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Article
Publication date: 8 March 2021

Radwan Hussien Alkebsee, Gao-Liang Tian, Muhammad Usman, Muhammad Abubakkar Siddique and Adeeb A. Alhebry

This study aims to investigate whether the presence of female directors on audit committees affects audit fees in Chinese listed companies. This study also investigates…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate whether the presence of female directors on audit committees affects audit fees in Chinese listed companies. This study also investigates whether the audit committee’s gender diversity moderates the relationship between the firm’s inherent situational factors (e.g. audit complexity and firm risk) and audit fees. Finally, this study investigates whether the effect of the audit committee’s gender diversity on audit fees varies with within-country institutional contingencies (e.g. state-owned enterprises [SOEs] vs non-SOEs and firms that are located in more developed regions vs firms that are located in less developed regions)

Design/methodology/approach

This study used the data of all A-share listed companies on the Shanghai and Shenzhen stock exchanges for the period from 2009 to 2015. The authors use ordinary least squares regression as a baseline methodology, along with firm fixed effect, Deference in Deference method, two-stage least squares regression, two-stage Heckman model and generalized method of moments models to control for the possible issue of endogeneity.

Findings

The study’s findings suggest that the presence of female directors on the audit committee improves internal monitoring and communication, which reduce the perceived audit risk and the need for assurances from external auditors. The results also suggest that female directors demand high-quality audits and further assurance from external auditors when the firm is more complex and riskier. In addition, the results suggest that within-country, institutional factors play significant role in shaping the governance role of gender-diverse audit committee.

Practical implications

The study contributes to the agency theory by providing evidence that the interaction between agency theory and corporate governance “board composition” generates an effective monitoring mechanism and contributing to the institutional theory by finding that role of female directors on audit committee varies from context to another. In addition, this study contributes to literature review of gender diversity in the boardroom by finding the economic benefit of having female directors on audit committee. Finally, this study has implications for policy-makers in promoting regulations to legalize women presence on the board, to external auditors in assessing control risk during planning the audit, to those who responsible for appointing audit committee members.

Originality/value

The authors extend earlier studies by providing novel evidence on the relationship between gender-diverse audit committees and audit fees in terms of both the supply- and demand-side perspectives; that female directors moderate the relationship between firm inherent situational factors (e.g. audit complexity and firm risk) and audit fees; and that the effect of audit committees’ gender diversity on audit fees varies with sub-national institutional contingencies.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 36 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 31 January 2018

Henry F.L. Chung and Tsuang Kuo

This study aims to present two new contingent frameworks that hypothesize the moderation role of managerial ties (MTs) in the international competitive strategy-export…

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Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to present two new contingent frameworks that hypothesize the moderation role of managerial ties (MTs) in the international competitive strategy-export financial and strategic performance framework. The purposes of this study are to explore whether a common standardized or individual customized conceptualization consisting of MTs, international competitive strategy and performance can be used to achieve export financial and strategic performance; to offer contingent factors for the current international competitive strategy-export performance framework; and to generalize the roles of MTs in the developed vis-à-vis developing region.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses the experience of 114 exporting firms operating in the European Union region to test its theoretical frameworks. MTs include both business and political ties.

Findings

Business and political ties have completely different moderation effects on the relation between international differentiation/low-cost strategy and export financial/strategic performance. Business ties have a positive influence on the international differentiation strategy-export strategic performance and international low-cost strategy-export financial performance dyads, but a negative effect in the international low-cost strategy-export strategic performance framework. In contrast, political ties are revealed to have a negative effect on the international differentiation/low-cost strategy-export financial performance framework.

Originality/value

This research advances extant international competitive strategy-export performance literature by revealing the bright and dark sides of business ties and the down side of political ties in the framework. Performance should be investigated in terms of financial and strategic performance. The moderation effect of business ties is more complex than that reported in the developing region; thus, a cross-regional generalization on these ties’ effects is more difficult to establish. In contrast, the dark side effect of political ties is consistent across developed and developing regions; a cross-regional generalization on these ties is more viable. Collectively, the results show that a standardized process for achieving both export financial and export strategic performances is not feasible, while a customized process for each export performance is needed.

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Article
Publication date: 5 June 2020

Changli Feng, Ruize Ma and Lin Jiang

With the rise of service economy, many companies are attempting to gain a competitive advantage through service innovation. However, the existing research has not drawn…

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1050

Abstract

Purpose

With the rise of service economy, many companies are attempting to gain a competitive advantage through service innovation. However, the existing research has not drawn consistent conclusions about the relationship between service innovation and firm performance. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to provide a quantitative review on the service innovation-performance relationship based on research findings reported in the extant literature.

Design/methodology/approach

Studies from 46 peer-reviewed articles were sampled and analyzed. A meta-analytic approach was adopted to conduct a quantitative review on the relationship between service innovation and firm performance, and the effects of any potential moderators were further explored.

Findings

The results found that service innovation has a significant positive impact on firm performance. Additionally, the relationship between service innovation and firm performance is influenced by measurement moderators (economic region and performance measurement), and contextual moderators (firm type, innovation type, customer factors and attitudes toward risk).

