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Book part
Publication date: 5 June 2020

Siobhan Warrington

This chapter introduces the approaches and methods employed in a four-country research project that resulted in the 2017 report The People in the Pictures: Vital

Abstract

This chapter introduces the approaches and methods employed in a four-country research project that resulted in the 2017 report The People in the Pictures: Vital perspectives on Save the Children’s image making. It presents and explores the ethical issues that emerged throughout the process of the research, particularly in relation to photo elicitation – the use of images (still and moving) within both interviews and focus groups. Interviews and focus groups took place in the UK, Jordan, Bangladesh, and Niger with a total of 202 research participants. The research involved sharing Save the Children content (fundraising materials, published reports, online news features, TV adverts, and short films) with research participants. Research participants included those featured in some of these visual communication materials (referred to as contributors), and other individuals within their communities (referred to as non-contributors). The following principles and decisions informed the research design: safe and ethical practice; inclusive, engaging and accessible approaches; the participation of children; prioritising first-hand accounts; no photography or filming; and the preparation of location- and language-specific resources for each interview and focus group. The main ethical issues to emerge during the design of the research related to predicting (and responding) to any potential negative impacts of the research on participants, particularly contributors, but also children. The researchers also experienced some unexpected ethical encounters, including visual materials causing some concern or distress. Additionally, assuring research participants’ anonymity led to the necessity of extra care when publishing the report and the use of images within that.

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Ethics and Integrity in Visual Research Methods
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-420-0

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Book part
Publication date: 29 September 2015

Erika Löfström, Anne Nevgi, Elisabeth Wegner and Mari Karm

In this chapter, the authors discuss the use of various kinds of images, namely photographs, drawings and verbal metaphors, as research data. These, perhaps less…

Abstract

In this chapter, the authors discuss the use of various kinds of images, namely photographs, drawings and verbal metaphors, as research data. These, perhaps less conventional forms of data, have been used to identify and probe deeper into beliefs and conceptions that are closely connected with identities, but which might not be obvious to the research participants themselves. The purpose of this chapter is to provide examples of how images can be used in research, and to identify some of the features particularly pertinent or specific to the use of images. The authors draw on their own research using these forms of data in studies on teaching and learning in higher education. The authors describe key issues related to data collection and analysis, and identify challenges in these processes. They also discuss trustworthiness of images as data and dependability of interpretations in the process of analysing photographs, drawings and metaphors, and identify ethical perspectives specific to research utilising these data.

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Theory and Method in Higher Education Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-287-0

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Abstract

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Qualitative Research in the Study of Leadership
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-651-9

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Article
Publication date: 9 October 2019

Francisco Villarroel Ordenes and Shunyuan Zhang

The purpose of this paper is to describe and position the state-of-the-art of text and image mining methods in business research. By providing a detailed conceptual and…

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2356

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe and position the state-of-the-art of text and image mining methods in business research. By providing a detailed conceptual and technical review of both methods, it aims to increase their utilization in service research.

Design/methodology/approach

On a first stage, the authors review business literature in marketing, operations and management concerning the use of text and image mining methods. On a second stage, the authors identify and analyze empirical papers that used text and image mining methods in services journals and premier business. Finally, avenues for further research in services are provided.

Findings

The manuscript identifies seven text mining methods and describes their approaches, processes, techniques and algorithms, involved in their implementation. Four of these methods are positioned similarly for image mining. There are 39 papers using text mining in service research, with a focus on measuring consumer sentiment, experiences, and service quality. Due to the nonexistent use of image mining service journals, the authors review their application in marketing and management, and suggest ideas for further research in services.

Research limitations/implications

This manuscript focuses on the different methods and their implementation in service research, but it does not offer a complete review of business literature using text and image mining methods.

Practical implications

The results have a number of implications for the discipline that are presented and discussed. The authors provide research directions using text and image mining methods in service priority areas such as artificial intelligence, frontline employees, transformative consumer research and customer experience.

Originality/value

The manuscript provides an introduction to text and image mining methods to service researchers and practitioners interested in the analysis of unstructured data. This paper provides several suggestions concerning the use of new sources of data (e.g. customer reviews, social media images, employee reviews and emails), measurement of new constructs (beyond sentiment and valence) and the use of more recent methods (e.g. deep learning).

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Journal of Service Management, vol. 30 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-5818

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1986

Harry Henry

Properly conceived, conducted and interpreted, motivation research can be an extremely powerful management tool, designed to help the manufacturer or advertiser to sell…

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5661

Abstract

Properly conceived, conducted and interpreted, motivation research can be an extremely powerful management tool, designed to help the manufacturer or advertiser to sell more goods. Its aim is to expose the market situation, explain it and suggest courses of action which will lead to desired changes. It is a way of looking at a problem rather than a collection of specialist techniques and is strictly practical. Hence it can be used alongside other market research tools for the solution of marketing problems and can be applied to a wide range of business activities. Much of its development has been in the advertising field but it can also help in the formulation of production policy, solving packaging problems and marketing operations. It is examined here in all these contexts. The idea of motivation research, the reasons for its use and the techniques by which to apply it are discussed, as well as the pitfalls that are likely to occur. New and imaginary case studies are used throughout to illustrate points. A review of the subject literature is included.

