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Article
Publication date: 5 February 2018

Felix Boronczyk, Christopher Rumpf and Christoph Breuer

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of exposure-related and consumer-related factors on the return of sponsorship investment through their influence on viewers’…

1341

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of exposure-related and consumer-related factors on the return of sponsorship investment through their influence on viewers’ attention for sponsor signage.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected through an experimental study (n=92) involving eye-tracking and a questionnaire, and were analyzed using regression analysis.

Findings

The results show that viewers’ attention for sponsor signage is affected by the signage color of concurrent sponsors, as well as viewers’ brand familiarity, and sport involvement. In particular, the findings reveal that viewers’ attention for sponsor signage increases with greater color contrast between concurrently visible sponsor signage. Further, signage receives more attention if viewers are familiar with the brand and less involved with the sponsored event. Given that attention is an important prerequisite for further processing of sponsorship information, these findings have important implications for managers seeking to evaluate the return on their sponsorship investment.

Practical implications

When assessing the return on a sponsorship investment, marketers should consider the characteristics of surrounding sponsor signage and the audience with regard to their impact on viewers’ attention for their own signage. Ideally, marketers should attempt to create a greater color contrast between their own signage and its surroundings in order to maximize viewer attention.

Originality/value

This paper provides valuable information on the importance of concurrently visible sponsor signage and audience characteristics for the return on investment of sponsorships through their impact on viewers’ attention.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 October 2021

Felix Boronczyk, Christopher Rumpf and Christoph Breuer

Technological innovations could allow for real-time control of sponsor exposure during sport broadcasts to increase the capacity of sponsor messages to attract attention. While…

Abstract

Purpose

Technological innovations could allow for real-time control of sponsor exposure during sport broadcasts to increase the capacity of sponsor messages to attract attention. While such an approach requires knowledge on the interplay between in-game events and viewers' attention to sponsor signage previous studies have disregarded factors pertaining to the competition itself. To address this gap, this paper investigates the impact of game-related variables on the allocation of viewer attention in live broadcasts.

Design/methodology/approach

Eye tracking is used to examine the impact of variations in score, ball position and ball possession on soccer fans' attention to sponsor messages during broadcasts. In total, the data comprise n = 36,604 second-by-second observations from 11 participants and games.

Findings

Logistic regression analysis reveals game time effects and significant interaction effects between possession and the score as well as the ball position variable. Sponsors receive less attention if the attacking team controls the ball near the opponents' goal, particularly if the viewers' preferred team is in possession.

Practical implications

Property owners and sponsors can exploit these findings to determine the value of sponsor brand exposure more precisely. New systems could further increase message effectiveness through adjustments of sponsor exposure based on real time match event data.

Originality/value

This study is the first to explore the influence of game-related variables on attention to sponsors. By employing live broadcasts in a near-realistic setting, it further addresses a gap in the literature and adds to the knowledge on sponsor message processing.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 23 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 2020

Felix Boronczyk and Christoph Breuer

This study examines how brand attitude formation with respect to sport event sponsors is affected by feelings related to the sponsor brand, the sponsored event, and concurrent…

Abstract

Purpose

This study examines how brand attitude formation with respect to sport event sponsors is affected by feelings related to the sponsor brand, the sponsored event, and concurrent sponsors.

Design/methodology/approach

Using systematically manipulated press releases, 216 sport-interested participants were presented with different sponsorships of a major sport event. Sponsor information was systematically manipulated both within the stimulus text and the accompanying photo, which contained clearly visible sponsor signage. Participants' brand-related feelings and attitudes toward the stimulus brands were assessed through an online questionnaire following the treatment and analyzed using structural equation modeling.

Findings

The results show that sponsor brand-related feelings represent an important step in the creation of brand attitudes. Sponsor brand attitudes are further revealed to be in part determined by event- and co-sponsor-related feelings through several indirect pathways.

Practical implications

The findings presented in this study suggest that managers who seek to create favorable brand responses need to consider the feelings associated with their brands, the event and concurrent sponsors. Brands may experience both beneficial and detrimental effects, depending on whether the feelings involved are positive or negative.

