Search results

1 – 10 of over 24000
Book part
Publication date: 6 September 2019

Abstract

Details

Experiencing Persian Heritage
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78754-813-8

Book part
Publication date: 5 October 2018

Nasir Bedewi Siraj, Aminah Robinson Fayek and Mohamed M. G. Elbarkouky

Most decision-making problems in construction are complex and difficult to solve, as they involve multiple criteria and multiple decision makers in addition to subjective…

Abstract

Most decision-making problems in construction are complex and difficult to solve, as they involve multiple criteria and multiple decision makers in addition to subjective uncertainties, imprecisions and vagueness surrounding the decision-making process. In many instances, the decision-making process is based on linguistic terms rather than numerical values. Hence, structured fuzzy consensus-reaching processes and fuzzy aggregation methods are instrumental in multi-criteria group decision-making (MCGDM) problems for capturing the point of view of a group of experts. This chapter outlines different fuzzy consensus-reaching processes and fuzzy aggregation methods. It presents the background of the basic theory and formulation of these processes and methods, as well as numerical examples that illustrate their theory and formulation. Application areas of fuzzy consensus reaching and fuzzy aggregation in the construction domain are identified, and an overview of previously developed frameworks for fuzzy consensus reaching and fuzzy aggregation is provided. Finally, areas for future work are presented that highlight emerging trends and the imminent needs of fuzzy consensus reaching and fuzzy aggregation in the construction domain.

Details

Fuzzy Hybrid Computing in Construction Engineering and Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-868-2

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1995

Guy Jumarie

The theory of possibility (Zadeh, Sugeno) and the theory of relative information (Jumarie) both aim to deal with the meaning of information, but their mathematical frameworks are…

218

Abstract

The theory of possibility (Zadeh, Sugeno) and the theory of relative information (Jumarie) both aim to deal with the meaning of information, but their mathematical frameworks are quite different. In the first approach, possibility is described either by fuzziness (Zadeh) or by generalized measures (Sugeno), and in the second, possibility is obtained as the result of observing probability via an observation process with informational invariance. Shows that a combination of (classical) information theory with generalized maximum likelihood via geometric programming exhibits a link between relative information, fuzziness and possibility. Some consequences are outlined.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 24 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1987

GUY JUMARIE

In this paper, one combines information theory, and more especially the concept of entropy, with the statistical theory of decision to derive new criteria for pattern recognition…

Abstract

In this paper, one combines information theory, and more especially the concept of entropy, with the statistical theory of decision to derive new criteria for pattern recognition. A generalized definition of entropy is considered as a risk function, and the generalized decision rules so obtained contain the family of the Bayesian decisions as special cases. These criteria may help to check the results obtained by usual techniques; they can be used in adaptive and learning systems, and more generally they can be useful in cybernetic systems.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Article
Publication date: 1 October 1996

Guy Jumarie

Surveys some of the important contributions of information theory (IT) to the understanding of systems science and cybernetics. Presents a short background on the main definitions…

Abstract

Surveys some of the important contributions of information theory (IT) to the understanding of systems science and cybernetics. Presents a short background on the main definitions of IT, and examines in which way IT could be thought of as a unified approach to general systems. Analyses the topics: syntax and semantics in information, information and self‐organization, entropy of forms (entropy of non‐random functions), and information in dynamical systems. Enumerates some suggestions for further research and takes this opportunity to describe new points of view, mainly by using entropy of non‐random functions.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 25 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 September 2017

Yogesh P. Gadekar, B.D. Sharma, Ajay Kr. Shinde, Arun Kr. Das and S.K. Mendiratta

This paper aims to evaluate the effects of inulin (3 per cent), chitosan (1 per cent) and carrageenan (0.5 per cent) addition on the physico-chemical, sensory and textural…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to evaluate the effects of inulin (3 per cent), chitosan (1 per cent) and carrageenan (0.5 per cent) addition on the physico-chemical, sensory and textural attributes of restructured goat meat products. Health conscious consumers are much more interested in product with added health benefit. Keeping this in mind, this study was undertaken to find out effective ingredient for low fat restructured goat meat product.

Design/methodology/approach

Formulation for restructured goat meat blocks was optimized and four different formulation containing different ingredients, namely, control, inulin (3 per cent), chitosan (1 per cent) and carrageenan (0.5 per cent), were used to find out best ingredient for healthier goat meat product and various physicochemical and sensory properties of the product were evaluated.

Findings

Results showed that addition of carrageenan improved (p < 0.01) the product yield (86.0 per cent) significantly. The proximate composition, expressible water and water activity were similar. The moisture retention percentage was significantly (p < 0.01) reduced (86.0 per cent) due to addition of inulin. Carrageenan significantly (p < 0.05) increased the lightness (42.4) and yellowness (10) values. Significantly (p < 0.05) lower shear force values were observed in inulin (0.5) and chitosan (0.4) containing samples than control (0.7 kg/1.5 cm2). Hardness values were significantly (p < 0.05) lower in restructured product containing chitosan (56.1 N/cm2) and carrageenan (59.4 N/cm2). Similarly, springiness values were significantly (p < 0.05) lower (0.7 vs 0.8 cm) in carrageenan containing product. Inulin, chitosan and carrageenan did not significantly influence the sensory attributes of restructured goat meat product. It is concluded that inulin, chitosan and carrageenan could be used to improve technological and functional attributes of the healthier restructured goat meat product.

Research limitations/implications

Future research may benefit from efforts to modify shelf life of the product by modifying packaging condition.

