Search results

1 – 10 of over 10000
Article
Publication date: 2 July 2018

Awad Elsayed Awad Ibrahim

This paper aims to provide further evidence on asymmetric cost behavior (cost stickiness) from one of the emerging economies, Egypt. The study provides empirical evidence…

1035

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to provide further evidence on asymmetric cost behavior (cost stickiness) from one of the emerging economies, Egypt. The study provides empirical evidence on the potential impact of corporate governance on nature and extent of asymmetric cost behavior.

Design/methodology/approach

The study estimates three multiple regression models using ordinary least squares to examine the behavior of cost of goods sold (COGS) and the influence of board characteristics and other control variables in a sample of 80 listed companies during 2008-2013.

Findings

The analysis provides evidence on COGS asymmetric behavior, where the analysis finds that COGS increases by 1.05 per cent but decrease by 0.85 per cent for an equivalent activity change of 1 per cent, which contradicts the traditional cost model assumption that costs behave linearly. In addition, the analysis finds that firm-year observations with larger boards, role duality and higher non-executives ratio exhibit greater cost asymmetry than others, while firms-years with successive sales decrease, higher economic growth and institutional ownership found to exhibit lower cost stickiness.

Originality/value

This study contributes by providing evidence on asymmetric cost behavior from one of emerging economies. Further, the study extends the very few studies on the relationship between corporate governance and asymmetric cost behavior. In addition, the study contributes by examining a different cost type (COGS) that has been examined by very few studies. Finally, the study provides an evaluation of the 2007 Egyptian Corporate Governance Code in the cost behavior context.

Details

Accounting Research Journal, vol. 31 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1030-9616

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 February 2017

Awad Elsayed Awad Ibrahim and Amr Nazieh Ezat

The purpose of this paper is to provide further empirical evidence on the asymmetric cost behavior, cost stickiness, in an emerging country, Egypt, which lacks academic…

2160

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide further empirical evidence on the asymmetric cost behavior, cost stickiness, in an emerging country, Egypt, which lacks academic research on this subject.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses multiple regression analysis to analyze the behavior of selling, general, and administrative costs (SG&A) and cost of goods sold (CGS) individually and jointly using total costs (TC) for the period 2004-2011 for Egyptian-listed firms. In addition, the study compares the cost behavior three years prior to and after the application of the corporate governance code in Egypt in 2007.

Findings

The results indicate that asymmetric cost behavior is common among Egyptian-listed firms as their SG&A, CGS, and TC were found to be sticky during the study period. The application of the corporate governance code in Egypt was found to affect the nature of SG&A – the behavior of these costs changed from sticky before the code to anti-sticky after the application of the code. Moreover, the code was found to affect the magnitude of stickiness of both CGS and TC.

Originality/value

Greater awareness about cost behavior is important for emerging markets such as Egypt in order to protect investors’ interests and satisfy their information needs. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to provide evidence on cost stickiness in Egypt. Moreover, this study provides further evidence on the correlation between corporate governance and asymmetric cost behavior.

Details

Journal of Accounting in Emerging Economies, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-1168

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 January 2020

María Inés Stimolo and Marcela Porporato

Cost behaviour literature is expanding its reach beyond developed economies; however, there is limited knowledge about its causes in emerging economies. This is an…

Abstract

Purpose

Cost behaviour literature is expanding its reach beyond developed economies; however, there is limited knowledge about its causes in emerging economies. This is an exploratory study of sticky costs behaviour determinants in Argentina, a country with periodic political and economic turbulence. The purpose of this paper is to test the effect of GDP, asset intensity, industry and cost type in an inflationary context.

Design/methodology/approach

Anderson et al. (2003) empirical regression (ABJ model) is replicated in Argentina with 667 observations from 96 firms between the years 2004 and 2012. It uses panel data and variables are defined as change rates between two periods. The sample excludes financial and insurance firms. It tests if sticky cost behaviour changes in periods of macroeconomic deceleration, or in firms belonging to industries with different asset intensity levels, or among different cost types.

Findings

The analysis shows that costs are sticky in Argentina, where a superb economic outlook is required to delay cutting resources or increasing costs. Cost behaviour is affected by social and cultural factors, such as labour inflexibility driven by powerful unions and not by protective employment laws, asset intensity (industry) and macroeconomic environment. Results suggest that costs are sticky for aggregate samples, but not for all subsamples.

