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Article
Publication date: 7 September 2018

Michael O’ Regan

The purpose of this paper is to deconstruct the backpacker label by reconstructing it using the historical antecedent of drifting. Following the deconstruction of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to deconstruct the backpacker label by reconstructing it using the historical antecedent of drifting. Following the deconstruction of backpacking’s near past, the author build a clearer conceptual foundation for backpacking’s future.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is framed by scenario planning, which demands a critical review of the backpacking and an appreciation of its history in order to understand its future.

Findings

Backpacking, ever evolving, remains difficult to articulate and challenges researchers to “keep up” with its complexity and heterogeneity. This paper argues that researchers must learn more about how backpacking “works” by opening a dialogue with its past, before engaging in further research. The paper finds that a poor conceptualisation of backpacking has led to a codification of backpacker criteria.

Practical implications

Backpacking remains a research topic which draws disparate researchers using criteria that produces disparate results and deviations. By understanding its past, researchers will be better placed to explore the emancipatory impulses that drive backpackers today and in the future.

Originality/value

This papers’ value lies in the retrospection process which explores backpacking’s near past so as to “make sense” of present research and present scenarios for it is the immediate future. The paper re-anchors backpacking by investigating the major historical, social and cultural events leading up to its emergence.

Details

Journal of Tourism Futures, vol. 4 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2055-5911

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Article
Publication date: 9 October 2009

Natan Uriely

The purpose of this paper is to provide researchers with an analytical tool for deconstructing well‐established tourist typologies in which motivations and meanings are…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide researchers with an analytical tool for deconstructing well‐established tourist typologies in which motivations and meanings are coupled together with practices of travel arrangements.

Design/methodology/approach

In line with the distinction between types and forms of tourism, the analysis examines the motivations and meanings (type‐related attributes) of tourists who comply with conventional travel arrangements and practices (form‐related attributes) of backpacking. The backpackers' motivations and meanings are analyzed in light of a revised version of Cohen's phenomenological typology of tourist experiences.

Findings

The analysis suggests that contemporary backpacking is a form of tourism that can be further segmented into sub‐types by the variety of meanings backpackers assign to their experiences.

Research limitations/implications

The distinction between type and form can be used for deconstruction of tourist categories other than backpackers. However, this distinction cannot be expected to completely cover the complexity and variety of tourists' behaviours and attitudes.

Originality/value

The study presents evidence to suggest that the implicit inclination that tourists who travel in the same manner also share the same motivations and meanings is open to doubt. Accordingly, the paper stresses the need for cautious and sensitive tourist typologies that capture the existing variety in tourism.

Details

International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, vol. 3 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6182

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2006

Jo‐Anne Hecht and David Martin

This research paper aims to better understand the characteristics of backpackers who stay at hostels in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), Canada, and their current service…

Abstract

Purpose

This research paper aims to better understand the characteristics of backpackers who stay at hostels in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), Canada, and their current service preferences.

Design/methodology/approach

Primary data were collected by carrying out interviews with 20 experienced backpackers from seven countries. As a result, 15 critical backpackers' requirements were identified and used as the base for the questionnaire developed for the next phase of field research. At this phase, 385 backpackers from 35 countries completed the questionnaires.

Findings

The backpackers cannot be treated as a homogeneous group, and there are differences due to demographics of gender, age and country of origin. The traditional youth tourist backpacker (15‐25 years of age) viewed backpacking as more a social and cultural experience than the transition backpacker (26‐29 years of age) or contemporary backpacker (30 years of age and older). As age increased, so did the backpacker's desire and willingness to pay for privacy. Asian and North/South Americans required more hotel type services than Australians and Europeans.

Originality/value

In conclusion, the paper provides hostels in GTA with future directions grouped as four key factors.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 18 July 2008

Wei Zhang and Stephanie Watts

The purpose of this paper is to investigate to which extent the concept of communities of practice (CoPs) can be applied to online communities and to explore how

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate to which extent the concept of communities of practice (CoPs) can be applied to online communities and to explore how organizations can better utilize online social structures for their knowledge management practice.

Design/methodology/approach

A case study was used to examine an online community with the practice‐and‐identity framework that characterizes conventional CoPs. Qualitative data analysis was conducted primarily on 7,853 messages downloaded from the online community during a six week period.

Findings

The results showed how an online community could manifest the practice and identity characteristics of conventional CoPs as community members actively engaged in their shared practice and identity development while pursuing a joint enterprise. Research limitations/implicationsThe study was conducted in a single Chinese online community on traveling, which may limit the generalizability of the findings.

Practical implications

This study suggested how organizations can nurture online CoPs. In addition, a hierarchical model was proposed to help organizations identify the appropriate online social structure for their knowledge management purposes. Originality/valueThis study empirically verified that CoPs can emerge from online communities and demonstrated that the concept of CoPs can be used to guide knowledge sharing and knowledge creation in online environments.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

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Book part
Publication date: 3 August 2011

Alana Harris and Bruce Prideaux

This chapter examines aspects of working backpackers in Cairns in Far North Queensland, Australia. Using the push pull model, the study examines both the destination…

Abstract

This chapter examines aspects of working backpackers in Cairns in Far North Queensland, Australia. Using the push pull model, the study examines both the destination supply and demand sides of the working holiday making backpacker market to determine the degree to which the two are aligned. A qualitative approach, utilizing interviews with hostel managers and focus groups with backpackers, revealed that the working holiday backpacker market to Australia has changed in recent years as the “push” or motivating factors of backpackers have shifted. At the same time the attributes or “pull” factors of Cairns as a destination have not changed sufficiently to meet these changes. The study found that destination communication, product, and services contributed most significantly to the gap between the push and pull elements of the model and recent events appeared to have further exposed these gaps. Strategies to address these issues were explored and the implications for other regional destinations were discussed in light of these gaps. The study also identifies areas for further research including using the results to provide the basis for quantitative studies into the “push” and “pull” factors identified in the research and measuring the impact of the identified gaps on other outlying regional destinations.