Originality/value

The healthier meat-based restructured goat meat product has been developed, and the effect on its quality characteristics have been extensively examined, limited research has focused on this aspect.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 47 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 20 October 2023

Rebecca M. Hayes

Abstract

Details

Defining Rape Culture: Gender, Race and the Move Toward International Social Change
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80262-214-0

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 8 February 2024

Joseph F. Hair, Pratyush N. Sharma, Marko Sarstedt, Christian M. Ringle and Benjamin D. Liengaard

The purpose of this paper is to assess the appropriateness of equal weights estimation (sumscores) and the application of the composite equivalence index (CEI) vis-à-vis

2533

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess the appropriateness of equal weights estimation (sumscores) and the application of the composite equivalence index (CEI) vis-à-vis differentiated indicator weights produced by partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM).

Design/methodology/approach

The authors rely on prior literature as well as empirical illustrations and a simulation study to assess the efficacy of equal weights estimation and the CEI.

Findings

The results show that the CEI lacks discriminatory power, and its use can lead to major differences in structural model estimates, conceals measurement model issues and almost always leads to inferior out-of-sample predictive accuracy compared to differentiated weights produced by PLS-SEM.

Research limitations/implications

In light of its manifold conceptual and empirical limitations, the authors advise against the use of the CEI. Its adoption and the routine use of equal weights estimation could adversely affect the validity of measurement and structural model results and understate structural model predictive accuracy. Although this study shows that the CEI is an unsuitable metric to decide between equal weights and differentiated weights, it does not propose another means for such a comparison.

Practical implications

The results suggest that researchers and practitioners should prefer differentiated indicator weights such as those produced by PLS-SEM over equal weights.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first to provide a comprehensive assessment of the CEI’s usefulness. The results provide guidance for researchers considering using equal indicator weights instead of PLS-SEM-based weighted indicators.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 58 no. 13
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 February 2021

Dheeraj Nimawat and B.D. Gidwani

Industry 4.0 is regarded as a modern industrial phase wherein convergence between horizontal and vertical production systems, along with their interactions, would enable…

979

Abstract

Purpose

Industry 4.0 is regarded as a modern industrial phase wherein convergence between horizontal and vertical production systems, along with their interactions, would enable industries to obtain excellent industrial efficiency. This research thus explores the barriers relevant to Industry 4.0 and their cause and effect relations using the decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) technique, and this will assist in the implementation of Industry 4.0 in manufacturing industries.

Design/methodology/approach

A comprehensive literature review is carried out to outline the barriers for the Industry 4.0 implementation. The investigative techniques used in this research were conducted utilizing a questionnaire as an instrument for collecting data. The data collected were analysed using the method DEMATEL.

Findings

The findings indicate that key barriers to implementing Industry 4.0 include their cause and effect relationships. Reported “implementation costs” have been a critical barrier for Industry 4.0 implementation. Prioritization of barriers and their cause and effect relationships was achieved so that decision-makers could concentrate on overcoming such barriers for Industry 4.0 implementation.

Practical implications

The research is intended to assist executives in recognizing the barriers to Industry 4.0 implementation in their manufacturing industries. Furthermore, the strong functional and empirical importance of emerging and digital manufacturing technologies ensures that understanding the necessary barriers to implementation is important.

Originality/value

This is one of the first few empirical studies in the field of Indian manufacturing industries that uses the DEMATEL method framework as a foundation for recognizing cause-effect interactions among the barriers that affect Industry 4.0.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 28 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 August 2018

Heena Sharma, Sanjod K. Mendiratta, Ravi Kant Agrawal, Suman Talukder and Sudheer Kumar

Oxidative rancidity is a major problem in chicken meat because of its higher content of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Besides this, microbial contamination is also one of the major…

Abstract

Purpose

Oxidative rancidity is a major problem in chicken meat because of its higher content of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Besides this, microbial contamination is also one of the major problems of chicken meat which leads to deterioration in quality during storage. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to investigate anti-microbial and anti-oxidant effects of various blends of essential oils (EOs) on the quality of emulsion-based (ready-to-eat) chicken sausages.

Design/methodology/approach

Sausages were incorporated with optimum level of four different blends of EOs containing six different EOs (Clove oil, Holybasil oil, Thyme oil, Cassia oil, Ajowan oil and Beetel oil), namely, Blend-1 (0.25 per cent), Blend-2 (0.25 per cent), Blend-3 (0.25 per cent) and Blend-4 (0.125 per cent); vacuum packaged and stored at −18±1°C for 60 days. Duplicate samples were taken for each parameter, and three trials were conducted for each experiment, total being six observations (n=6) for consistency of the results.

Findings

Significant decrease (p<0.05) in pH of control products was observed at each interval of storage period; however, in case of treatment products, significant decrease (p<0.05) was noticed from day 30 onwards. Blend-2 was observed with significantly lower (p<0.05) thio-barbituric acid reacting substances followed by Blend-1. Significantly lower (p<0.05) total phenolics content was observed in Blend-4 products as compared to other treatments. Regarding DPPH activity, control products showed significant decrease (p<0.05); however, in case of treatment products, DPPH activity showed significant (p<0.05) decrease after day 15 of storage. Microbial count increased with progressive storage period; however, the counts were well below the permissible limit of frozen meat products. All the blend incorporated products received very good sensory scores in consistent manner.

Practical implications

The work under this study would be very useful for the meat processing industries dealing with the perishable meat products. Use of natural anti-oxidants will also restore faith towards the consumers who are becoming more health conscious day by day.

Originality/value

The research work is original.

1 – 10 of over 24000