Practical implications

Administrative costs are sticky when GDP grows; but when growth declines, managers or firms do not delay cost cutting actions. Some subsamples are extreme cases of stickiness while others are anti-sticky, casting some doubt on the usefulness of sticky costs empirical tests applied to country-wide samples. Careful selection of observations for sticky costs studies in emerging economies is critical.

Originality/value

Evidence from previous studies show that on average costs are remarkably sticky in Argentina; this study shows that cost reduction activities occur faster but are not persistent enough to change the aggregated long-term results of cost stickiness in the presence of moderate to high inflation. The study contributes to the literature by suggesting that observations used in sticky costs studies from emerging economies might be mainly from positive macroeconomic environments, might have skewed results due to extreme cases of stickiness or might be distorted by inflation.

Details

Journal of Accounting in Emerging Economies, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-1168

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 28 September 2020

Thomas R. Loy and Sven Hartlieb

Purpose – Over the last 15 years, research provided insight into several firm- and country-level determinants of asymmetric cost behavior. Their implicit premise builds on…

Abstract

Purpose – Over the last 15 years, research provided insight into several firm- and country-level determinants of asymmetric cost behavior. Their implicit premise builds on rational trade-off decisions between holding costs of idle resources and adjustment costs. The authors build upon these findings and establish an irrational component – sunlight-induced managerial mood.

Methodology/approach – The authors rely on the established cross-sectional model of asymmetric cost behavior to investigate short-term resource adjustment decisions and extend it by an exogenous proxy for managerial mood (i.e., daily sunshine hours per US county-year).

Findings – Beyond rational trade-off and planning decisions, the authors provide large-sample evidence on the influence of irrational mood on cost decisions. In accordance with research in psychology showing that higher serotine levels, attributable to sunlight, contribute to happiness and optimism, the results suggest that sunlight-induced mood increases the level of asymmetric cost behavior. Managers from firms headquartered in counties with a higher level of sunlight less likely react to a decrease in sales by reducing idle resources. Instead, they seem to be more optimistic about future demand conditions and, thus, more inclined to “sit out” downturns in firm activity until sales recover.

Research limitations/implications – Although the mood proxy is truly exogenous in the setting, the authors are unable to establish causality as the actual cost management decisions could not be observed directly. Moreover, the analyses are limited to the county level, whereas weather undoubtedly oftentimes exhibits intra-county variation.

Originality/value – This study is the first to establish an irrational antecedent of managerial resource adjustment decisions, which adds to the cost stickiness literature by demonstrating the important role of deliberate managerial decisions for corporate cost behavior.

Details

Advances in Management Accounting
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-913-0

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 January 2020

Yosra Makni Fourati, Rania Chakroun Ghorbel and Anis Jarboui

This paper aims to investigate the impact of cost stickiness on conditional conservatism.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the impact of cost stickiness on conditional conservatism.

Design/methodology/approach

The research sample consists of listed companies from 18 countries, using stock market indices of the BRICS, MIST, North Africa, USA and EU over the period ranging from 1997 to 2015. The authors use the firm-fixed effects method in the estimation of the models.

Findings

The results provide evidence of the existence of cost stickiness and conditional conservatism in the international context, using the Banker et al. (2016) model. They also argue that the conditional conservatism model (Basu, 1997) is overstated because it does not control for cost stickiness. In additional analyses, the authors conclude that the association between cost stickiness and accounting conservatism changes across country groups and across industries. The authors also document that the employee intensity and free cash-flow, as cost stickiness determinants, remain significant in the model including accounting conservatism. Moreover, the findings show that sticky cost behavior distorts inferences about standard demand drivers of conservatism such as leverage and size.

Originality/value

The findings are interesting and provide a better understanding of cost stickiness and conditional conservatism, and the interaction between these two phenomena in the international context, across country groups and across industries. To the best of the author’s knowledge, the study is the first one including free cash flow as a proxy for agency problem in the full model combining conservatism and cost stickiness models (Banker et al., 2016).