Originality/value

To date, no research has investigated the relationships between brand-related feelings and brand attitudes in event sponsorship while accounting for the influence of the sponsored event and concurrent sponsors. Therefore, this study contributes to a better understanding of the role of feelings in sponsor brand attitude formation.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 21 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 August 2023

Joern Schlimm and Christoph Breuer

This paper explores sports consumer interest in virtual environments (VE) and Web3 activations, specifically how the level of psychological involvement, consumers' generational…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper explores sports consumer interest in virtual environments (VE) and Web3 activations, specifically how the level of psychological involvement, consumers' generational cohorts and previous experience with VE and Web3 activations influence consumer interest in VE and Web3 products and services related to their favorite sports team.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey instrument was developed and distributed online resulting in a sample size of n = 526. The survey was designed to measure consumers' psychological involvement with their favorite sports team based on the Psychological Continuum Model, and to determine respondents' interest in potential VE and Web3 activations. Finally, the survey collected demographical information and data regarding respondents' previous experience with VE and Web3 applications. Multiple regression analysis was subsequently conducted to predict the impact of (1) psychological involvement, (2) consumers' generational cohorts and (3) previous experience with VE and Web3 activations on the dependent variable consumer interest in VE and Web3 activations.

Findings

The regression model showed a significant impact of the independent variables on consumer interest in VE and Web3 activations with consumer involvement exerting the highest influence. Consumers' previous experience with VE and Web3 applications also seems to trigger interest, in line with the consumption capital theory. This study also suggests that younger generational cohorts are not intrinsically more attracted to VE and Web3 activations but their interest seems to depend on the type of activation.

Research limitations/implications

This study is intended as a first assessment of independent variables that may have an impact on sports consumer interest in VE and Web3 activations. Further research is needed to assess the impact these variables combined with other indicators may have on consumer interest, for instance by employing a Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) approach. This research included selected VE and Web3 applications comprising online games, NFTs and cryptocurrencies, to calculate a VE and Web3 Literacy Score for the purpose of this paper. However, the “umbrella term Web3” (Wang et al., 2022) could indicate a number of additional applications not considered in this research. Future studies could examine sports consumer experience with additional Web3 activations when assessing VE and Web3 Literacy.

Practical implications

The results of this research imply the need for a diversification of the VE and Web3 portfolio offered by sports teams to cater to different consumer segments. Upcoming challenges for sports teams include motivating younger consumers to take an interest in Web3 activations beyond gaming. Additionally, sports teams should encourage loyal supporters in the advanced stages of the PCM who possess limited VE and Web3 experience, to engage in VE and Web3 activations through simplified offers complementing their overall fan experience.

Originality/value

VE and Web3 activations currently offered by sports teams are still in their early stages and data underpinning their success is scarce. This is the first study examining variables that may influence consumer interest in a sports context.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 24 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 7 December 2021

Aaron von Felbert and Christoph Breuer

Endorsement research has focused primarily on determining the effectiveness of single endorsers, whereas marketing practice shows that companies usually engage multiple endorsers…

2253

Abstract

Purpose

Endorsement research has focused primarily on determining the effectiveness of single endorsers, whereas marketing practice shows that companies usually engage multiple endorsers to promote their brands and products. As academic evidence for multiple endorsers is limited and extant findings are ambiguous, the purpose of this study is to determine the influence of different multiple endorser combinations on consumers' purchase intentions for a sports-related product endorsement and to identify whether endorser-product congruence and consumers' involvement with the endorsed product moderate endorsers' influences.

Design/methodology/approach

Two-hundred thirty-three useful responses were collected to an online experiment, and endorsers' direct and indirect influences on consumers' purchase intentions were analyzed in serial mediation analyses. Potential moderating effects of endorser-product congruence and consumers' involvement with the endorsed product were tested in moderated regression analyses.

Findings

The study's findings show that using multiple endorsers has an overall positive influence on consumers' purchase intentions, which is mediated by their attitudes toward the advertisements and the endorsed brand. Endorser-product congruence moderates an endorsement's effectiveness, whereas a moderating effect of consumers' product involvement was not supported.

Originality/value

This study adds to the extant body of endorsement research by confirming the overall effectiveness of using multiple endorsers to influence consumers' intentions to purchase the endorsed product. In addition, by showing that endorser-product congruence determines endorsers' effectiveness in a multiple endorser context, the study extends the current research perspective and provides practical implications for marketing professionals on how to combine multiple endorsers.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 29 September 2020

Aaron von Felbert and Christoph Breuer

As the superiority of sports celebrities' endorsements has been questioned, the purpose of this study is to identify various types of endorsers' direct and indirect effects on…

14479

Abstract

Purpose

As the superiority of sports celebrities' endorsements has been questioned, the purpose of this study is to identify various types of endorsers' direct and indirect effects on consumers' purchase intentions.

Design/methodology/approach

Empirical data were collected from 240 useful responses to an online experiment, and research hypotheses were tested using (moderated) serial mediation analyses.

