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Article
Publication date: 14 March 2022

Wenbao Wang, Iwan Harsono, Chich-Jen Shieh, Vadim Samusenkov and Shahab Shoar

Infrastructure projects play a vital role in the development of countries' economies. However, these projects, notably underground ones, are encountering growing claims as…

Abstract

Purpose

Infrastructure projects play a vital role in the development of countries' economies. However, these projects, notably underground ones, are encountering growing claims as they are subject to many unknowns. Without having a clear insight into the causes of claims and their influence on one another, it is not possible to mitigate their adverse impacts on these projects' goals. To this aim, the main purpose of this study is to identify the critical paths leading to cost claims for underground metro projects.

Design/methodology/approach

First, causes of claims were identified through a literature review and then refined to 22 main causes according to the opinions of 148 Iranian experts. A qualitative system dynamics (SD) model was then provided to visualize how various causes interact with each other. The model was developed and validated by drawing on the expertise of industry-related experts, and the critical paths were finally recognized based on their frequency and severity indexes.

Findings

The findings revealed that each cause should be evaluated based on their connections with others as there are complex relations among the causes. It was also shown that the major claim paths among others were initiated due to ambiguous contract clauses, unforeseen physical conditions and land handover problems.

Originality/value

The findings of this study provide a better insight into how various causes of claims for underground metro projects are related to each other and can eventually assist project managers of different parties, even in other countries, to select proportional strategies to mitigate their adverse impacts.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 February 2022

Hizir Konuk, Goksel Ataman and Ugur Yozgat

This study aims to reveal the role of performance on the likelihood of conflict occurrence and the conditions that affect this relationship. This study measures managers…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to reveal the role of performance on the likelihood of conflict occurrence and the conditions that affect this relationship. This study measures managers’ perceptions about the cause of the subordinate’s low-level performance, stability of the performance, propensity to trust of managers and investigate the effects of them on conflict types.

Design/methodology/approach

This study draws on the attribution theory for investigating the effect of the negative performance of subordinates on a conflict between manager and subordinate by using the quantitative research method. A random sample was drawn from 150 Turkish mid-level managers from midsized small and medium - sized enterprises companies. The hypotheses are tested by hierarchical linear modeling.

Findings

According to results, negative performance of subordinates may predict the types of conflict depending on the attributions of managers about negative performance. In addition, the manager’s attributions to the locus of control or/and to the stability affect the likelihood of conflict types occurrence, between managers and subordinates. Depending on the managers’ attributions, the propensity to trust of managers has a significant moderation effect on the relationship between performance of subordinates and the likelihood of conflict types occurrence.

Originality/value

This study advances knowledge on conditions that affect the likelihood of conflict occurrence. It contributes to the literature by suggesting performance as a predictor of conflict instead of an outcome of the conflict. The research is one of the rare studies investigating the relationship between attributions and conflict. In addition, it expands the understanding of personal traits and conflict interaction by testing the moderation effect of propensity to trust.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 April 2013

Danuta A. Nitecki and Eileen G. Abels

The purpose of this paper is to validate a proposed framework of library value as the relationships between diverse stakeholders’ perceptions of valued effect of a library…

1936

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to validate a proposed framework of library value as the relationships between diverse stakeholders’ perceptions of valued effect of a library and of causes for the effect. It does so through adaptation of the “five whys” inquiry, a tool for uncovering root causes used extensively for process improvement. A “library value wheel” graphically illustrates a diverse set of stakeholders (i.e. faculty, students, university administrators, librarians, donors, and library employees) and their perceptions of the most valued effects of the library. To begin this exploration the researchers have selected faculty as the initial stakeholder to study because of their important influence in the academy. The following research questions guide the study: What effects of the library do faculty most value? What are perceived causes of these valued effects? What effects of the library do faculty perceive other stakeholders [e.g. students and administrators] most value? What variations among the causes faculty identify for valued effects emerge from use of the five why inquiry?

Design/methodology/approach

This qualitative study consists of a series of individual and group interviews with faculty members representing different academic disciplines and rank at one US university. Adapting the “five whys” inquiry, the researchers conducted sufficient individual interviews to reach data saturation (typically 15 to 30 interviews) to identify root causes that address perceptions about value the academic library provides to faculty. The interviews were audio taped and transcribed for data analysis; the results were sent to the interviewees for a member check. In addition, the results of the analysis were validated in a focus group session with faculty members of the library advisory group. Lastly, the identified valued library effects and their causes were compared to elements of value identified in the literature.

