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Article
Publication date: 9 July 2021

Henry F.L. Chung and Mia Hsiao-Wen Ho

This study aims to examine the effects of international competitive strategies, i.e. cost leadership and differentiation, on export (market share and strategic…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the effects of international competitive strategies, i.e. cost leadership and differentiation, on export (market share and strategic) performance. This study further explores the roles of exploitative and exploratory organizational learning in the relationships between international competitive strategies and export performances. To fill research gaps, this study intends to provide guidance on how varied exploitative/exploratory organizational learning and cost leadership/differentiation strategy combinations would affect export performance. The outcomes of this study provide a new match and mis-match conceptualization to extant international competitive strategy and organizational learning literature.

Design/methodology/approach

This study selected New Zealand (NZ) exporting as the research setting because exporting plays such a vital role in NZ’s economy and NZ exporting firms have long been highly competitive in international markets (e.g. meat and dairy exporters), with the primary data collected through surveys conducted in 2010 and 2013. This study adopted a three-year lagged performance approach.

Findings

Cost leadership strategy has a positive effect on market share performance. This effect is enhanced by exploitative learning but dampened by exploratory learning. Cost leadership also has a positive effect on strategic performance, which is not affected by exploitative and exploratory learning. Differentiation strategy bears no relation to market share and strategic performance, even allowing for exploitative and exploratory learning. Collectively, the contingent role of organizational learning in the international competitive strategies and export performance framework is far more comprehensive than was expected.

Research limitations/implications

This study reveals that a match between cost leadership strategy and exploitative learning may result in a superior market share. The configuration of differentiation strategy and exploitative learning and the integration of cost leadership strategy and exploratory learning are suggested as mis-matches, as these combinations would not lead to any significant and positive market share and strategic performance. Unexpectedly, the co-alliance of differentiation strategy and explorative learning is not suggested as a match, as it does not result in a superior market share and strategic performance. This latter outcome suggests that the differentiation strategy-export performance link may be stimulated by other moderating factors (e.g. business managerial ties).

Practical implications

While choosing an appropriate international competitive strategy, managers may use cost leadership over differentiation strategy to achieve successful export performance in both the market share and strategic perspectives. Export managers focusing on cost leadership strategy may further implement exploitative learning instead of explorative learning, when market share is vital. Meanwhile, they may note that explorative learning may not have a moderating effect on enhancing strategic performance through cost leadership. These points signify that exploitation of existing knowledge may be more effective than exploration of new knowledge for market share expansion when cost leadership strategy is devoted to exporting activities. Differentiation strategy, however, does not influence market share and strategic performance in exporting, even with an alignment of exploitative/exploratory learning. Managers are urged to pay attention to the mis-match of differentiation strategy and organizational learning when market share and strategic performance are the priorities in export performance evaluation.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the organizational learning literature by providing a new match and mis-match conceptualization relating to international competitive strategy and export performance. The new framework provides directions on when firms should use organizational learning to enhance their competitive strategies (a match scenario) and when they should not use it (a mis-match scenario). This study broadens the existing research that has mainly focused on alignment combinations such as organizational learning-internationalization strategy and organizational learning-social network.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 25 October 2018

Henry F.L. Chung

Research focusing on the relation between market orientation and innovation in the Asian emerging economy is limited. The purpose of this study is to advance the extant…

Abstract

Purpose

Research focusing on the relation between market orientation and innovation in the Asian emerging economy is limited. The purpose of this study is to advance the extant literature by investigating the relations among market orientation, guanxi networking and innovation using the MARKOR scale.

Design/methodology/approach

The research conclusion is drawn based on the experience of 122 Asian emerging market firms operating in a wide variety of industrial sectors. This study explores whether the three MARKOR components (intelligence generation, dissemination and responsiveness) and their interaction with business and political guanxi have a significant effect on firms’ strategic innovation success. Innovation is measured following the practice of the OECD. In addition to the quantitative analyses, this study conducted qualitative interviews with executives of eight respondent firms, to further consolidate the subjects under investigation. The integration of both qualitative and quantitative data enriches the conclusions drawn from the study.

