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Article
Publication date: 20 October 2022

Fei Chong Ng, Aizat Abas, Mohamad Riduwan Ramli, Mohamad Fikri Mohd Sharif and Fakhrozi Che Ani

This paper aims to study the interfacial delamination found in the boundary of the copper/copper-epoxy layers of a multi-layer ceramic capacitor.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to study the interfacial delamination found in the boundary of the copper/copper-epoxy layers of a multi-layer ceramic capacitor.

Design/methodology/approach

The thermal reflow process of the capacitor assembly and the crack propagation from the initial micro voids presented in the boundary, and later manifested into delamination, were numerically simulated. Besides, the cross section of the capacitor assembly was inspected for delamination cracks and voids using a scanning electronic microscope.

Findings

Interfacial delamination in the boundary of copper/copper-epoxy layers was caused by the thermal mismatch and growth of micro voids during the thermal reflow process. The maximum deformation on the capacitor during reflow was 2.370 µm. It was found that a larger void would induce higher vicinity stress, mode I stress intensity factor, and crack elongation rate. Moreover, the crack extension increased with the exerted deformation until 0.3 µm, before saturating at the peak crack extension of around 0.078 µm.

Practical implications

The root cause of interfacial delamination issues in capacitors due to thermal reflow has been identified, and viable solutions proposed. These can eliminate the additional manufacturing cost and lead time incurred in identifying and tackling the issues; as well as benefit end-users, by promoting the electronic device reliability and performance.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, the mechanism of delamination occurrence in a capacitor during has not been reported to date. The parametric variation analysis of the void size and deformation on the crack growth has never been conducted.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 April 2022

Yan Liu and Yan Wang

The purpose of this paper is to clarify the growth behavior of fatigue cracks on bionic coupling surface of vermicular cast iron.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to clarify the growth behavior of fatigue cracks on bionic coupling surface of vermicular cast iron.

Design/methodology/approach

The thermal fatigue cyclic experiments were carried out on the bionic specimens processed by laser bionic treatment, in which the thermal fatigue was generated by heating at 600°C ± 5°C and cooling at 25°C ± 5°C. The thermal fatigue cracks of bionic units were analyzed using fractal theory. The relation between fractal dimensions of thermal fatigue cracks and thermal fatigue cycles was discussed.

Findings

The results show that the fractal dimensions can better characterize the fatigue crack growth behavior on bionic coupling surface of vermicular cast iron.

Originality/value

The fractal theory is first used to discuss the growth behavior of fatigue cracks on bionic coupling surface of vermicular cast iron, which is processed by laser bionic treatment.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 69 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 November 2021

Xiuqian Wu, Dehong Ye, Hanmin Zhang, Li Song and Liping Guo

This paper aims to investigate the root causes of and implement the improvements for the inter layer dielectric (ILD) crack for LQFP C90FG (CMOS90 Floating Gate) wafer…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the root causes of and implement the improvements for the inter layer dielectric (ILD) crack for LQFP C90FG (CMOS90 Floating Gate) wafer technology devices in copper wire bonding process.

Design/methodology/approach

Failure analysis was conducted including cratering, scanning electron microscopy inspection and focus ion beam cross-section analysis, which showed ILD crack. Root cause investigation of ILD crack rate sudden jumping was carried out with cause-and-effect analysis, which revealed the root cause is shallower lead frame down-set. ILD crack mechanism deep-dive on ILD crack due to shallower lead frame down-set, which revealed the mechanism is lead frame flag floating on heat insert. Further investigation and energy dispersive X-ray analysis found the Cu particles on heat insert is another factor that can result in lead frame flag floating.

Findings

Lead frame flag floating on heat insert caused by shallower lead frame down-set or foreign matter on heat insert is a critical factor of ILD crack that has never been revealed before. Weak wafer structure strength caused by thinner wafer passivation1 thickness and sharp corner at Metal Trench (compared with the benchmarking fab) are other factors that can impact ILD crack.

Originality/value

For ILD crack improvement in copper wire bonding, besides the obvious factors such as wafer structure and wire bonding parameters, also should take other factors into consideration including lead frame flag floating on heat insert and heat insert maintenance.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 39 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 November 2022

Abdolghafour Khademalrasoul, Zahra Hatampour, Masoud Oulapour and Seyed Enayatollah Alavi

In this manuscript, the authors aimed to demonstrate the influences of influential parameters in mixed-mode crack propagation phenomenon. The authors attempted to cover…

Abstract

Purpose

In this manuscript, the authors aimed to demonstrate the influences of influential parameters in mixed-mode crack propagation phenomenon. The authors attempted to cover almost all surrounding issues of this subject as the authors know simulating of propagating cracks as internal strong discontinuity is a complicated issue.

