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Book part
Publication date: 7 January 2016

Eduardo Sartelli and Marina Kabat

We aim to analyze the early trajectory of Argentine industry from the perspective of uneven and combined development. Argentine integration into the world market based on…

Abstract

We aim to analyze the early trajectory of Argentine industry from the perspective of uneven and combined development. Argentine integration into the world market based on the export of agricultural goods had not neglected industrial development. At first, Argentine industry benefited from its late emergence and rapidly followed the path of leading countries’ manufactures. But initial advantage soon turned into a liability. The emergence of large-scale industry required expanded markets that were already occupied by older and stronger competitors. The 1930 crisis and the impact of the Second World War aggravated this problem. Attempts to remedy the situation – an export-led industrialization scheme and an internal-market-oriented economy – failed successively. We study this process through the analysis of Argentine industrial chambers’ journals, reports from the United States Department of Foreign Trade and Argentine official government documents. We find that the export-led industrialization project failed because of the weakness of Argentine industries and not because of economic nationalism. That was the outcome of the previous failure of liberal projects and of the international constraints imposed by the Second World War and its aftermath. During this later period of internal-market-oriented economy, the gap between Argentine and international productivity widened. This paper presents an innovative interpretation that transcends liberal and nationalistic explanations and serves as a case study of the implications of uneven and combined development.

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Book part
Publication date: 20 November 2018

Florencia Sember

The Central Bank of Argentina began its activities in May 1935 surrounded by controversy. The Bank was created as a result of a mission led by the expert from the Bank of…

Abstract

The Central Bank of Argentina began its activities in May 1935 surrounded by controversy. The Bank was created as a result of a mission led by the expert from the Bank of England, Sir Otto Niemeyer. The foreign involvement in the origins of the bank was not welcome to a good part of the Argentine society. Finally, the project for a central bank approved by the Argentine Congress was not the one proposed by Sir Otto Niemeyer, but a version of it that contained crucial modifications introduced by Raúl Prebisch. The aim of this work is to highlight Prebisch’s ideas on monetary and banking matters by analyzing the differences with the ideas of Sir Otto Niemeyer around monetary policy and the characteristics of the future Central Bank of Argentina. Even if there were almost no direct debates between them, there were different visions and indirect contentions that can be traced in the writings of both, which on the side of Prebisch were published in the Revista Económica del Banco de la Nación Argentina and some government documents, and on Niemeyer’s side can be traced in some writings and correspondence regarding his visit to Argentina, held in the archives of the Bank of England.

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Including a Symposium on Latin American Monetary Thought: Two Centuries in Search of Originality
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-431-2

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Book part
Publication date: 8 May 2004

Viviana Patroni

One of the most important outcomes of neoliberalism in Argentina has been the drastic and negative transformation of the experience of work for the majority of Argentines…

Abstract

One of the most important outcomes of neoliberalism in Argentina has been the drastic and negative transformation of the experience of work for the majority of Argentines. In this sense neoliberalism performed effectively as a disciplining mechanism for the working class. Moreover, under the convertibility regime implemented for a decade since 1991, the pressure exercised over wages and working conditions was increased under conditions that made reducing labour costs the critical variable in the adjustment of whole sectors of the economy to the new context. Under these circumstances, I will argue that the most relevant and enduring implication of structural reforms in Argentina has been the consolidation of precarious work as the new reality of employment for a very large segment of the working class.

To develop my argument, I will look at the transformation of Argentina over the last 25 years, that is following the period of military dictatorship that since 1976 was responsible for the first neoliberal program. Nonetheless, it was really in the 1990s with the implementation of a programme that made the peso fully convertible to the dollar (the convertibility plan) that neoliberal reforms gained momentum. With this discussion as the backdrop, I will then address the more concrete implications of convertibility on the transformation of labour markets.