Originality/value

The meta-analysis has been used to explore the relationship between service innovation and firm performance, and the findings have contributed to the literature on service innovation, as well as providing future research directions.

Details

Journal of Service Management, vol. 32 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-5818

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 September 2019

Rafael Morais Pereira, Felipe Mendes Borini and Moacir de Miranda Oliveira Jr

In this paper, the authors investigate whether the location of interorganizational partners affects the outcomes of process innovation. Herein, the term partner location…

Abstract

Purpose

In this paper, the authors investigate whether the location of interorganizational partners affects the outcomes of process innovation. Herein, the term partner location refers to multiple degrees of proximity or distance, including in the same national province or state, in other national provinces or states, in the same country and in foreign countries. The purpose of this paper is to show that partner location, whether domestic or foreign, depends on which partner an organization needs in order to advance its process innovation.

Design/methodology/approach

To test the hypotheses, the authors employed a panel data regression model to analyze data from 28 Brazilian business sectors from 2003 to 2014, all collected for PINTEC: The Brazilian Survey of Technological Innovation, representing a total of 107,854 companies.

Findings

The results show that cooperation is significant with both national and foreign partners, even though they bear different effects on the various degrees of innovativeness related to process innovation.

Practical implications

For managerial practice, the results corroborate that the choice of partners has to be strategic and take their location into account. In particular, practices at the domestic level with suppliers and vocational training centers are relevant to increasing innovation at the micro level. At the same time, for higher levels of innovation, managers should prioritize, within the limitations of existing resources, cooperation with universities, competitors and suppliers from abroad, especially in developed countries.

Originality/value

The main academic contribution of the study is the highlighting partner location (i.e. proximate or distant) as relevant to results of process innovation. Nevertheless, the authors determined that this process is heterogeneous, given the function of each partner and taking the different degrees of innovativeness into account.

Details

Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, vol. 31 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-038X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 9 March 2020

Anish Purkayastha, Sunil Sharma and Amit Karna

In this paper, the authors undertake a systematic analysis of multinationality–performance (M-P) literature published in the last decade, when antecedents for…

Abstract

Purpose

In this paper, the authors undertake a systematic analysis of multinationality–performance (M-P) literature published in the last decade, when antecedents for internationalization and moderators of the M-P relationship had attained a center stage in international business and international management research. Though M-P relationship is one of the most widely studied topics within international business literature, so far synthesis of the entire theoretical landscape is missing in extant literature.

Design/methodology/approach

Through keywords search process, the authors found 111 studies in management literature that look at internationalization, its antecedents, performance of internationalized firms, and moderators of the M-P relationship. The focus of this study is to identify theoretical foundations used to explain the antecedents and moderators in M-P relationship, in order to suggest the future research direction for the field. The authors classify the antecedents and moderators based on their theoretical underpinnings not only to identify commonly used theoretical foundations in the last 10 years of international strategy research but also to highlight potential areas for future research.

Findings

The authors’ analysis indicates that research on international strategy in the last decade was dominated by theory testing in the context of developed economies. The authors’ review suggests that majority of the antecedents and moderators in the M-P relationship are anchored within institutional theory, organizational structure, resource-based view, social capital, and upper echelon theory.

Originality/value

The authors’ findings are indicative of a rich research potential of M-P relationship in the contextual research setting of emerging markets while leveraging more diversified theoretical bases and multiple levels of research design.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 12 November 2018

Ismail Sila

The purpose of this paper is to analyze if and how country- and sector-related contingency factors affect the implementation of TQM practices and various performance…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze if and how country- and sector-related contingency factors affect the implementation of TQM practices and various performance measures within a TQM-performance relationships model framework.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors used data from 156 firms in Turkey and 132 firms in North Cyprus (NC) to test the model relationships by utilizing multiple group structural equation modeling (SEM).

Findings

The study finds support for both the universal and the contingency argument within the context of country and sector analyses. Although our findings suggest no differences across the two countries, the authors find evidence for differences across sectors in terms of their TQM practices and performance outcomes. In the case of NC firms, the direct effects of TQM on human resource results and customer results constituted the missing linkages in the performance excellence framework.

Research limitations/implications

This study suffers from the same limitations common to all survey research. However, it contributes strongly to the limited TQM contingency research by providing new findings and insights. This study must be replicated in different countries and other types of contextual factors must be used to determine if and how they moderate the model relationships. Other theories are also needed to better explain some of the relationships.

Practical implications

There needs to be a more holistic approach to quality management and increased institutional support for quality initiatives in developing countries. Through proper alignment and integration of their different components, organizations can realize maximum improvement in their business results. Understanding the sector level contingencies before implementing a performance excellence model is also recommended.

Social implications

The study has several social, economic and policy implications, including the need to improve employees’ work environment to improve their lives and prevent brain drain; to pass legislation to improve lax consumer laws; to found quality institutes to promote the education, training, qualification and professional development of employees working in the various sectors of the economy; and for government and employers to realize the importance of valuing stakeholders and delivering value and results to them to ensure long-term success.