Design/methodology/approach

In this manuscript, the authors demonstrated the influences of influential parameters in mixed-mode crack propagation phenomenon. The authors attempted to cover almost all surrounding issues of this subject as the authors know simulating of propagating cracks as internal strong discontinuity is a complicated issue. Furthermore, three different scenarios for crack growth are considered. In reality, edge-cracked plate, center-cracked plate and cracked plate in the presence of void and inclusion are studied. In fact, by designing suitable artificial neural network's (ANN) architectures all the three aforementioned conditions are trained and estimated through those architectures with very good agreement with input data. Also by conducting a series of sensitivity analysis, the most affecting factors in mixed-mode crack propagation in different situations are demonstrated. The obtained results are very interesting and useful for other researchers and also the authors hope the results would be cited by researchers.

Findings

The influential parameters on mixed-mode crack propagation were found in this paper.

Originality/value

The computer code using MATLAB was prepared to study the mixed-mode crack paths. Also using ANNs toolbox, the crack path estimation was investigated.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1990

E.M. Remzi and W.S. Blackburn

Theoretical investigations have been performed on slowly propagating cracks in T‐junctions and cross bars using computer procedures developed to analyse the amount and…

Abstract

Theoretical investigations have been performed on slowly propagating cracks in T‐junctions and cross bars using computer procedures developed to analyse the amount and direction of crack growth using automatic mesh modification and the finite element stress analysis program, BERSAFE. The procedures may be used in a linear or non‐linear material. The crack growth for the linear elastic case is calculated to be in the direction of the maximum energy release rate. For the non‐linear case, the direction is taken to be that of Jwi. These procedures have been applied to fatigue crack growth calculations in this paper.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Article
Publication date: 5 March 2010

Keiji Houjou, Kotoji Ando and Koji Takahashi

Zirconia ceramics exhibit high strength and fracture toughness. The purpose of this paper is to research a possibility of crack healing in zirconia ceramics.

Abstract

Purpose

Zirconia ceramics exhibit high strength and fracture toughness. The purpose of this paper is to research a possibility of crack healing in zirconia ceramics.

Design/methodology/approach

ZrO2/SiC composite ceramics are sintered and subjected to three‐point bending. A surface crack of 100 μm in diameter is formed on each specimen. The cracks are healed and the specimens are tested under bending.

Findings

The paper finds that ZrO2/SiC composite ceramic material had a high crack‐healing ability at a considerably low temperature. For example, a crack of 100 μm in diameter is healed even at 600°C.

Research limitations/implications

The paper provides a low temperature healing and a new mechanism of crack healing.

Originality/value

The paper shows the healing temperature and the minimum time required to heal showed a good proportional relation on the Arrhenius plot at temperatures of 600‐800°C. Moreover, the crack healing is caused by SiO2 cristobalite produced during the healing.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 December 2019

Shuji Tomaru and Akiyuki Takahashi

Since the most of structures and structural components suffers from cyclic loadings, the study on the fatigue failure due to the crack growth has a great importance. The…

Abstract

Purpose

Since the most of structures and structural components suffers from cyclic loadings, the study on the fatigue failure due to the crack growth has a great importance. The purpose of this paper is to present a three-dimensional fatigue crack growth simulation of embedded cracks using s-version finite element method (SFEM). Using the numerical results, the validity of the fitness-for-service (FFS) code evaluation method is verified.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, three-dimensional fatigue crack propagation analysis of embedded cracks is performed using the SFEM. SFEM is a numerical analysis method in which the shape of the structure is represented by a global mesh, and cracks are modeled by local meshes independently. The independent global and local meshes are superimposed to obtain the displacement solution of the problem simultaneously.

Findings

The fatigue crack growth of arbitrary shape of cracks is slow compared to that of the simplified circular crack and the crack approximated based on the FFS code of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers (JSME). The results tell us that the FFS code of JSME can provide a conservative evaluation of the fatigue crack growth and the residual life time.