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Neoliberalism in Crisis, Accumulation, and Rosa Luxemburg's Legacy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-098-2

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Book part
Publication date: 29 November 2012

Harvey Arbeláez and Rie Tanaka

Governance and opacity issues have increased since the early 1990s and several governance indicators are introduced by international organizations and NGOs. The governance…

Abstract

Governance and opacity issues have increased since the early 1990s and several governance indicators are introduced by international organizations and NGOs. The governance indicators have been used in various sectors, directly affecting a nation's political reputation. This study analyzes the context of governance and opacity in Argentina and Chile and assesses the relationship between the cultural pattern and the functioning of institutions. A first approximation to the analysis of Argentina and Chile seems to lead to the conclusion of the existence of homogeneity between them as a result of a similar background. However, differences in geography and history generate different societal norms, and functioning of institutions within them. Chile's geographical isolation and limited natural resources leads the country toward economic growth and political stability. By contrast, in Argentina, populist regimes undermine the foundations of its economy while its middle class struggles and loses public trust. The various factors interactively affect quality of public policies and governance and, consequently, are conducive to differences in the perceived and real levels of opacity between both countries. Is corruption a culture-specific issue? If yes, then, is governance a consequence of culture too? Therefore, it is important to interpret a context behind governance in order to establish appropriate anticorruption reform in practice. This chapter seeks to address some of these issues by means of a case study comparison between Argentina and Chile and contribute to the understanding of the context in which negotiations may occur when FDI and M&A deals take place.

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Transparency and Governance in a Global World
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-764-2

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Article
Publication date: 19 November 2020

María Dolores Gadea and Isabel Sanz-Villarroya

The purpose of this study is to focus deeply on the short term to explain the relative long-term evolution of the Argentinian economy in the long and the short term.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to focus deeply on the short term to explain the relative long-term evolution of the Argentinian economy in the long and the short term.

Design/methodology/approach

The study of the long-term evolution of the Argentine economy and identifying the moment in which it began to lose ground compared to other developed economies, such as Australia and Canada, constitutes the central axis of the historiography of this country. However, an additional problem presented by the Argentine economy is its high volatility. For this reason, the long term should be influenced by the short term, an issue that requires a more detailed study of the cyclical behavior and a deep analysis of the relationship between the long and the short term.

Findings

The results obtained point to a cyclical development that influences the long-term evolution and, therefore, explains Argentina’s convergence process with Australia and Canada. Frequent deep busts and short booms characterize the Argentine cycle, offsetting its long-term growth potential.

Originality/value

Although the long term has been profusely studied in Argentina, the short term has not been analyzed to the same extent, which is surprising given the extreme volatility of this economy (Prebisch, 1950). The studies performed on economic cycles have always been partial, disconnected from the long term and carried out without much technical rigor.

Details

Applied Economic Analysis, vol. 28 no. 84
Type: Research Article
ISSN:

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Article
Publication date: 4 November 2013

Mariana Ines Paludi and Jean Helms Mills

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the critical management literature through a fusion of Latin and North American lenses (one author is from Argentina and one…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the critical management literature through a fusion of Latin and North American lenses (one author is from Argentina and one from Canada), to question the extant women in management literature, which is rooted in an epistemology that serves to construct the notion of a broad, universal set of expectations of the role of men, women and managers, in which other ethnic groups, in this case men and women from so-called Latin American countries, are taken for granted.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a critical sensemaking lens, the paper explores the narratives of female executives in Argentina to help us understand how these women make sense of their careers within a Latin American context and the implications and outcomes of this understanding. The paper's approach involves three interrelated elements – feminist poststructuralism, postcolonialism and critical sensemaking.

Findings

The narratives from the Argentinian executives reveals the tension between different cultures and idiosyncrasies among countries such as Argentina, Brazil, Mexico; and that the way to navigate those differences entails understanding and learning about the other. These executive women from Argentina – las jefas – are heard mainly because they represent the managerial identity that multi-national corporations foster in any overseas branch.

Research limitations/implications

In terms of the data used in this study, the paper acknowledges that this is an exploratory study that allows us to access women's stories from a pre-existing source. The paper recognizes that the authors are limited by the texts that are secondary sources, and if the authors had been able to conduct the interviews themselves they might have asked different questions.

Practical implications

The findings of this research can help organizations to develop and implement a pluriversal and inclusive equity training programme through and awareness of the sensemaking of those involved.

Originality/value

The use of a critical framework on postcolonialism, feminism and postructuralism together with critical sensemaking to understand female executives from the South of America.

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Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 32 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

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Article
Publication date: 24 June 2006

Katherine Worboys

In 1983, democratic elections ended a seven‐year military dictatorship in Argentina, bringing the end of a violent military dictatorship and its campaign to eliminate what…

Abstract

In 1983, democratic elections ended a seven‐year military dictatorship in Argentina, bringing the end of a violent military dictatorship and its campaign to eliminate what it labelled ‘subversive elements’ within Argentine society. Alongside the regime’s human victims, information and archives also suffered severely. Document raids of social organisations were common, and the military junta worked to actively destroy any records it deemed threatening or simply inappropriate. When civilians returned to power, they moved to initiate wide‐spread educational reforms, many of which focused on the development of libraries and archives. This article examines information repositories ‐ archives, libraries, and museums ‐ as small organisations and institutions empowered by the new civilian administration to emerge as prominent players in Argentina’s democratic transition.