Details

Advances in Hospitality and Leisure
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-769-8

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1984

Douglas J. Ernest

Within the past 20 years hiking and backpacking have enjoyed rapid growth among Americans as favorite outdoor activities. From 1965 to 1977 the number of hikers almost…

Abstract

Within the past 20 years hiking and backpacking have enjoyed rapid growth among Americans as favorite outdoor activities. From 1965 to 1977 the number of hikers almost tripled, from 9.9 million to 28.1 million, while national forest visitor days among hikers and mountaineers increased from 4 million in 1966 to 11 million in 1979. Accompanying this growth in interest has been a boom in books about the sport. These include both “how‐to‐do‐it” volumes and guides to specific geographical areas. Each year brings another spate of books, yet to this compiler's knowledge no bibliography of hiking guides to the Rocky Mountains, one of North America's premier outdoor regions, has yet been attempted. This bibliography is an effort to correct that situation.

Details

Reference Services Review, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

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Article
Publication date: 29 March 2011

Russell R. Currie, Tamara Campbell‐Trant and Sheilagh Seaton

The authors of this paper examine the role of the guidebook as a symbol and the implications of symbols in relation to tourist behaviors. The objective of the researchers…

Abstract

Purpose

The authors of this paper examine the role of the guidebook as a symbol and the implications of symbols in relation to tourist behaviors. The objective of the researchers is to determine if guidebooks act as a symbol for group identity within the backpacker community.

Design/methodology/approach

The researchers conducted ten in‐depth interviews in a Halifax youth hostel in Nova Scotia to collect data for analysis. The data obtained in this study is analyzed through a thematic analysis that involved grouping background information with the data that related to each criterion for a symbol.

Findings

From the analysis of information obtained from the eight respondents, guidebooks accomplish three functions equivalent to the three criteria of symbols: facilitating communication, providing the basis for attitude development and acceptable modes of behavior, and facilitating collaboration and conformity of the group.

Research limitations/implications

There are several limitations to this study that includes sample size, location, and time restrictions. Consequently, generalization of results beyond the specifics of this sample is limited.

Originality/value

The subculture of backpackers is able to survive because the social interaction within the backpacker community preserves and develops the meaning of symbols. An examination into the symbolic meanings held by backpackers provides implications in predicting backpacker behaviors and destination marketing.

Details

International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6182

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1985

Douglas J. Ernest and Lewis B. Herman

In recent years, guides to hiking trails and wilderness areas have enjoyed an increase in popularity. Here, Douglas J. Ernest and Lewis B. Herman evaluate more than 100 such books.

Abstract

In recent years, guides to hiking trails and wilderness areas have enjoyed an increase in popularity. Here, Douglas J. Ernest and Lewis B. Herman evaluate more than 100 such books.

Details

Reference Services Review, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2005

Douglas J. Ernest, Allison V. Level and Michael Culbertson

Seeks to prove that studies conducted over the past several decades repeatedly indicate that information‐seeking behavior by members of the general public involves…

Abstract

Purpose

Seeks to prove that studies conducted over the past several decades repeatedly indicate that information‐seeking behavior by members of the general public involves consultation of a variety of potential information sources, including libraries.

Design/methodology/approach

This article focuses on information seeking with regard to recreation activities in wilderness areas including, but not limited to, hiking.

Findings

The study results indicate that respondents do turn to the internet for some of their information needs. Web sites providing information on three hiking areas were also analyzed to determine their accuracy and access to information. The study concludes that information‐seeking behavior on the internet represents investigation of sources that existed in the pre‐internet era but that access has altered from earlier mechanisms, such as paper mail, telephone, or on‐site visits, to electronic investigation.

Originality/value

Libraries continue to represent a potential information source, provided that they take advantage of electronic access.

Details

Reference Services Review, vol. 33 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

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Book part
Publication date: 25 July 2008

Kenneth F. Hyde

Independent travelers are those vacationers who have booked only a minimum of their transportation and accommodation arrangements prior to departure on the vacation…

Abstract

Independent travelers are those vacationers who have booked only a minimum of their transportation and accommodation arrangements prior to departure on the vacation. Independent travel is an important and growing sector of worldwide tourism. Choice of vacation itinerary for the independent vacation represents a complex series of decisions regarding purchase of multiple leisure and tourism services. This chapter builds and tests a model of independent traveler decision-making for choice of vacation itinerary. The research undertaken employs a two-phase, inductive–deductive case study design. In the deductive phase, the researcher interviewed 20 travel parties vacationing in New Zealand for the first time. The researcher interviewed respondents at both the beginning and the end of their New Zealand vacations. The study compares pre-vacation research and plans, and actual vacation behaviors, on a case-by-case basis. The study examines case study narratives and quantitative measures of crucial variables. The study tests two competing models of independent traveler decision-making, using a pattern-matching procedure. This embedded research design results in high multi-source, multi-method validity for the supported model. The model of the Independent Vacation as Evolving Itinerary suggests that much of the vacation itinerary experienced in independent travel is indeed unplanned, and that a desire to experience the unplanned is a key hedonic motive for independent travel. Rather than following a fixed itinerary, the itinerary of an independent vacation evolves as the vacation proceeds. The independent traveler takes advantage of serendipitous opportunities to experience a number of locations, attractions and activities that they had neither actively researched nor planned.

Details

Advances in Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-522-2

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