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Article
Publication date: 30 August 2022

Ozias A. Moore, Beth Livingston and Alex M. Susskind

Hiring managers commonly rely on system-justifying motives and attitudes during résumé screening. Given the prevalent use of modern résumé formats (e.g. LinkedIn) that include not…

1072

Abstract

Purpose

Hiring managers commonly rely on system-justifying motives and attitudes during résumé screening. Given the prevalent use of modern résumé formats (e.g. LinkedIn) that include not only an applicant's credentials but also headshot photographs, visible sources of information such as an applicant's race are also revealed while a hiring manager simultaneously evaluates a candidate's suitability. As a result, such screening is likely to activate evaluation bias. The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of a hiring manager's perceptions of race-system justification, that is, support for the status quo in relations between Black and White job candidates in reinforcing or mitigating hiring bias related to in-group and out-group membership during résumé screening.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing from system justification theory (SJT) in a pre-selection context, in an experimental study involving 174 human resource managers, the authors tested two boundary conditions of the expected relationship between hiring manager and job candidate race on candidate ratings: (1) a hiring manager's affirmative action (AA) attitudes and system-justifying attitudes and (2) a job candidate's manipulated suitability for a position. This approach enabled us to juxtapose the racial composition of hiring manager–job candidate dyads under conditions in which the job candidate's race and competency for a posted position were manipulated to examine the conditions under which White and Black hiring managers are likely to make biased evaluations. The authors largely replicated these findings in two follow-up studies with 261 students and 361 online raters.

Findings

The authors found that information on a candidate's objective suitability for a job resulted in opposite-race positive bias among Black evaluators and same-race positive bias among White evaluators in study 1 alone. Conversely, positive attitudes toward AA policies resulted in in-group favoritism and strengthened a positive same-race bias for Black evaluators (study 1 and 2). We replicated this finding with a third sample to directly test system-justifying attitudes (study 3). The way in which White raters rated White candidates reflected the same attitudes against systems (AA attitudes) that Black raters rating Black candidates exhibited in the authors’ first two studies. Positive system-justifying attitudes or positive attitudes toward AA did not, however, translate into the elevation of same-race candidate ratings of suitability above those of opposite-race candidates.

Research limitations/implications

Although the size of the sample is on par with the percentage of Blacks nationwide in private-sector managerial-level positions ideally, the authors would have preferred to oversample Black HR managers. Given the scarcity of focus on Black HR managers, future researchers, using diverse samples of evaluators should also consider not only managers' and candidates' race but also their social dominance orientation. Moreover, it is important that future researchers use more racially diverse samples from other industries to more fully identify the ways in which the dynamics of system-justifying processes can emerge to influence evaluation bias during résumé screening.

Practical implications

Advances in technology pose new challenges to HR hiring practices. This study attempts to fill a void regarding the unintended effects of bias during digital résumé screening. These trends have important HR implications. Initial screening of a job applicant's credentials while concurrently viewing the individual's photograph is likely to activate subconscious evaluation bias, produces inaccurate applicant ratings. This study's findings should caution hiring managers about the potential for bias to arise when viewing job candidates' digital résumés and encourage them to carefully examine various boundary conditions on racial similarity bias effects on applicant pre-screening and subsequent hiring decisions.

Social implications

The study’s results suggest that bias might be attenuated as organizational leaders engage in efforts to understand their system-justifying motives and examine perceptions of the workplace social hierarchy (i.e. responses to status hierarchies) linked to perceptions of the status quo. For example, understanding how system justifying motives influence evaluation bias will inform how best to design training and other interventions that link discussions of workforce diversity to the relationships among groups within the organization's social hierarchy. This line of research should be further explored to better understand the complex forces at work when hiring managers adopt system-justifying motives during hiring evaluations.

Originality/value

The authors address the limitations of prior research by examining interactions between boundary conditions in a real-world context using real human resources hiring managers and more contemporary personnel-screening practices to test changes in the direction and strength of the relationship between hiring manager–job candidate race and hiring manager evaluations. Thus, the authors’ findings have implications for hiring bias and understanding of system-justification processes, particularly regarding how, when and why hiring managers support the status quo (i.e. perpetuate inequity) even if they are disadvantaged as a result.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 42 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 March 2010

Alex M. Susskind and Michael A. Stefanone

A model of the relationships between individuals' perceptions of internet use and internet usage behaviors is presented and tested. The purpose of this paper is to propose that a…

5155

Abstract

Purpose

A model of the relationships between individuals' perceptions of internet use and internet usage behaviors is presented and tested. The purpose of this paper is to propose that a lack of perceived responsiveness to on‐line communication is positively related to individuals' general resistance to use the internet as a communication information exchange medium, termed general internet apprehensiveness (GIA). Perceptions of GIA are negatively associated with on‐line information‐seeking behavior, and positively associated with individuals' resistance to or fear of using the internet for on‐line retail transactions, termed transactional internet apprehensiveness (TIA).

Design/methodology/approach

College‐aged students reported their attitudes about on‐line information seeking, on‐line purchasing, and their on‐line information seeking and purchasing behaviors. The model presented is tested with path analysis to assess the variables' interrelationships.