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History of Education Review, vol. 35 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0819-8691

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Article
Publication date: 31 May 2011

Marilyn M. Helms, Martín A. Rodríguez, Lisandro de los Ríos and William (Bill) Hargrave

The purpose of this paper is to examine the external macro‐environmental forces along with the internal country‐specific attributes of Argentina as they influence…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the external macro‐environmental forces along with the internal country‐specific attributes of Argentina as they influence entrepreneurship. The experiences with Argentina's financial crisis of 2001‐2002 have highlighted concerns as to whether the past prosperity can ever be regained. Entrepreneurial ability has received much attention in public discussions as a means to revitalize the lagging economy.

Design/methodology/approach

The popular strategic management tool of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats (SWOT) analysis is used to group a number of current and emerging issues for the country. Their impact on entrepreneurship is then evaluated.

Findings

Argentina has numerous natural resources that can be developed into new businesses. The slow growth of new venture creation in Argentina can be attributed to the difficulties in obtaining capital financing as well as the new business start‐up licenses and procedures. Further limiting entrepreneurship is corruption, the lack of copyright protection, and difficulty hiring employees. However, the government of Argentina has implemented monetary changes to provide funds and other services for supporting new start‐up companies and a key strength of Argentina for entrepreneurship is the country's resources and products. Major opportunities exist in tourism and investments in the growing wine production industry. The major threat to new venture creation, however, is the current worldwide recession.

Research limitations/implications

Research implications for applying SWOT analysis to a country are discussed. While this tool is largely focused on companies and their issues for strategy development, this paper discusses ways to use the methodology to include ranking or weighting variables in their importance to entrepreneurship. A larger sample of experts is suggested for future research along with surveys of industry leaders to refine the ordering of variables.

Practical implications

Implications for practitioners and policy makers within the country and areas for future research are discussed.

Originality/value

The paper adds value to the existing research about new venture creation and start‐ups in Argentina. In addition, the use of SWOT as a country‐analysis methodology is also extended.

Details

Competitiveness Review: An International Business Journal, vol. 21 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1059-5422

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Book part
Publication date: 3 September 2019

Nicolás Iñigo Carrera

This chapter presents a brief description of the development of capitalism in Argentina, focusing on the situation of the working class and its practices. It analyzes the…

Abstract

This chapter presents a brief description of the development of capitalism in Argentina, focusing on the situation of the working class and its practices. It analyzes the relationship between the main directions of capitalist development and the means of struggle used by the working class for more than a hundred years. It describes the predominant tendencies (in breadth and depth) of the development of capitalism in Argentina and the consequent main direction of the movement of the population (attraction or repulsion) in relation to capitalist relations. From the nineteenth century to the mid-seventies of the twentieth century, capitalism developed mainly in breadth, incorporating population, general strikes became a frequent practice and workers achieved a place in the institutional system. In the last quarter of the twentieth century, capitalist developed mainly in depth and, consequently, repulsion of population became dominant, increasing unemployment and poverty. Workers’ organizations lost some of their strength, but new organizations of the unemployed and the poor emerged, and roadblocks extended as an instrument of struggle.

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Class History and Class Practices in the Periphery of Capitalism
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-592-5

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Book part
Publication date: 12 January 2021

Mercedes Iacoviello, Diego Pando and Mercedes Llano

Administrative reforms in Argentina have followed an irregular trajectory as a result of the penetration of patronage in the state apparatus. Extensive politicization has…

Abstract

Administrative reforms in Argentina have followed an irregular trajectory as a result of the penetration of patronage in the state apparatus. Extensive politicization has impeded the development of a univocal and stable civil service at the national level.

In this context, the goal of this chapter is to analyze the characteristics of the federal civil service in its interaction with actors and institutions of the political system during the 2004–2014 period. The study reveals two main findings: (1) a diversity of bureaucratic formats coexist in the country, both formally and informally; and (2) the relationships between the administration and the political system vary according to the predominant bureaucratic format.

Details

The Emerald Handbook of Public Administration in Latin America
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-677-1

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