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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2008

Jin Jiang Chang and Wang Cheng

The fabric construction of the ballistic fabrics used in military helmets is analyzed in this research and the ballistic performance of the fabric construction is…

Abstract

The fabric construction of the ballistic fabrics used in military helmets is analyzed in this research and the ballistic performance of the fabric construction is compared. The advanced compact index Ψz is used in designing the construction of the ballistic fabrics used for military helmets. There is a relationship between the compact index of the fabric and its ballistic performance when this method is selected. Once the compact level of the fabric is grasped accurately, it raises the distinct thinking that antiballistic fabric design and its weavability in relation to the product performance of antiballistic fabric, gives free rein to get twice the results with half the effort. An effective parameter can then be supplied to a Computer Simulation Design to be used as a reference plan to increase ballistic fabric design. The particularity of national defense products which require reducing costs, raising efficiency, performing effective combat and putting into use quickly is addressed. This is a method to improve the performance of current basic materials.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

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Article
Publication date: 8 August 2016

Mica Grujicic, Jennifer Snipes, S Ramaswami, Vasudeva Avuthu, Chian-Fong Yen and Bryan Cheeseman

Traditionally, an armor-grade composite is based on a two-dimensional (2D) architecture of its fiber reinforcements. However, various experimental investigations have…

Abstract

Purpose

Traditionally, an armor-grade composite is based on a two-dimensional (2D) architecture of its fiber reinforcements. However, various experimental investigations have shown that armor-grade composites based on 2D-reinforcement architectures tend to display inferior through-the-thickness mechanical properties, compromising their ballistic performance. To overcome this problem, armor-grade composites based on three-dimensional (3D) fiber-reinforcement architectures have recently been investigated experimentally. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

In the present work, continuum-level material models are derived, parameterized and validated for armor-grade composite materials, having four (two 2D and two 3D) prototypical reinforcement architectures based on oriented ultra-high molecular-weight polyethylene fibers. To properly and accurately account for the effect of the reinforcement architecture, the appropriate unit cells (within which the constituent materials and their morphologies are represented explicitly) are constructed and subjected to a series of virtual mechanical tests (VMTs). The results obtained are used within a post-processing analysis to derive and parameterize the corresponding homogenized-material models. One of these models (specifically, the one for 0°/90° cross-collimated fiber architecture) was directly validated by comparing its predictions with the experimental counterparts. The other models are validated by examining their physical soundness and details of their predictions. Lastly, the models are integrated as user-material subroutines, and linked with a commercial finite-element package, in order to carry out a transient non-linear dynamics analysis of ballistic transverse impact of armor-grade composite-material panels with different reinforcement architectures.

Findings

The results obtained clearly revealed the role the reinforcement architecture plays in the overall ballistic limit of the armor panel, as well as in its structural and damage/failure response.

Originality/value

To the authors’ knowledge, the present work is the first reported attempt to assess, computationally, the utility and effectiveness of 3D fiber-reinforcement architectures for ballistic-impact applications.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 7 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2016

Mica Grujicic, S Ramaswami, Jennifer Snipes, Vasudeva Avuthu, Chian-Fong Yen and Bryan Cheeseman

Fiber-reinforced armor-grade polymer-matrix composite materials with a superior penetration resistance are traditionally developed using legacy knowledge and…

Abstract

Purpose

Fiber-reinforced armor-grade polymer-matrix composite materials with a superior penetration resistance are traditionally developed using legacy knowledge and trial-and-error empiricism. This approach is generally quite costly and time-consuming and, hence, new (faster and more economical) approaches are needed for the development of high-performance armor-grade composite materials. One of these new approaches is the so-called materials-by-design approach. Within this approach, extensive use is made of the computer-aided engineering (CAE) analyses and of the empirically/theoretically established functional relationships between an armor-grade composite-protected structure, the properties of the composite materials, material microstructure (as characterized at different length-scales) and the material/structure synthesis and fabrication processes. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

In the present work, a first step is made toward applying the materials-by-design approach to the development of the armor-grade composite materials and protective structures with superior ballistic-penetration resistance. Specifically, CAE analyses are utilized to establish functional relationships between the attributes/properties of the composite material and the penetration resistance of the associated protective structure, and to identify the combination of these properties which maximize the penetration resistance. In a follow-up paper, the materials-by-design approach will be extended to answer the questions such as what microstructural features the material must possess in order for the penetration resistance to be maximized and how such materials should be synthesized/processed.

