieth century. The argument proposes a correlation between the missing and/or delayed movement and the role of access to debt and participation in equity markets.

Findings

This paper argues that Polanyi's concept of a societal countermovement has been absent from the post‐1970 period of economic liberalism and globalization until just recently due to an explicit attempt by the forces of capital to circumvent its role in lessening the harmful effects of American capitalism. In particular, the double movement that should have sought to lessen income inequality, unemployment and wage stagnation was instead replaced by access to cheap credit and the democratization of market investments that spurred consumer purchases and a false belief that what was good for the markets was good for working class Americans.

Research limitations/implications

This paper highlights the need for ongoing research into the sociotropic nature of trade and of economic policy, and its evolution throughout the contemporary period of economic uncertainty and economic transition.

Practical implications

The paper proposes several policy implications arising from the contemporary application of Polanyi's double movement, notably related to international trade and public and political support for ongoing trade liberalization.

Social implications

This paper highlights important connections in the relationship between economic policy and the day‐to‐day lives of those who are governed by it. Building on “everyday political economy”, it provides a foundation for arguments that a new balance must be found between economic globalization and transnational capital interests and domestic stability.

Originality/value

This paper promotes a novel approach to understanding the political economy of pre‐2007 America, in particular the reflexive nature of economic policy and societal perceptions.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 39 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 July 2006

Jane Turner, Sharon Mavin and Sonal Minocha

To critique individual learning experiences in organization, explore the role people play in inhibiting learning in organization and explore theories of individual…

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Abstract

Purpose

To critique individual learning experiences in organization, explore the role people play in inhibiting learning in organization and explore theories of individual learning as “theories in use”, drawing on a metaphor of steps and dance.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a subjective qualitative approach engaging in semi‐structured interviews with individual participants and narrative data analysis. A metaphor of “steps” and “dance” is used to analyse narrative data and theories “in use”; the “steps” imply a fixed form which constrains the individual within the confines of the job role, while the “dance” relates to a fluidity and flexibility which enables individuals to express movement and therefore learning.

Findings

Empirical data reveal a level of “not learning” in practice and raise the significance of both upward and downward feedback and questioning in learning levels. Results highlight the management‐employee relationship and the crucial role of managers in unlocking or inhibiting individual learning. In “Scriptorg” individuals are trapped in a cycle of “not learning” or at best single loop learning; new steps are inhibited by the management approach and there is no evidence of “dancing” in learning terms.

Originality/value

The paper examines theoretical insights in practice through case study exploration to highlight the significance of managers in inhibiting individual learning in organization and reinforces that practitioners should focus on interventions that unlock managerial learning, addressing the psychological and behavioural characteristics of managers, consequently enabling individuals to dance.

Details

The Learning Organization, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-6474

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 May 2022

Vinoth Kumar K., Loganathan T.G. and Jagadeesh G.

The Purpose of this study is to prove the possibility of developing low cost mechanical anti – lock braking system (ABS) for the passenger’s safety.

Abstract

Purpose

The Purpose of this study is to prove the possibility of developing low cost mechanical anti – lock braking system (ABS) for the passenger’s safety.

Design/methodology/approach

The design methodology of the proposed newer mechanical ABS comprises of two units, namely, the braking unit and wheel lock prevention unit. The braking unit actuates the wheel stopping as and when the driver applies the brake, whereas the wheel lock prevention unit initiates wheel release to prevent locking and subsequent slip/skidding. The brake pedal with master cylinder assembly and double-arm cylinder forms the braking unit, brake pad cylinder, movable brake pad, solenoid valve and dynamo forms the wheel lock prevention unit. The dynamo coupled with the rotor energises/de-energises the solenoid values to direct airflow for applying brake and release it, which makes the system less energy-dependent.

Findings

The braking unit aids in vehicle stops, by locking the disc with the brake pad actuated by a double-arm cylinder. The dynamo energises the solenoid valve to activate the brake pad cylinder piston for applying the brake on the disc. Instantaneously, on applying the brake the dynamo de-energises the solenoid to divert the pneumatic flow for retracting the brake pad thereby minimizing the braking torque. The baking torque reduction revives the wheel rotating and prevents slip/skidding.

Originality/value

Mechanical ABS preventing wheel lock by torque reduction principle is a novel method that has not been evolved so far. The system was designed with repair/replacement of the parts and subcomponents to support higher affordability on safety grounds.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 November 2017

Osamah Hussian Rawashdeh, Toseef Azid and Muhammad Azeem Qureshi

There is no consensus among the experts that welfare can be increased through philanthropy or market is sufficient for the achievement of targeted level of welfare. It is…

Abstract

Purpose

There is no consensus among the experts that welfare can be increased through philanthropy or market is sufficient for the achievement of targeted level of welfare. It is still a main quest that giving visible good to one known fellow is better or market ethos have more positive impact on the society where we have needs of thousands of unknown. Markets, in Hayek’s view, are superior to philanthropy – economically, ethically and epistemologically – because they “confer benefits beyond the range of our concrete knowledge” (Hayek 1988, p. 81) and thus provide “a greater benefit to the community than most direct ‘altruistic’ action”. The same can be expected from the ethical and moral financial institutions having the objective not to only increase their profit but also equally trying to serve the community and society. This paper aims to propose a constructive model in which markets, philanthropy and financial institutions work together to enhance welfare, human freedom, flourishing and voluntary social cooperation.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper examines the conceptual dualisms through which commerce – philanthropy relationship (e.g. modern versus Islamic socialism) and the historical–philosophical context in which they were formulated. This helps integrate philanthropy into Hayek’s theory of economic and social order through financial institutions.