Originality/value

This paper presents a three-dimensional fatigue crack growth simulation of embedded cracks using SFEM. Using this method, it is possible to apply mixed mode loads to complex shaped cracks that are closer to realistic conditions.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 August 2015

Jirí Behal, Petr Homola and Roman Ružek

The prediction of fatigue crack growth behaviour is an important part of damage tolerance analyses. Recently, the author’s work has focused on evaluating the FASTRAN…

90

Abstract

Purpose

The prediction of fatigue crack growth behaviour is an important part of damage tolerance analyses. Recently, the author’s work has focused on evaluating the FASTRAN retardation model. This model is implemented in the AFGROW code, which allows different retardation models to be compared. The primary advantage of the model is that all input parameters, including those for an initial plane-strain state and its transition to a plane-stress-state, are objectively measured using standard middle-crack-tension M(T) specimens. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the ability of the FASTRAN model to predict correct retardation effects due to high loading peaks that occur during variable amplitude loading in sequences representative of an aircraft service.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper addresses pre-setting of the fracture toughness K R (based on J-integral J Q according to ASTM1820) in the FASTRAN retardation model. A set of experiments were performed using specimens made from a 7475-T7351 aluminium alloy plate. Loading sequences with peaks ordered in ascending-descending blocks were used. The effect of truncating and clipping selected load levels on crack propagation behaviour was evaluated using both experimental data and numerical analyses. The findings were supported by the results of a fractographic analysis.

Findings

Fatigue crack propagation data defined using M(T) specimens made from Al 7475-T7351 alloy indicate the difficulty of evaluating the following two events simultaneously: fatigue crack increments after application of loads with maximum amplitudes that exceeded J Q and subcritical crack increments caused by loads at high stress intensity factors. An effect of overloading peaks with a maximum that exceeds J Q should be assessed using a special analysis beyond the scope of the FASTRAN retardation model.

Originality/value

Measurements of fatigue crack growth on specimens made from 7475 T7351 aluminium alloy were carried out. The results indicated that simultaneously evaluating fatigue crack increments after application of the load amplitude above J Q and subcritical increments caused by the loads at high stress intensity factors is difficult. Experiments demonstrated that if the fatigue crack reaches a specific length, the maximal amplitude load induces considerable crack growth retardation.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 6 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 February 2019

Hamid Hamli Benzahar

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate theoretically and numerically the stress and stress intensity factor (SIF) at the time of propagation of the crack in bi-material…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate theoretically and numerically the stress and stress intensity factor (SIF) at the time of propagation of the crack in bi-material. The problem is formulated using two thin materials which are bound by a cracked adhesive at the tip and having a micro-crack in one of these two materials.

Design/methodology/approach

The plane stresses and the SIF will be determined as a function of two parameters (Poisson’s ratio and Shear modulus). The numerical analysis is carried out on a flat element, having a main crack in one of these ends, and a micro-crack varies in the vicinity of this main crack. The problem is analyzed by the finite element method and processed by computational software (ABAQUS).

Findings

The numerical and theoretical analysis allowed the author to determine and compare the values of plane stresses and SIF in each area of the material.

Originality/value

The theoretical analysis of SIF is based mainly on a mathematical calculation of equations of plane stresses; these equations are determined by development of complex analytical functions of bi-materials given by other researchers. Using the numerical method, several models are modeled by changing the micro-crack position relative to the main crack to determine the plane stresses and SIF for each position.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 June 2019

Yawei Xu, Lihong Dong, Haidou Wang, Yuelan Di, Xiaozhu Xie, Peng Wang and Miao Zhang

Crack sensor based on RFID tag has become a research hotspot in the field of metal structural health monitoring for its significant benefit of passive wireless…

Abstract

Purpose

Crack sensor based on RFID tag has become a research hotspot in the field of metal structural health monitoring for its significant benefit of passive wireless transmission. While in practice, crack location will impact the performance of crack depth-sensing tag. The purpose of this paper is to provide a method for reducing disturbance of crack location on crack depth-sensing tag.

Design/methodology/approach

The effect analysis of crack location on crack depth-sensing tag is presented first to find disturbance reason and disturbance law. On the basis of that, a miniaturized tag is proposed to improve the current distribution and reduce the disturbance introduced by crack location.

Findings

The degree of crack location disturbance is closely related to the current distribution in the coverage area of tag. Because sensing tag performs better when crack locates in the high current density area, miniaturization of sensing tag is exploited to expand the high current density area and make the area more symmetrical. The simulated and experimental results demonstrate that tag miniaturization can enhance the performance of crack depth-sensing tag.

Originality/value

This paper provides a method to enhance the performance of crack depth-sensing tag.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 39 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

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