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Article
Publication date: 4 January 2021

Faisal Faqih, Tarek Zayed and Ghasan Alfalah

A building deteriorates over time due to aging, wear and tear, and inadequate maintenance. Building diagnosis requires a sound knowledge of engineering, building defects

Abstract

Purpose

A building deteriorates over time due to aging, wear and tear, and inadequate maintenance. Building diagnosis requires a sound knowledge of engineering, building defects, and detection tools to assess the condition of a building. The physical deterioration of a building reduces its ability to perform its intended function, while environmental deterioration influences the comfort and health of building occupants. This study presents a multi-tiered framework for the inspection of building elements and the environmental conditions of a building.

Design/methodology/approach

A three-tiered building inspection framework is proposed in this study, which consists of the following: Tier-I—a preliminary inspection, Tier-II—a detailed inspection, and Tier-III—an expert investigation. Each tier of inspection assesses the severity of building defects using different technologies for different levels of inspection.

Findings

Proposed multi-tier inspection framework is tested and implemented on a case study. Results were promising, with organized data management on a common platform for both physical and environmental condition inspection having the potential to save time.

Originality/value

The application program developed for the implementation of structured multi-tiered building inspection provides better documentation and data management for building inspection data that can save time involved in manual data operations in traditional paper-based processes.

Details

International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-4708

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Article
Publication date: 16 November 2012

A. Abdul Lateef Olanrewaju

Defect management is an important segment in building maintenance management. Although defect management requires systemic approach, the purpose of this paper is to focus…

Abstract

Purpose

Defect management is an important segment in building maintenance management. Although defect management requires systemic approach, the purpose of this paper is to focus on the measurement of defects in university buildings based on user perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper reviews related literature and presents the outcome of a survey of 550 university buildings users, derived from a convenience sample from five universities.

Findings

A total of 20 defects were found to be very critical to the building users. Faulty electrical systems, faulty air conditioning system and roof damages were the defects requiring urgent maintenance. Based on the findings, it was concluded that resources be directed towards defects that affect security, safety and comfort.

Research limitations/implications

The list of 32 defects may not be exhaustive, but are indicative of defects that affect university building performance. Because the buildings are not prototypes, some of the findings required adaptation. The conclusions were based on data from five universities.

Practical implications

This study is useful to maintenance organizations in efforts to increase users’ satisfaction, productivity and building performance by guiding resources allocation and at the same time reducing rework, dissatisfaction and waste. The findings would provide feedback and feed forward information and knowledge to the design and construction teams. The study provides a platform to integrate maintenance issues into the design and construction phases of building projects.

Originality/value

There is no such conclusive study on the maintenance of university buildings. Both academics and practitioners can apply the findings to their respective maintenance management scenarios.

Details

Built Environment Project and Asset Management, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-124X

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Article
Publication date: 5 December 2018

Zul-Atfi Ismail

The purpose of this paper is to focus on the development of an integrated computerised maintenance management system to improve the information storage of design and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to focus on the development of an integrated computerised maintenance management system to improve the information storage of design and construction, diagnostic and defect risk assessments on IBS building through the integration of building information modelling (BIM).

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology used interviews with the IBS building client/maintenance contractor in Malaysia to gather information about maintenance management problems, approaches to address problems, information and communication technology implementation and use of emerging technologies, in addition to prototyping a system development life cycle for system development.

Findings

Relevant process flowchart documents of system development were obtained from the case study and reviewed to assist in providing an automation technique for decision-making and structural defect diagnostic operation through the integration of Visual Basic.Net, MS Access and Autodesk Revit software.

Originality/value

This research focuses on automatic bidirectional communications between an Expert System and BIM on a database level. Adoption of the approaches suggested in the research will enable the system to promote the development of zero IBS building maintenance.

Details

International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, vol. 37 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-4708

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2003

Ad Straub

By adopting a condition‐dependent approach to maintenance, facility managers can exercise control over the desired maintenance performance levels and costs. The practice…

Abstract

By adopting a condition‐dependent approach to maintenance, facility managers can exercise control over the desired maintenance performance levels and costs. The practice of condition assessment by building inspectors yielded variable results due to subjective perceptions of inspectors. Nowadays well‐trained building inspectors are able to manage condition surveys and provide property managers with objective, reliable information about performance loss and defects in building components. The implementation of various performance levels in planned maintenance requires not only the standardisation of the condition assessment method, but also the related planning methodology. This paper describes the findings from research in the Netherlands which examined the methodology of condition assessment of building components using a six‐point condition scale. Different categories of performance loss in maintenance are distinguished and linked to different kinds of maintenance activities.

Details

Journal of Facilities Management, vol. 1 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-5967

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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2018

Zul-Atfi Bin Ismail

The current maintenance management method has affected the efficiency of the building facility management at Polytechnics. Many issues such as poor service delivery…

Abstract

Purpose

The current maintenance management method has affected the efficiency of the building facility management at Polytechnics. Many issues such as poor service delivery, inadequate finance, poor maintenance planning and maintenance backlogs have emerged due to the usage of conventional method application (paper-based form and unsystematic database. The purpose of this paper is to review existing literature and case studies project of the technologies in maintenance management at Polytechnic, and subsequently to identify the challenge in improving the current maintenance management technologies.