Findings

Several root causes of perceived value were identified, with caution to generalize; among these are: increase my productivity; expand student ability; do my job; save money; indulge intellectual curiosity; not feel frustrated; meet accreditation criteria; and change the University.

Originality/value

The study emphasizes that value involves the stakeholders in the identification of the valued effect of the library. The “five whys” inquiry delves deeply and arrives at a root cause of value that will allow librarians to take steps to maximize an institutional perception that of the value the library provides its community. It is often difficult for stakeholders to articulate why the library is or is not of value and this approach will help them do so. In addition to eliciting the perceived value of the library to the faculty, the study also gathered faculty perceptions of causes of valued library effect on students and administrators. The study also introduced the “library value wheel” which broadly defines the causes of valued effects on stakeholders of libraries. The study's empirical data will be integrated into this framework in subsequent studies. Since value is a political tool, involving the faculty and focusing on their perceptions will be important for advocating library support. This study will communicate to librarians reasons faculty perceive the library to be of value. In essence, this approach partners influential stakeholders with librarians to develop strategies for maximizing the value of the library.

Details

Performance Measurement and Metrics, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1467-8047

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1991

Alf H. Walle

If marketers are to devise campaigns and marketing mixes which areintended to influence those consumers who espouse social, political andenvironmental causes, they need an…

Abstract

If marketers are to devise campaigns and marketing mixes which are intended to influence those consumers who espouse social, political and environmental causes, they need an understanding of the evolutionary life‐cycle pattern of such causes. The five life‐cycle stages of causes are set out, with descriptions of the likely extent of influence of cause‐related marketing strategies, the level of controversy surrounding the cause and the strategic trade‐off at each stage. It is concluded that whilst the support of causes appears to provide marketing opportunities, the marketer must make two crucial decisions. First, a market niche which is likely to embrace the cause must be selected. Second, the strategy employed must be forged to deal significantly with the cause at that specific stage in its life cycle.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 29 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2001

Yan Xu

Traditional statistical tools are subject to certain constraints when they are applied to quality control in industries where the number of faults per working day is…

1647

Abstract

Traditional statistical tools are subject to certain constraints when they are applied to quality control in industries where the number of faults per working day is limited. An effective quality monitoring and analyzing tool is therefore needed to meet the specific requirements of these industrial sectors. Proposes a so‐called “Cause‐classified Control Chart”, based on fieldwork in the Nanchang Telecommunications Office of China. Trial results from several posts and telecommunications offices in China in recent years have positively shown that the Cause‐Classified Control Chart is an effective tool for quality enhancement in these specific industrial sectors.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 15 September 2017

Thomas C. Chiang and Xiaoyu Chen

This study presents evidence on the relations of stock market performance and industrial production growth for a group of 20 industrial markets. Evidence supports the…

Abstract

This study presents evidence on the relations of stock market performance and industrial production growth for a group of 20 industrial markets. Evidence supports the notion that an increase in stock returns or a rise in the market value of stocks contributes positively to industrial production growth. Evidence suggests that stock market risk has a significantly negative effect on production growth for advanced markets. The Granger test finds a unidirectional causality running from stock returns or stock volatility to industrial growth. However, the United States shows a bilateral causality between stock volatility and industrial production growth.

Details

Advances in Pacific Basin Business Economics and Finance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-409-7

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 21 September 2015

Jason Schnittker

This study evaluates cross-national differences in public beliefs about the causes of health and the role of these beliefs in shaping attitudes regarding health policy.

Abstract

Purpose

This study evaluates cross-national differences in public beliefs about the causes of health and the role of these beliefs in shaping attitudes regarding health policy.

Methodology/approach

The study uses data from the 2011 International Social Survey Program, which includes questions on health and health care, asked in 29 countries. Respondents were asked about four specific causes of poor health (i.e., genes, behavior, the environment, and poverty). Respondents were also asked about their attitudes regarding three aspects of health policy: their support for government-provided care, the perceived fairness of income disparities in medical treatment, and their support for providing health care to noncitizens.