Findings

The findings of this study confirm that, when operating in an Asian emerging economy, both intelligence generation and responsiveness have a positive and direct impact on innovation. Though intelligence dissemination has no direct influence on innovation, its alignment with business and political guanxi still leads to a positive effect on innovation. The coalition of responsiveness and political guanxi, however, has a negative influence on innovation. The results of this study add new insights to the extant literature and provide implications for future research and marketing practices in Asian emerging economies.

Originality/value

The findings of this study confirm that, when operating in an Asian emerging economy, both intelligence generation and responsiveness have a positive and direct impact on innovation. Though intelligence dissemination has no direct influence on innovation, its alignment with business and political guanxi still leads to a positive effect on innovation. The coalition of responsiveness and political guanxi, however, has a negative influence on innovation. The results add new insights to the extant literature and provide implications for future research and marketing practices in Asian emerging economies.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 34 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 31 January 2018

Henry F.L. Chung and Tsuang Kuo

This study aims to present two new contingent frameworks that hypothesize the moderation role of managerial ties (MTs) in the international competitive strategy-export…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to present two new contingent frameworks that hypothesize the moderation role of managerial ties (MTs) in the international competitive strategy-export financial and strategic performance framework. The purposes of this study are to explore whether a common standardized or individual customized conceptualization consisting of MTs, international competitive strategy and performance can be used to achieve export financial and strategic performance; to offer contingent factors for the current international competitive strategy-export performance framework; and to generalize the roles of MTs in the developed vis-à-vis developing region.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses the experience of 114 exporting firms operating in the European Union region to test its theoretical frameworks. MTs include both business and political ties.

Findings

Business and political ties have completely different moderation effects on the relation between international differentiation/low-cost strategy and export financial/strategic performance. Business ties have a positive influence on the international differentiation strategy-export strategic performance and international low-cost strategy-export financial performance dyads, but a negative effect in the international low-cost strategy-export strategic performance framework. In contrast, political ties are revealed to have a negative effect on the international differentiation/low-cost strategy-export financial performance framework.

Originality/value

This research advances extant international competitive strategy-export performance literature by revealing the bright and dark sides of business ties and the down side of political ties in the framework. Performance should be investigated in terms of financial and strategic performance. The moderation effect of business ties is more complex than that reported in the developing region; thus, a cross-regional generalization on these ties’ effects is more difficult to establish. In contrast, the dark side effect of political ties is consistent across developed and developing regions; a cross-regional generalization on these ties is more viable. Collectively, the results show that a standardized process for achieving both export financial and export strategic performances is not feasible, while a customized process for each export performance is needed.

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1986

Li‐teh Sun

Among developing countries, the Republic of China in Taiwan (hereinafter Taiwan) has been experiencing economic growth accompanied by improving income distribution…

Abstract

Among developing countries, the Republic of China in Taiwan (hereinafter Taiwan) has been experiencing economic growth accompanied by improving income distribution. Between 1964 and 1980, the average annual growth rate of the real gross national product was 9.92 per cent (Council for Economic Planning and Development (CEPD), 1982, p. 23). In the same period, the income ratio between the top 20 per cent and the bottom 20 per cent of families dropped from 5.33 to 4.17 and the Gini coefficient decreased from 0.36 to 0.30 (CEPD, 1982, p. 54; Directorate‐General of Budget Accounting and Statistics, 1980, (DGBAS), p. 44). To put it somewhat dif‐ferently, in 1964 the lowest fifth of households received 7.71 per cent of total personal income, and the highest fifth 41.07 per cent. But in 1980, the income share of the lowest fifth increased to 8.82 per cent while that of the highest fifth decreased to 36.80 per cent. The condition of greater equality in income distribution appears more obvious in the capital city of Taipei. In 1981, for instance, its Gini coefficient was estimated to be only 0.28 (Taipei Bureau of Budget, Accounting and Statistics, 1981, (TBBAS), P. 24).