Design/methodology/approach

The purpose of this paper is to review existing literature and case studies project of the technologies in maintenance management at Polytechnic, and subsequently to identify the challenges of information and communication technology (ICT) implementation for strategic defect diagnosis and decision-making in improving the current maintenance management technologies. Eight Polytechnics are selected on the basis of the major problems of using the conventional method in the comparison to investigate the maintenance management practices in each Polytechnic. There are around 32 Polytechnics in Malaysia and most are using conventional methods.

Findings

The findings reveal the need for a more sophisticated maintenance management system that provides guidelines for decision-making processes with the implementation of ICT. The interview results also reveal irregularities within the Malaysian Polytechnics’ maintenance management database. The system architecture and the information system prototype are presented to integrate the information database and maintenance management processes in improving the building diagnosis approach and decision-making process for managing building maintenance.

Originality/value

This new system is expected to become the successful technology in assisting the maintenance contractors, clients and developer for effective management of maintenance defects at Polytechnic.

Content available
Article
Publication date: 1 March 2019

Agnieszka Zalejska Jonsson and Rosane Hungria Gunnelin

The purpose of this paper is to present defects reported by cooperative owners, and to determine the relationship between building characteristics…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present defects reported by cooperative owners, and to determine the relationship between building characteristics, developer’s/contractor’s company size and defect type.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis is based on defects reported by board members of cooperatives in Sweden through a survey questionnaire. The 1,563 questionnaires were posted by regular mail to the boards of cooperatives for buildings. The current research presents results from analysis of responses from 394 regular residential projects constructed between 2006 and 2013. The responses represent owners’ experience from a total 1,107 buildings.

Findings

Findings presented in this study indicate that building quality might be one of the factors contributing to the energy gap. The analysis indicates that the most severe problems reported by cooperatives are issues related to building envelope, particularly shortcomings in the function of windows, issues related to the function of the balcony and cracks in the facade and leakage caused by rain water. The results show that the building quality differs depending on developers’ size, measured by number of employees. The authors have also found a significant relationship between reported defects and location expressed by size of the city/municipality.

Originality/value

The discussion on newly constructed residential buildings has been dominated by the perspective of professionals (inspectors) and contractors (or developers) rather than of the owners/users themselves. This study presents findings from the owners’ perspective, thus contributing the owners’ viewpoint to the debate on building quality.

Details

International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, vol. 37 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-4708

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Article
Publication date: 13 April 2015

A.M. Forster, S. Fernie, K. Carter, P. Walker and D. Thomson

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the risks of building defects associated with rapid advancement of “green” construction technologies. It identifies the methods…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the risks of building defects associated with rapid advancement of “green” construction technologies. It identifies the methods adopted by the sector for the determination of pre-construction defects that are framed within the context of, traditional; scientific; and professional design approaches. These are critically evaluated and utilised in attempts to mitigate defects arising from diffusing low carbon construction innovations.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper takes the form of an evaluative literature review. Polemic in orientation, the paper critically compares two periods of time associated with rapid advancement of innovation. The first, the post-Second World War housing boom is synonymous with a legacy of substandard buildings that in many cases rapidly deteriorated, requiring refurbishment or demolition shortly after construction. The second, is today’s “green” technology “shift” with its inherent uncertainty and increased risk of latent building defects and potential failure to deliver meaningful long-term performance. Central to this is an exploration of the drivers for innovation, and subsequent response, precautionary measures initiated, and the limitations of institutionalised systems to identify and mitigate defects. Similarities and differences between these historical periods frame a discussion around the theoretical approaches to defects and how these may be limited in contemporary low carbon construction. A conceptual framework is presented with the aim of enhancing the understanding for obviation of defects.

Findings

Sufficient commonality exists between the periods to initiate a heightened vigilance in the identification, evaluation and ideally the obviation of defects. Design evaluation is not expressly or sufficiently defect focused. It appears that limited real change in the ability to identify defects has occurred since the post-war period and the ability to predict the performance of innovative systems and materials is therefore questionable. Attempts to appraise defects are still embedded in the three principle approaches: traditional; scientific; and professional design. Each of these systems have positive characteristics and address defect mitigation within constrains imposed by their very nature. However, they all fail to address the full spectrum of conditions and design and constructional complexities that lead to defects. The positive characteristics of each system need to be recognised and brought together in an holistic system that offers tangible advantages. Additionally, independent design professionals insufficiently emphasise the importance of defect identification and holistic evaluation of problems in design failure are influenced by their professional training and education. A silo-based mentality with fragmentation of professional responsibility debases the efficacy of defect identification, and failure to work in a meaningful, collaborative cross professional manner hinders the defect eradication process.

Research limitations/implications

Whilst forming a meaningful contribution to stimulate debate, further investigation is required to tangibly establish integrated approaches to identify and obviate defects.