Findings

The results obtained show that proper adjustment of the material properties results in significant improvements in the protective structure penetration resistance.

Originality/value

To the authors’ knowledge, the present work is the first reported attempt to apply the materials-by-design approach to armor-grade composite materials in order to help improve their ballistic-penetration resistance.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

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Article
Publication date: 18 November 2013

Mica Grujicic, Subrahmanian Ramaswami, Jennifer Snipes, Ramin Yavari, Gary Lickfield, Chian-Fong Yen and Bryan Cheeseman

A series of all-atom molecular-level computational analyses is carried out in order to investigate mechanical transverse (and longitudinal) elastic stiffness and strength…

Abstract

Purpose

A series of all-atom molecular-level computational analyses is carried out in order to investigate mechanical transverse (and longitudinal) elastic stiffness and strength of p-phenylene terephthalamide (PPTA) fibrils/fibers and the effect various microstructural/topological defects have on this behavior. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

To construct various defects within the molecular-level model, the relevant open-literature experimental and computational results were utilized, while the concentration of defects was set to the values generally encountered under “prototypical” polymer synthesis and fiber fabrication conditions.

Findings

The results obtained revealed: a stochastic character of the PPTA fibril/fiber strength properties; a high level of sensitivity of the PPTA fibril/fiber mechanical properties to the presence, number density, clustering and potency of defects; and a reasonably good agreement between the predicted and the measured mechanical properties.

Originality/value

When quantifying the effect of crystallographic/morphological defects on the mechanical transverse behavior of PPTA fibrils, the stochastic nature of the size/potency of these defects was taken into account.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1995

BTR Material Systems and Courtaulds Aerospace have won a second competitive contract for further development of “multi‐spectral, low‐observable materials and techniques”…

Abstract

BTR Material Systems and Courtaulds Aerospace have won a second competitive contract for further development of “multi‐spectral, low‐observable materials and techniques”, following the successful completion of the previous feasibility study of RAM (radar absorbent material) which would also incorporate required IR (infrared) functions.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 67 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2005

Eva Kunz and Xiaogang Chen

This study presents the design, manufacture and evaluation of a type of 3D hollow woven structure, as a mean for improving ventilation underneath ballistic body armour and…

Abstract

Purpose

This study presents the design, manufacture and evaluation of a type of 3D hollow woven structure, as a mean for improving ventilation underneath ballistic body armour and thus, thermal comfort.

Design/methodology/approach

By means of a computational fluid dynamic package, fluid flows through different cross‐sectional tubular geometries were simulated in order to predict, which structural parameters of the 3D hollow fabrics are optimal to support ventilation.

Findings

As the result of the computational analysis four optimised 3D hollow woven structures were selected and generated on a standard weaving loom.

Originality/value

Investigation of thermal comfort of 3D ballistic vests.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 17 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article
Publication date: 10 April 2017

Mica Grujicic, Jennifer Snipes and S. Ramaswami

In order to help explain experimental findings related to the stabbing- and ballistic-penetration resistance of flexible body-armor, single-yarn pull-out tests, involving…

Abstract

Purpose

In order to help explain experimental findings related to the stabbing- and ballistic-penetration resistance of flexible body-armor, single-yarn pull-out tests, involving specially prepared fabric-type test coupons, are often carried out. The purpose of this paper is to develop a finite-element-based computational framework for the simulation of the single-yarn pull-out test, and applied to the case of Kevlar® KM2 fabric.