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Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 4 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

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Article
Publication date: 8 April 2014

Yamen Koubaa, Rym Srarfi Tabbane and Rim Chaabouni Jallouli

– The purpose of this paper is to assess the use of structural equation modeling in one specific field of marketing research, the image research.

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1152

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess the use of structural equation modeling in one specific field of marketing research, the image research.

Design/methodology/approach

A meta-analysis of a sample of image marketing works using structural equation modeling (SEM). The period of investigation is limited to the last five years to test for possible positive return of previous assessments of SEM use on the current SEM application.

Findings

Following this work, three major conclusions emerged: the study of homogenous samples of SEM models is required to get to accurate assessment of using the technique; SEM application is getting better probably due to learning from SEM reviews; and the reliance on a conjoint assessment of the various SEM issues is necessary to avoid parsimonious assessments. This study has provided a concise and refreshed view on the use of SEM in one marketing field, the image research.

Research limitations/implications

47 SEM papers and 99 models along five years were examined through this research. Although the authors reviewed four of the most consulted databases in marketing, the authors might miss several interesting works not available in these databases during the investigation. It is interesting to add on the works reviewed in this study and to re-conduct the analysis. The objective is not to doubt the consistency of SEM image research but to provide writers and readers with tools that enable them to produce better quality SEM research. Moreover, the quantitative analysis could be larger. Future research can consider computing other statistics. Finally, in the standards of most of marketing journals, this paper is a bit long. But as suggested by Babin et al., journal editors should allow more space to SEM-based reviews as the nature of the discussion requires lengthening.

Practical implications

Mastering the statistical tool in marketing research is as important as mastering the conceptual tool. Statistical learning and/or cooperation with statisticians is recommended.

Originality/value

A multi-criteria review of works from one specific field in marketing research and across a recent period of time allowing for the test of possible positive return from previous reviews of SEM use on the quality of the current publications of SEM papers.

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Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2005

Samantha Warren

The main objective of this paper is to discuss how photography might help give research participants a louder voice in (qualitative) critical accounting and management…

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5299

Abstract

Purpose

The main objective of this paper is to discuss how photography might help give research participants a louder voice in (qualitative) critical accounting and management research, enabling their multiple voices to be better represented/performed through the technique of “native image making”. A secondary aim is to familiarise the reader with key developments and debates in the field of “visual research” more generally.

Design/methodology/approach

A brief overview of the field is offered, and, drawing on examples from the author's visual research practice, how the concept of “photo‐voice” might increase participants' involvement in research in two ways is discussed.

Findings

First, it is argued that accessibility of the method, control of the research agenda and ownership of the images give a louder voice in the process of research. Second, and following Barthes, it is contended that through their iconic and quasi‐representational nature, photographic images can communicate participants' views of their worlds with more primacy than language alone, raising their voices in the dissemination of research.

Practical implications

The paper has especial implications for researchers engaged in critical studies of accounting and management seeking to give voice to marginal groups of people traditionally disregarded by mainstream organization/management studies.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to the development of a novel qualitative methodology for accounting and management research.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 18 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

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Article
Publication date: 7 January 2014

Joan E. Beaudoin

The purpose of this paper is to report on a research study which examined how and why images were used by professional image users to inform the design and development of…

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1660

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to report on a research study which examined how and why images were used by professional image users to inform the design and development of information systems and services.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 20 participants in four user groups, archaeologist, architect, art historian and artist, took part in this qualitative research study. Data was collected through a survey and one-on-one semi-structured interview and data analysis was completed using case-ordered displays and the constant comparative method.

Findings

The findings revealed that image use varied according to profession. Archaeologists and art historians identified using images within their lecture presentations, and for research and publications. While architects and artists noted using images for research and design creation, their work products differed. Several reasons why these professionals used images in their work were identified: knowledge, conceptual model, inspiration, cognitive recall, critical thinking, emotion, engagement, marketing, proof, social connection, translation, and trust.

Research limitations/implications

Study limitations include the small number of user groups, and methods dependent on participants' abilities to recall and clearly articulate past activities.

Originality/value

The study clarifies the varied roles visual information plays in the work of archaeologists, architects, art historians and artists. As the paper reveals how and why images are used, its contents are particularly useful for systems designers, librarians and other individuals who support image users.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 70 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article
Publication date: 4 February 2021

Alena Kostyk and Bruce A. Huhmann

Two studies investigate how different structural properties of images – symmetry (vertical and horizontal) and image contrast – affect social media marketing outcomes of…

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1208

Abstract

Purpose

Two studies investigate how different structural properties of images – symmetry (vertical and horizontal) and image contrast – affect social media marketing outcomes of consumer liking and engagement.