Practical implications

The structured discussion and conclusions highlight areas of concern for industry practitioners, policy makers, regulators, industry researchers and academic researchers alike in addressing and realising a low carbon construction future. The lessons learned are not limited to a UK context and they have relevance internationally, particularly where rapid and significant growth is coupled with a need for carbon reduction and sustainable development such as the emerging economies in China, Brazil and India.

Social implications

The carbon cost associated with addressing the consequences of emerging defects over time significantly jeopardises attempts to meet legally binding sustainability targets. This is a relatively new dimension and compounds the traditional economic and societal impacts of building failure. Clearly, blindly accepting this as “the cost of innovation without development” cannot be countenanced.

Originality/value

Much research has been undertaken to evaluate post-construction defects. The protocols and inherent complexities associated with the determination of pre-construction defects have to date been largely neglected. This work attempts to rectify this situation.

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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2017

Tony Hopkin, Shu-Ling Lu, Phil Rogers and Martin Sexton

Research on housing defects has limited its enquiry to the classifications of defects, potential impact of defects, and their detection and remediation during construction…

Abstract

Purpose

Research on housing defects has limited its enquiry to the classifications of defects, potential impact of defects, and their detection and remediation during construction and the builder’s liability period, without considering the warranty period. The purpose of this paper is to better understand which impacts of defects are perceived as important by the key stakeholders involved in their detection and remediation over the construction, builder’s liability and insurer’s warranty periods.

Design/methodology/approach

The questionnaire survey approach was used. The questionnaire distribution list was drawn from the UK’s largest warranty provider (WP) and approved inspector’s records. The questionnaire was distributed to 2003 people, receiving 292 responses, a response rate of 15 per cent.

Findings

This research challenges the assertion that the house building industry (i.e. house builders (HBs), building inspectors and WPs) is predominantly cost focussed and finds that the potential impact of defects on home occupants (HOs) are their primary concern. In contrast, the HOs’ appear solely focussed on the disruption defects caused on their daily lives and perceive a lack customer focus in the house building industry.

Originality/value

This study provides empirical evidence of the contrasting view of the house building industry and HOs with respect to the prioritisation of the impacts of defects. Further, this research offers HBs an alternative approach to determine which defects should be targeted for reduction purposes which may lead to improved levels of customer satisfaction.

Details

International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, vol. 35 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-4708

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Article
Publication date: 5 March 2020

Zul-Atfi Ismail

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the system approaches and their application for managing IBS building in the context of Malaysian maintenance practice. Currently…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the system approaches and their application for managing IBS building in the context of Malaysian maintenance practice. Currently, the maintenance management method has affected the efficiency of the complex and high-rise industrialised building system (IBS) building maintenance management in Malaysia. Many issues such as poor service delivery, limited budgets, less competent staff and defect repetition emerged because of the usage of conventional method applications (paper-based form). The data revealed that the practice of maintenance management for complex and high-rise IBS buildings needs to be digitalised.

Design/methodology/approach

This qualitative research was carried out by conducting literature review and semi-structured interviews. Eight major maintenance organisations were selected based on a conventional method of practice in managing maintenance for complex and high-rise IBS buildings. The computerised system was developed using a data flow diagram and coding. Subsequently, the prototype system was tested.

Findings

By having this prototype system, the defect diagnosis and decision-making process become easier, faster and cost-effective in facilitating the maintenance assessment, defect diagnosis and control in relation to IBS building structure components.

Originality/value

In conclusion, the prototype system may improve the effectiveness of maintenance management practices for IBS building structure components in reducing defect design risks such as design calculation error to provide high-quality IBS building structure components for a safe and healthy environment.

Details

Facilities , vol. 39 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

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Article
Publication date: 21 May 2020

Zul-Atfi Ismail

The current maintenance management method affects the efficiency of the complex, high-rise industrialised building system (IBS) building maintenance management projects in…

Abstract

Purpose

The current maintenance management method affects the efficiency of the complex, high-rise industrialised building system (IBS) building maintenance management projects in Malaysia. The usage of a conventional system (paper-based reports/unsystematic database) has various drawbacks, such as IBS component aesthetic and structural defects which occur repeatedly in the building and maintenance of conventional building, lack of integration between maintenance systems and lack of the intelligent capabilities of linking defect diagnosis operations in maintenance affecting various building elements with IBS component defect knowledge. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to focus on the development of a mechanism to improve IBS component defect knowledge transfer in IBS building maintenance projects through the integration of building information modelling (BIM).

Design/methodology/approach

Eight clients/maintenance contractors were selected based on the major problems of using a conventional system to investigate the maintenance management practices in each complex and high-rise IBS building.

Findings

The findings indicated that several computerised systems such as Building Automation System and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition System are used by a client/maintenance contractor. Moreover, BIM technology awareness was found to be limited, with no implementation in IBS building maintenance till now. The results of this case study were used as a foundation for the development of a prototype system using Computerised Maintenance Management System, Expert System and BIM.

Originality/value

The development of this new system improves IBS component diagnosis knowledge integration with the BIM technology.

Details

International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, vol. 39 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-4708

Keywords

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