Details

Journal of Financial Reporting and Accounting, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1985-2517

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 July 2015

Awad Elsayed Awad Ibrahim

This paper aims to examine whether costs respond asymmetrically to demand change, and examine the influence of economic growth on cost stickiness, in the pre- and…

4815

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine whether costs respond asymmetrically to demand change, and examine the influence of economic growth on cost stickiness, in the pre- and post-2008 financial crisis periods.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses multiple regression models to investigate the behavior of three costs: selling, general and administrative (SG & A), cost of goods sold (COGS) and operating costs (OCs) for the 2004-2011 period. Moreover, the study compares cost stickiness during the economic prosperity period (2006-2008) with cost stickiness during the economic recession period (2009-2011).

Findings

The results reveal that SG & A increased by 0.38 per cent but decreased by 0.08 per cent, and COGS increased by 1.02 per cent but decreased by 0.57 per cent for a 1 per cent demand change, which proves cost stickiness. However, OC increased by 0.91 per cent, but decreased by 1.03 per cent for a 1 per cent demand change, which proves cost anti-stickiness. Moreover, SG & As were sticky during the prosperity period, but anti-sticky during the recession period. COGSs were sticky in both periods; however, the extent of cost stickiness is larger in the prosperity period. In contrast, OC were statistically insignificant in both periods.

Originality/value

The results imply that managers should not use the same cost model all the time, as the economic growth fluctuations were found to affect the nature and extent of cost behavior. In addition, researchers should provide a modified cost model that considers the nonlinearity of correlation between costs and activity.

Details

Journal of Financial Reporting and Accounting, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1985-2517

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 16 March 2022

Zheyao Pan, Guangli Zhang and Huixuan Zhang

The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of local political uncertainty on the asymmetric cost behavior (i.e. cost stickiness) for listed firms in China.

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of local political uncertainty on the asymmetric cost behavior (i.e. cost stickiness) for listed firms in China.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, the authors manually collect the turnover data of prefecture-city officials as a measure of exogenous fluctuations in political uncertainty and obtain firm-level financial information from the China Stock Market Accounting Research (CSMAR) database. To perform the analysis, the authors augment the traditional cost stickiness model by including the interaction terms of the prefecture-city official turnover, and firm-level and prefecture-city level control variables.

Findings

The authors find that political turnover leads to a higher degree of cost stickiness, implying that firms retain slack resources when political uncertainty is high. Moreover, the effect of political turnover on cost stickiness is more pronounced for firms residing in regions with weaker institutional environments, and firms that are privately owned and with smaller size. The authors further provide evidence that policy uncertainty and the threat of losing political connection are two underlying channels. Overall, this study documents that the local political process is an important channel that influences corporate operational decisions.

Originality/value

This study provides the first piece of evidence on the relation between political uncertainty and cost stickiness at the local government level. Moreover, the authors propose and demonstrate two underlying channels through which political uncertainty affects firms' asymmetric cost behavior.

Details

China Accounting and Finance Review, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1029-807X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 November 2017

Sandra Cohen, Sotirios Karatzimas and Vassilios-Christos Naoum

The purpose of this paper is to explore the asymmetric cost behaviour in Greek local governments. More precisely, it investigates whether municipality costs show…

1014

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the asymmetric cost behaviour in Greek local governments. More precisely, it investigates whether municipality costs show stickiness or anti-stickiness behaviour after increases or decreases in the stream of their revenues.

Design/methodology/approach

The Anderson et al.’s (2003) approach is adapted to the public sector environment by using types of expenses and revenues typical to the local government setting. The data sample consists of 1,852 observations of Greek municipalities for the period 2002-2008.

Findings

The empirical evidence suggests that local government managers adjust resources related to administrative services faster when revenues decrease than when they rise (anti-stickiness cost behaviour). On the contrary, they adjust costs of service provision which are associated with core activities asymmetrically; more quickly for upward than for downward activity changes (cost stickiness behaviour).

Research limitations/implications

While prior studies examine the sticky cost phenomenon in the private sector, this study explores this phenomenon in the public sector through a data sample of municipalities. Local governments constitute an appealing and unique setting for the examination of asymmetric cost behaviour due to the existence of a strong political influence, which appears to affect rational economic decision making, and their non-profit character, which prevents them from acting in a business-like manner.