Design/methodology/approach

In Study 1’s experiment, 361 participants responded to social media marketing images that varied in vertical or horizontal symmetry and level of image contrast. Study 2 analyzes field data on 610 Instagram posts.

Findings

Study 1 demonstrates that vertical or horizontal symmetry and high image contrast increase consumer liking of social media marketing images, and that processing fluency and aesthetic response mediate these relationships. Study 2 reveals that symmetry and high image contrast improve consumer engagement on social media (number of “likes” and comments).

Research limitations/implications

These studies extend theory regarding processing fluency’s and aesthetic response’s roles in consumer outcomes within social media marketing. Image posts’ structural properties affect processing fluency and aesthetic response without altering brand information or advertising content.

Practical implications

Because consumer liking of marketing communications (e.g. social media posts) predicts persuasion and sales, results should help marketers design more effective posts and achieve brand-building and behavioral objectives. Based on the results, marketers are urged to consider the processing fluency and aesthetic response associated with any image developed for social media marketing.

Originality/value

Addressing the lack of empirical investigations in the existing literature, the reported studies demonstrate that effects of symmetry and image contrast in generating liking are driven by processing fluency and aesthetic response. Additionally, these studies establish novel effects of images’ structural properties on consumer engagement with brand-based social media marketing communications.

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Article
Publication date: 14 January 2019

Ian Michael, Thomas Ramsoy, Melodena Stephens and Filareti Kotsi

This applied neuroscience study aims to understand how direct and unconscious emotional and cognitive responses underlie travel destination preferences. State-of-the-art…

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1894

Abstract

Purpose

This applied neuroscience study aims to understand how direct and unconscious emotional and cognitive responses underlie travel destination preferences. State-of-the-art neuroscience tools and methods were used, including stationary eye tracking and brain scanning electroencephalography (EEG) to assess emotional and cognitive responses to destination images and assets. To the researchers’ knowledge, this study is the first applied neuroscience study in tourism research and thus opens a new path of research and enquiry to this area. This paper is an attempt to understand specific mental processes in human tourism behaviours, and it is suggest that unconscious emotional and cognitive responses are natural processes that need to be studied and understood, not as special cases, but embedded as natural parts of tourism research.

Design/methodology/approach

To better understand consumers’ unconscious responses to possible travel destinations, a 3 × 5 factorial design was run with the factors being stimulus type (images, printed names and videos) and travel destination (Dubai, Abu Dhabi, Hong Kong, New York and London). Eye-tracking calibration was done with a nine-point fixation test and the EEG calibration was done using functional localizer tests based on the ABM B-ALERT calibration process. This calibration procedure allows reliable tracking of emotional and cognitive responses over time. Thirty Emirati (nationals of the UAE) participants, consisting of equal numbers of males and females (15) were recruited from the UAE and signed informed consent. Each participant was positioned in front of an eye tracker and computer screen, and brain-scanning equipment was mounted; then, each participant underwent eye-tracking and neuroimaging calibration procedures. A Tobii T60XL eye tracker and an ABM X-10 EEG brain scanner, both running iMotions v5.1 in a Windows 7 environment, were used.

Findings

General emotional and cognitive differences were identified between the channels through which travel destinations are presented. Words about and names of travel destinations cause higher cognitive loads, which may not be surprising, given the greater associative load that words have than images. Of particular interest is the hypothesis that images evoke stronger affective responses than verbal representations. However, as previously noted (Holmes and Mathews, 2005), empirical evidence for this assumption seems surprisingly sparse. The present study and the context provided here suggest that decisions on travel destination have an unconscious component and a direct component that may drive or affect overt preference and actual choice.

Research limitations/implications

The limitations of this paper is that first, neuromarketing is not dependent on sample sizes; however, future studies could build on this paper to understand why there is a preference for cities. It is suggested that unconscious emotional and cognitive responses are natural processes that need to be studied and understood, not as special cases, but embedded as natural parts of tourism research.

Originality/value

Thus, tourism research may indeed be a suitable field for understanding the brain bases of complex preference formation and choice. Various researchers have found that a destination image is typically measured using cognitive, affective and behavioural components, and further stated that the cognitive image component of a destination was found to have a significant positive effect on the affective image component and overall destination image (Stylidis et al., 2017). Therefore, this research which has introduced brain scanning can be used to better understand the underlying unconscious emotional and cognitive processes that affect consumer thought and action. An understanding of what goes on in the human unconscious mind is very important for destination marketers, this can help in the integrated marketing communication process to create a destination image and brand.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

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