Findings

The study's findings indicate that an endorser has a positive influence on consumers' purchase intentions through their perceptions of the advertisement and the endorsed brand. A moderated serial mediation analysis finds differences in the four types of endorsers analyzed. A sports celebrity is the most effective type of endorser in increasing consumers' purchase intentions, whereas endorsements by company managers and peer consumers, while also positive, are less effective in influencing advertising outcomes. An expert's endorsement is comparable to that of a manager but not significant.

Research limitations/implications

The generalizability of the study's findings is limited because of a restricted data sample, the use of fictitious endorsers and the limited number of product categories and brands analyzed.

Originality/value

The study systematically analyzes the behavioral influence of four types of endorsers on consumers' purchase intentions, mediated by their perceptions of the advertisements and the endorsed brand. The results of this analysis extend the current state of endorsement research, indicating that endorsements should be integrated into companies' marketing strategies and provide marketing professionals practical guidance on which type of endorser is most effective in influencing advertising outcomes.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 August 2018

Kirstin Hallmann, Christoph Breuer, Michael Ilgner, Thomas Giel and Lea Rossi

The purpose of this paper is to identify the determinants of success of elite athletes by applying the concept of career success to a sporting context. The concept of career…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the determinants of success of elite athletes by applying the concept of career success to a sporting context. The concept of career success includes extrinsic (i.e. tangible) career accomplishments like medals as well as intrinsic factors referring to subjective judgements about career attainments. Thereby, a holistic perspective is taken which has not been studied extensively before.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on previous literature, a theoretical model was derived outlining how human capital, motivation, organisational characteristics and socio-demographics affect both intrinsic and extrinsic career success. To measure the impact of these factors, primary (n=1,249) and secondary data of elite athletes were collected. Regression analyses indicated that all factors included in the theoretical model were associated with extrinsic and intrinsic success.

Findings

Institutional support was an important driver for intrinsic career success while financial support affected extrinsic career success. There was no significant influence of extrinsic career success on intrinsic career success.

Practical implications

These findings imply that policy makers should offer enhanced dual career options, such as mentoring programmes, aspects like sport-psychological support and nutrition counselling, and long-term, stable financial support for athletes to maximise career success.

Originality/value

This paper applies the construct of career success to sports. A focus on the athletes’ intrinsic career success is placed as this area has been neglected in past research.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Sport Business in Leading Economies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-564-3

Article
Publication date: 1 October 2010

Kirstin Hallmann, Kyriaki Kaplanidou and Christoph Breuer

Sports events are tourist attractions and their image components can relate to the destination image concept and structure. This study examined sports event images held by active…

1216

Abstract

Sports events are tourist attractions and their image components can relate to the destination image concept and structure. This study examined sports event images held by active and passive sports tourists at four marathon races in Germany. Some differences in the perception of event images were found for active and passive sports tourists as well as for different types of destinations. For active sports tourists, emotional, physical and organisational image associations were clustered closer. For passive sports tourists, social and historical image associations were clustered closer. The type of destination elicited different event images among active and passive sports tourists.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 March 2012

Pamela Wicker, Kirstin Hallmann and Christoph Breuer

Sport participation is not exclusively determined by individual socio‐demographic factors (micro level) since infrastructure factors such as the availability of sport facilities…

4991

Abstract

Purpose

Sport participation is not exclusively determined by individual socio‐demographic factors (micro level) since infrastructure factors such as the availability of sport facilities and sport programmes (macro level) can also play a role in this regard. The purpose of this paper is to provide evidence for these determinants of sport participation using multi‐level analyses.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey among the resident population in the city of Munich was carried out in 2008 (n=11,715). Furthermore, secondary data on the available sport infrastructure in every urban district of Munich (n=25) were collected. Multi‐level analyses were conducted to find the micro and macro level determinants of sport participation.

Findings

The results show that aside from micro level factors, the availability of swimming pools and parks is especially important for residents’ sport activity. Moreover, sport activity in non‐profit sport clubs can be enhanced by both a good supply of sport programmes offered by sport clubs as well as a poor supply of programmes from commercial sport providers and the municipality.

Research limitations/implications

Multi‐level analyses can be recommended for future research on sport participation. The use of GIS data would be fruitful in this regard.

Practical implications

It can be recommended that municipalities invest in the construction of swimming pools and parks.

Originality/value

The paper shows that multi‐level analyses are a relatively new method of analysis for research on sport participation and that they represent the most suitable approach for analysing multi‐level data.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

Keywords

1 – 10 of 27