Originality/value

This is one of the few studies in TQM contingency research that tests various relationships among TQM and business results by using country and sector as contingency factors.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. 67 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 8 January 2018

Jamal Mousa Shamieh, Ihab Hanna Sawalha, Amer Z. Salman, Emad K. Al-Karablieh, Mohammad A. Tabieh, Hussain F. Al-Qudah and Osama O. Jaara

The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to estimate the water demand elasticities using a parametric linear programming (LP) model to provide an insight into the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to estimate the water demand elasticities using a parametric linear programming (LP) model to provide an insight into the accurate and flexible pricing policy of irrigation water in the Jordan Valley; and second, to highlight key risk aspects, related to water demand, which are likely to impact the community.

Design/methodology/approach

A parametric LP model was used in this research. Primary and secondary data were collected.

Findings

Results revealed that the demand elasticity is high in Spring and Summer than in Fall and Winter, meaning that during Spring and Summer farmers are willing to forgo larger amounts of water than in other months. This is because of areas planted during Spring seasons are much less than those of Autumn and Winter.

Practical implications

The Jordan Valley suffers from water scarcity risk, and consequently the area to be planted is not fully utilized, leading to lower cropping intensities. Responsible authorities in Jordan need to address these issues and propose proper solutions in order to reduce further escalation of this risk and subsequent impact on local communities. Insight into the value of water demand elasticities is essential to support and mitigate policy decision making under risk conditions, concerning investments in water supply systems; investments in the water distribution and irrigation systems; efficient allocation of water with competing sectors; setting water pricing and tariffs; setting cost recovery mechanisms, and the risks encountered under lack of mitigated policy decision making.

Originality/value

This is one of few studies that addresses in detail using a parametric LP model the issue of water scarcity, related risks and subsequent impact on society in Jordan. It is expected to help policy and decision makers better formulate future estimates and demand which subsequently reduce related risks.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 29 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

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Article
Publication date: 26 August 2014

Sheng Li, Yaoqi Zhang, Denis Nadolnyak, John David Wesley and Yifei Zhang

Since 2004, subsidies increased by 670 percent in the Chinese fertilizer industry to reduce the farmer's burden. The purpose of this paper is to assess whether subsidies…

Abstract

Purpose

Since 2004, subsidies increased by 670 percent in the Chinese fertilizer industry to reduce the farmer's burden. The purpose of this paper is to assess whether subsidies benefit the target groups, the fertilizer subsidy distribution pattern and benefit allocation pattern among fertilizer producers and other sectors were investigated.

Design/methodology/approach

The Muth model is extended to evaluate the impacts of a subsidy on multi-stage markets.

Findings

It is found that the total benefits from the policy are about RMB 7.7 billion yuans. The fertilizer suppliers gain about RMB 51 billion yuans from the favorable policy with mean subsidy incidence 0.8 and capturing about 70 percent of total surplus.

Social implications

The results suggest that transferring parts of subsidies to the non-fertilizer sectors could be considered an efficient way to redistribute welfare indifferent sectors.

Originality/value

This study first use the equilibrium displacement model to quantity the distribution of fertilizer subsidy in a vertical market in China.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2018

Xiaoling Guo and Ying-yi Hong

While an increasing number of global brands are of emerging country origin, research about emerging global brands remains scare. The purpose of this paper is to provide…

Abstract

Purpose

While an increasing number of global brands are of emerging country origin, research about emerging global brands remains scare. The purpose of this paper is to provide the first theoretical effort to understand how consumers in the developed regions evaluate global brands from emerging countries. Building on globalization and social identity theory, the paper aims to shed light on the effect of global identity on consumer attitude toward emerging global brands, the process of such effect, and the boundary condition for it as well.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors used two non-student surveys in the USA and UK in which respondents’ global identity was measured and two laboratory experiments in which respondents’ global identity was primed. The operationalization of dependent variables is also divergent, either directly measuring attitude toward the global brands from developing countries or measuring consumer relative evaluation. Convergent results were reported from four studies.

Findings

The results show that when consumers’ global (vs local) identity is accessible, those from developed regions will show more favorable evaluations of global brands from emerging countries. And this effect is mediated by the positive association between global identity and globalization. Further, this effect emerged when consumers view global and local cultures as compatible with each other but disappeared when consumers view global and local cultures as oppositional to each other.

Practical implications

The findings have practical implications for global brand marketers from emerging economies to enter developed country markets, and to make their brands real global. Specifically, global identity consumers should be targeted and the compatible view of global and local cultures should be pronounced.

Originality/value

Focusing on global brands from emerging countries, this paper examines the global identity effect in developed country markets for the first time. The finding add new knowledge to the literature of globalization, global branding, and assimilation effect of global identity, and help to reconcile the heated debate on whether country of origin is still relevant to the globalized world.

Details

Journal of Contemporary Marketing Science, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2516-7480

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 30 July 2018

Abstract

Details

Marketing Management in Turkey
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-558-0

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