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 13 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Book part
Publication date: 16 November 2018

Frederick Betz

Abstract

Details

Strategic Business Models: Idealism and Realism in Strategy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-709-2

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Book part
Publication date: 25 July 2008

Martin J. Conyon and Mark R. Muldoon

In this chapter we investigate the ownership and control of UK firms using contemporary methods from computational graph theory. Specifically, we analyze a ‘small-world…

Abstract

In this chapter we investigate the ownership and control of UK firms using contemporary methods from computational graph theory. Specifically, we analyze a ‘small-world’ model of ownership and control. A small-world is a network whose actors are linked by a short chain of acquaintances (short path lengths), but at the same time have a strongly overlapping circle of friends (high clustering). We simulate a set of corporate worlds using an ensemble of random graphs introduced by Chung and Lu (2002a, 2002b). We find that the corporate governance network structures analyzed here are more clustered (‘clubby’) than would be predicted by the random-graph model. Path lengths, though, are generally not shorter than expected. In addition, we investigate the role of financial institutions: potentially important conduits creating connectivity in corporate networks. We find such institutions give rise to systematically different network topologies.

Details

Network Strategy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1442-3

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Article
Publication date: 5 April 2011

John R. Darling and Victor L. Heller

This paper aims to present The Key as a very valuable interactive foundation for effective conflict management in international trade negotiations. The Key, as used in…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present The Key as a very valuable interactive foundation for effective conflict management in international trade negotiations. The Key, as used in this analysis, is reflected in the nature of the thoughts and feelings (commensurate with attitudes) generated by a marketing manager, and influenced by that individual's sense of cultural responsibility. The authors have researched, and have used this concept of The Key and its effectiveness in conflict management in both academic and international business arenas, and in low context, as well as high‐context cultures.

Design/methodology/approach

An analysis of conflict management is presented within a case situation that involves business in the high‐context culture of China. A high‐context culture places a great deal of emphasis on a person's values and position or place in society, and interactions with others, rather than on the words and formal legalistic constructs used for negotiations in low‐context cultures. The case focuses on the relationship between the Vice President for International Marketing of Innovative Technologies, Inc. (ITI) headquartered in Chicago, IL, with offices also located in Frankfurt, Germany, and the Managing Director of the Shanghai Technology Manufacturing Center (STC) in China. The steps and skills used in providing a structure for the responsive process of managing a conflict were: the preliminary steps (involving power‐base development, relational acceptance and meaningful communication skills); the resolution steps (involving assumption analysis, objective identification and alternative selection skills); and the maintenance steps (involving action agreement, feedback review and continuing oversight skills). Each of these steps and skills were used to resolve, in a positive manner, the conflict between the ITI and STC.

Findings

Use of The Key, as reflected in a manager's positive thoughts and feelings, is of major importance for effective application of the steps and skills in the paradigm for effective conflict management introduced in this treatise.

Originality/value

The case focuses on conflict challenges that are encountered and successfully resolved, thereby facilitating the marketing of a new cell (mobile) telephone introduced into the high‐context culture of China by Innovative Technologies, Inc.

Details

Chinese Management Studies, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-614X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1996

Peter Zhou

This paper is a study of the current trends and conditions of electronic resources for Chinese studies, based on a recent survey on the Internet of 29 Chinese libraries in…

Abstract

This paper is a study of the current trends and conditions of electronic resources for Chinese studies, based on a recent survey on the Internet of 29 Chinese libraries in North America and eight Chinese libraries in China, Taiwan and Hong Kong. The survey discussed current electronic resources for Chinese studies, with a union list of major Chinese language databases currently used in libraries in Asia and the US. Current views on the use and development of electronic resources for Chinese studies were summarised.

Details

The Electronic Library, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-0473

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Abstract

Details

Global and Culturally Diverse Leaders and Leadership
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-495-0

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Expert briefing
Publication date: 10 February 2021

Her successor is Chung Eui-yong, President Moon Jae-in’s former national security advisor. At his swearing-in yesterday, Chung called peace with Pyongyang “a must-go…

Details

DOI: 10.1108/OXAN-DB259440

ISSN: 2633-304X

Keywords

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