Practical implications

Understanding how cost stickiness works inside local understanding how cost stickiness works inside local governments, could lead to an understanding of its implications in periods of cutback measures. Decreases in municipalities’ subsidies and grants as a result of cutbacks in central government expenditures should not be expected to automatically result in symmetric savings in expenditures as corresponding increases in expenditures when revenues used to grow. At the same time, it might be difficult to achieve balanced budgets in municipalities when there is a considerable decrease in revenues, without having to make considerable adjustments to the input values, the output and the mix of services offered by them.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the accounting literature by expanding the understanding of how deliberate decisions influence the asymmetric cost behaviour in local governments, to different cost categories (administrative expenses and cost of service provision) and different revenue categories (grants, tax revenues and revenues from sales of goods and services).

Details

Journal of Applied Accounting Research, vol. 18 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0967-5426

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 28 September 2020

David L. Gray

Purpose – This article examines the operating lease cost stickiness characteristics exhibited by retail firms.Methodology/approachAnderson, Banker, and Janakiraman (2003

Abstract

Purpose – This article examines the operating lease cost stickiness characteristics exhibited by retail firms.

Methodology/approachAnderson, Banker, and Janakiraman (2003) laid important groundwork for the study of asymmetric cost behavior or cost stickiness. The authors found that a firm’s selling, general, and administrative costs (SG&A) costs increase more with a sales increase than those expenses decrease with an equivalent sales decline. Their findings provided avenues for many studies with differing focal variables; however, extant research has not explored the degree of cost stickiness associated with operating lease expenses. Recognizing the nature and magnitude of operating leases and the competitive and changing environment for retailers, this study adapts Anderson et al.’s (2003) model to provide insights into operating lease stickiness. The study uses archival financial data from 1997 through 2016 for specialty retail firms in testing the lease cost stickiness hypotheses.

Findings – The results of this study supported the hypotheses that operating lease expenses exhibit stickiness behavior and are relatively stickier than future lease commitments for retail firms.

Originality/value – By focusing on retail firms and related lease expenses, this study provides insights into the increasingly competitive retailer environment. This article’s findings will enhance understanding of how specialty retail firms’ managers react to reduced revenues. Finally, given recent authoritative pronouncements affecting accounting for leases and the significance of leasing transactions, research providing insights into cost behavior and managerial actions stands to make an important contribution to literature and practice.

Article
Publication date: 13 May 2022

Fatima N. Ali Taher and Mohammad Al-Shboul

This paper examines the impact of dividend policy on stock market liquidity, and whether the dividend payouts has an asymmetric effect on stock liquidity.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper examines the impact of dividend policy on stock market liquidity, and whether the dividend payouts has an asymmetric effect on stock liquidity.

Design/methodology/approach

A multivariate panel-data regression analysis is conducted for a sample of the largest 411 nonfinancial US firms. Three main hypothesis are tested: (1) whether dividend payouts impact affect stock liquidity, (2) whether low and high dividend payments can asymmetrically effect on stock liquidity and (3) whether the presence of the GFC has an impact the relationship between dividend payments and stock liquidity.

Findings

The study finds that dividend policy is adversely associated with stock liquidity. This supports the prediction of the liquidity-dividend hypothesis. The authors also report that stock liquidity asymmetrically responds to changes in dividend payouts, confirming the prediction of the dividend-signaling approach. More specifically, higher dividend payments decrease stock liquidity by a lower magnitude than the increase in stock liquidity resulting from lower dividend payments. Finally, the presence of the GFC weakened the relationship between dividend payments and stock liquidity.

Research limitations/implications

The paper can help in performing future research by using different dataset covering the COVID-19 crisis.

Practical implications

The paper allows market participants to better understand the impact of dividend policy and its asymmetric effects on stock liquidity. The authors’ analyses can direct investors and regulators to adopt new supervisory devices to create an appropriate level of dividend payouts that helps to effectively support the level of stock liquidity.

Social implications

The paper intends to support the business community and to make strong contributions to the economic development and the welfare of the community.

Originality/value

The originality comes from its new evidence as it can help in assessing the importance of dividend policy and its asymmetric impact on stock liquidity in the full sample and during the GFC. The paper is helpful in performing future analyses using a new sample period for another set of data as well as accounting for COVID-19 pandemic crisis.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 10000