Design/methodology/approach

Three conditions of the fabric are considered: neat, i.e, as-woven; polyethylene glycol (PEG)-infiltrated; and shear-thickening fluid (STF)-infiltrated. Due to differences in the three conditions of the fabric, the computational framework had to utilize three different finite-element formulations: standard Lagrangian formulation for the neat fabric; combined Eulerian-Lagrangian formulation for the PEG-infiltrated fabric (an Eulerian subdomain had to be used to treat the PEG solvent/dispersant); and combined continuum Lagrangian/discrete-particle formulation for the STF-infiltrated fabric (to account for the interactions of the particles suspended in PEG, which give rise to the STF character of the suspension, with the yarns, the particles had to be treated explicitly).

Findings

The results obtained for the single-yarn pull-out virtual tests are compared with the authors’ experimental counterparts, and a reasonably good agreement is obtained, for all three conditions of the fabric.

Originality/value

To the authors’ knowledge, the present work represents the first attempt to simulate single-yarn pull-out tests of Kevlar® KM2 fabric.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2004

George K. Stylios

Examines the tenth published year of the ITCRR. Runs the whole gamut of textile innovation, research and testing, some of which investigates hitherto untouched aspects…

Abstract

Examines the tenth published year of the ITCRR. Runs the whole gamut of textile innovation, research and testing, some of which investigates hitherto untouched aspects. Subjects discussed include cotton fabric processing, asbestos substitutes, textile adjuncts to cardiovascular surgery, wet textile processes, hand evaluation, nanotechnology, thermoplastic composites, robotic ironing, protective clothing (agricultural and industrial), ecological aspects of fibre properties – to name but a few! There would appear to be no limit to the future potential for textile applications.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 16 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2009

George K. Stylios

Examines the fifthteenth published year of the ITCRR. Runs the whole gamut of textile innovation, research and testing, some of which investigates hitherto untouched…

Abstract

Examines the fifthteenth published year of the ITCRR. Runs the whole gamut of textile innovation, research and testing, some of which investigates hitherto untouched aspects. Subjects discussed include cotton fabric processing, asbestos substitutes, textile adjuncts to cardiovascular surgery, wet textile processes, hand evaluation, nanotechnology, thermoplastic composites, robotic ironing, protective clothing (agricultural and industrial), ecological aspects of fibre properties – to name but a few! There would appear to be no limit to the future potential for textile applications.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 21 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article
Publication date: 14 April 2020

Xuzhong Su and Xinjin Liu

Tensile property is one basic mechanics performance of the fabric. In general, not only the tensile values of the fabric are needed, but also the dynamic changing process…

Abstract

Purpose

Tensile property is one basic mechanics performance of the fabric. In general, not only the tensile values of the fabric are needed, but also the dynamic changing process under the tension is also needed. However, the dynamic tensile process cannot be included in the common testing methods by using the instruments after fabric weaving.

Design/methodology/approach

By choosing the weft yarn and warp yarn in the fabric as the minimum modeling unit, 1:1 finite element model of the whole woven fabrics was built by using AutoCAD software according to the measured geometric parameters of the fabrics and mechanical parameters of yarns. Then, the fabric dynamic tensile process was simulated by using the ANSYS software. The stress–strain curve along the warp direction and shrinkage rate curve along the weft direction of the fabrics were simulated. Meanwhile, simulation results were verified by comparing to the testing results.

Findings

It is shown that there are four stages during the fabric tensile fracture process along the warp direction under the tension. The first stage is fabric elastic deformation. The second stage is fabric yield deformation, and the change rate of stress begins to slow down. The third stage is fiber breaking, and the change of stress fluctuates since the breaking time of the fibers is different. The fourth stage is fabric breaking.

Originality/value

In this paper, the dynamic tensile process of blended woven fabrics was studied by using finite element method. Although there are differences between the simulation results and experimental testing results, the overall tendency of simulation results is the same as the experimental testing results.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 32 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

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