Findings

The study has three findings. First, the study reveals the global reach of a multicausal view. The four beliefs about the causes of poor health are positively correlated in all countries. However, there is considerable cross-national variation in the average support for specific causes. Although in some countries proximate causes, such as genes, are endorsed more frequently than distal causes, such as poverty, this is by no means a uniform pattern. Support for genetic causes is high, but genetic reductionism is rare. Second, the study reveals that health beliefs are fundamentally political beliefs. The single most important determinant of beliefs about the causes of health is the country in which the respondent resides, exceeding in influence religion, education, and even personal experiences with health and health care. Third, the study reveals that the political connotations of health beliefs vary between countries, especially beliefs regarding genes. In general, those who endorse behavioral arguments favor less government involvement in health care and are more accepting of income disparities in the quality of care. Those who endorse the environment and poverty, meanwhile, tend to support a stronger role of government. Yet, the magnitude of these associations varies and, in the case of genetic arguments, even the direction of the association varies. Genetic arguments are frequently associated with support for a stronger role of government, but genetic arguments also are occasionally associated with support for the exclusion of noncitizens from the health care system.

Research limitations/implications

International survey research is valuable for exploring the scope of patterns revealed in a limited set of countries, but it is difficult to pinpoint the source of cross-national differences.

Originality/value

The study demonstrates the importance of national context in shaping health beliefs, as well as the role of beliefs regarding the causes of health in setting the stage for public receptivity to government-provided care. The study also illustrates the value of thinking about beliefs about genes as reflecting larger projects of biocitizenship, at least in some countries.

Details

Education, Social Factors, and Health Beliefs in Health and Health Care Services
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-367-9

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 1 September 2008

Patricia J. Woods and Scott W. Barclay

The traditional and most common conception of cause lawyers has viewed them as necessarily oppositional to the state, leftist, and, at best, transgressive. This conception…

Abstract

The traditional and most common conception of cause lawyers has viewed them as necessarily oppositional to the state, leftist, and, at best, transgressive. This conception is significant to our analysis because of its tendency to treat “the state” as a rather singular arena of power – an “it” – rather than a multi-dimensional entity made up of competing institutions and personnel. Following work on the disaggregated and embedded state, we suggest that conflict and competition among state institutions and state personnel allow cause lawyers and state actors to engage in mutually-beneficial action in service of their agendas. Litigation has important benefits for both cause lawyers and state actors: within the arena of law, processes that usually require the backing of large constituencies in the context of majoritarian institutions require, instead, convincing legal arguments. We briefly present evidence from two highly disparate cases of similar processes of interaction among cause lawyers and state actors in Vermont and Israel, which we believe indicates that this type of interaction is far from idiosyncratic.

Details

Studies in Law, Politics and Society
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-090-2

Book part
Publication date: 31 December 2010

Susan M. Olson

The study of cause lawyers has focused heavily on the private sector, but both public and private attorneys bring voting rights litigation. This chapter first situates…

Abstract

The study of cause lawyers has focused heavily on the private sector, but both public and private attorneys bring voting rights litigation. This chapter first situates voting rights litigation within cause lawyering, as described by Scheingold and Sarat. It then suggests criteria for analyzing cause lawyering across public and private sectors and applies them to the attorneys who have done the majority of voting rights litigation for American Indians: The Voting Section of the U.S. Department of Justice's Civil Rights Division and the Voting Rights Project of the American Civil Liberties Union. The chapter suggests that the public and private attorneys are more similar than one might expect in their motivation, relationship to clients, and range of political strategies used. Their organizational practice sites differ greatly, but the dynamics of the public practice site confirm that Voting Section attorneys are cause lawyers.

Details

Studies in Law, Politics and Society
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-615-8

Book part
Publication date: 26 September 2006

Brenda Bratton Blom

As the demand for affordable legal services grows, law schools and the legal profession struggle to respond. By examining lessons from successful social movements in the…

Abstract

As the demand for affordable legal services grows, law schools and the legal profession struggle to respond. By examining lessons from successful social movements in the last century, Cause Lawyering and Social Movements: Can Solo and Small Firm Practitioners anchor Social Movements looks at the Law School Consortium Project and its potential to participate in and anchor the social movements of our time. The collaboration of the law schools, networks of solo and small firm attorneys and activists at the local, regional and national level provide key elements for powerful change given the technological developments of the 21st century.

Details

Studies in Law, Politics and Society
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-323-5

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