Findings

This paper explores the foundations of an Islamic view of philanthropic action. This discussion is inspired by the emerging literature of positive psychology and double movement of Polanyi (2001).

Research limitations/implications

Proper data are not available for the Islamic countries.

Practical implications

Without abandoning Hayek’s theory of markets, this study sketches a view of commercial society in which markets and philanthropy (“voluntary giving and association that serves to promote human flourishing”) work together to enhance welfare human freedom, flourishing and voluntary social cooperation under the umbrella of Islam and also explores the different dimensions that how Islamic financial intuitions are becoming the instrument for the incremental change of this integration.

Social implications

This study guides the policy makers that how social and economic welfare can be increased through the interaction of Islamic financial institutions and philanthropy.

Originality/value

This is an original attempt.

Details

Humanomics, vol. 33 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0828-8666

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Radical Transparency and Digital Democracy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-763-0

Book part
Publication date: 18 October 2011

Lars Mjøset and Ådne Cappelen

Norway is a small nation state on the northernmost coastline of Western Europe, integrated in the Western world economy. For centuries Norway's integration in the world…

Abstract

Norway is a small nation state on the northernmost coastline of Western Europe, integrated in the Western world economy. For centuries Norway's integration in the world economy had been based on exports of raw materials such as fish and timber, as well as shipping services. In the early 20th century, furnace-based metals (made possible by cheap hydropower) were added to this export basket. Just as the world economy entered an increasingly unstable phase in 1970s, another natural resource was discovered in Norway: petroleum – that is, oil and natural gas from the North Sea. This chapter analyses the challenges and possibilities inherent in the Norwegian strategy of developing an oil economy in a world economic situation influenced by new and stronger forms of international integration through the four decades between 1970 and 2010.

Details

The Nordic Varieties of Capitalism
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-778-0

Article
Publication date: 2 November 2018

Wei Jiang, Yu Yan, Lianqing Yu, Hong Jun Li, Lizhen Du and Wei Chen

In the high-altitude, high-voltage electromagnetic interference operation environment, due to the parameters perturbation for robot control model caused by uncertainties…

Abstract

Purpose

In the high-altitude, high-voltage electromagnetic interference operation environment, due to the parameters perturbation for robot control model caused by uncertainties and disturbances, and with the poor effective of the conventional proportional–integral–derivative (PID) control to parameters perturbation system, the mathematical model of power cable live operation robot joint PID closed-loop control system is established.

Design/methodology/approach

The corresponding joint motion robust PID control method is also proposed based on Kharitonov theory, the system robust stability conditions including the sufficient and necessary conditions are deduced and obtained and the solving process of robust PID control parameters stability region is provided.

Findings

Finally, the simulation research on robot joint motion PID control system is also launched in MATLAB environment based on Kharitonov theory. The results show that the conventional PID control obtains better control effect only to nominal model but is ineffective to parameter perturbation system, while robust PID obtains sound control effect to parameter perturbation system. Compared with H8 robust PID, the Kharitonov robust PID has better control effect which meet the system design requirements of joint motor quickly response, high tracking accuracy and sound stability. Finally, the validity and engineering practicability are verified by 220-kV living replacing damper operation experiment.

Originality/value

This paper has described the development of a damper replacement power cable live maintenance robot experimental prototype, which greatly improves operation efficiency and deals with the safety problem of operation in a high-voltage environment. A general manipulator motion control model of the power cable robot is established; the Kharitonov theory-based parameter perturbation robust motion control method of damper replacement robot is also obtained. Through the simulation comparison, it is verified that the Kharitonov control has more superiority for dealing with the parameter perturbation systems under the premise of ensuring the stability motion. The field experiment has further confirmed the engineering practicability.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 45 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 May 2007

Martyna Śliwa

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the debate on the consequences of globalization, in particular the increasing disparity between the wealth of nations and…

2881

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the debate on the consequences of globalization, in particular the increasing disparity between the wealth of nations and individuals in society. It discusses mechanisms which lead to perpetuation and reinforcement of the situation in which, despite being characterized by inequalities and fragmentation, societies remain by and large cohesive and stable.

Design/methodology/approach

This article engages with the so‐called “Polanyi problem” and with Polanyi's and other authors’ responses to it. In the discussion, the analytical approach is adopted by reference to Aldous Huxley's Brave New World, in particular his concept of soma.

Findings

Using the metaphor of soma, developed into four interrelated dimensions, illustrations of social and organizational processes, which ensure sustainability of, and cohesion within, a society based on inequality and fragmentation, are indicated. It is argued that the existence of stratified societies, and inequalities of wealth within and between them, is accompanied by phenomena which support and sustain them.

Practical implications

Drawing upon literary fiction can offer valuable insights into issues pertinent to contemporary academic debate.

Originality/value

Engagement with Huxley's work provides an alternative way of contributing to the globalization debate and, in particular, to the literature addressing the so‐called “Polanyi problem”.

Details

Critical perspectives on international business, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-2043

Keywords

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 10 December 2018

Abstract

Details

Gendering Struggles against Informal and Precarious Work
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-368-5

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