Findings

Ultimately, lack of responsiveness is positively related to GIA, GIA is negatively related to information‐seeking behavior, and TIA is negatively related to consumers' on‐line purchasing of goods and services.

Research limitations/implications

The student sample used in this study prevents us from making broad‐based generalizations. While students represent a large base of internet users and have been presented as a viable population to study in investigations for both academic audiences and marketing practitioners, future research will continue to benefit from more diverse samples of internet users.

Practical implications

This study offers hospitality professionals a better understanding of the elements that inhibit or encourage on‐line information seeking and purchasing behaviors.

Originality/value

This paper further defines the socio‐demographic factors that inhibit consumers from using the internet as both an information‐sharing tool and purchasing medium.

Details

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9880

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 12 March 2010

Cihan Cobanoglu

481

Abstract

Details

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9880

Article
Publication date: 9 October 2018

Meehee Cho, Mark A. Bonn, Alex Susskind and Larry Giunipero

This study aims to understand how restaurant dependence and autonomy within the supply chain influence market responsiveness. An examination of influences related to improving…

1292

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to understand how restaurant dependence and autonomy within the supply chain influence market responsiveness. An examination of influences related to improving market responsiveness was also conducted by investigating the moderating roles of information technology adoption and trust.

Design/methodology/approach

Hierarchical regression models were developed to test the hypothesized relationships. In particular, data were obtained from only independent restaurant owners and managers because of their ability to select and determine their own suppliers.

Findings

Results revealed that restaurant autonomy from suppliers has a more positive effect on market responsiveness than supplier dependence. The moderating test results revealed that information technology adoption significantly improved the relationships between restaurant dependence and market responsiveness, while exhibiting no significant moderating effect. Restaurant trust in suppliers significantly improved the positive effect of autonomy upon market responsiveness; however, it had no significant moderating effect on this link.

Originality/value

This study was conducted to identify what types of supplier relationships should be pursued to improve the independent restaurant’s ability to effectively respond to market conditions. The findings regarding the moderating effects of information technology adoption and trust provided clear evidence that buyer–supply relationship strategies should be developed in consideration of those distinguishable characteristics unique to the operations and environment of independent restaurants.

Practical implications

Findings can be applied to developing desirable relationships with suppliers characterized by restaurant dependence or autonomy and contribute to improving managerial actions for independent restaurants involving adopting information technology and building trust.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 30 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 3 April 2023

Lee Barron

Abstract

Details

AI and Popular Culture
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80382-327-0

Article
Publication date: 11 April 2019

Mehmet Ali Koseoglu

This study aims to address how the social structure of the hospitality management field has evolved from 1960 to 2016.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to address how the social structure of the hospitality management field has evolved from 1960 to 2016.

Design/methodology/approach

The informal social structure of the hospitality management literature was analyzed by collecting authorship data from seven hospitality management journals. Co-authorship analyses via network analysis were conducted.

Findings

According to the findings, throughout the history of hospitality management, international collaboration levels are relatively low. Based on social network analysis, the research community is only loosely connected, and the network of the community does not fit with the small-world network theory. Additional findings indicate that researchers in the hospitality management literature are ranked via degree centrality, closeness centrality and betweenness centrality. Cliques, which contain at least five researchers, and core researchers are identified.

Practical implications

This study helps both scholars and practitioners improve the informal structure of the field. Scholars must generate strong ties to strengthen cross-fertilization in the field; hence, they collaborate with authors who have strong positions in the field. Specifically, this provides a useful performance analysis. To the extent that institutions and individuals are rewarded for publications, this study demonstrates the performance and connectivity of several key researchers in the field. This finding could be interesting to (post)graduate students. Hospitality managers looking for advisors and consultants could benefit from the findings. Additionally, these are beneficial for journal editors, junior researchers and agencies/institutions.

Originality/value

As one of the first study in the field, this research examines the informal social structure of hospitality management literature in seven journals.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 32 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 5 November 2021

Justin M. Jones, Dorothy R. Carter and Noshir S. Contractor

Research on organizational teamwork is increasingly highlighting the patterned nature of the relational processes (e.g., communication, backup behavior) and psychological states…

Abstract

Research on organizational teamwork is increasingly highlighting the patterned nature of the relational processes (e.g., communication, backup behavior) and psychological states (e.g., trust, shared cognition) that underlie team effectiveness. However, studies of teams often rely on methodologies that do not explicitly assess the underlying patterns of relational processes and states. Social network approaches offer an appealing alternative to the typical methodologies used in team research given that network approaches provide both the theory and methodology necessary to conceptualize and investigate patterns of interactions among group members. Despite the advantages of social network approaches, many team researchers are unfamiliar with the network paradigm and its associated methodologies. The purpose of this chapter is to clarify how networks can be leveraged to answer key research questions related to the study of team functioning and effectiveness. We begin by discussing the evolution and eventual convergence of team research and network approaches. Then, we examine the current state of the literature at the intersection of teams and networks in order to identify key takeaways and remaining questions. We conclude by highlighting opportunities for the future of team network science.

Details

The Emerald Handbook of Group and Team Communication Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-501-8

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 1997

Edgar A. Whitley

Examines the claims that cyberspace allows individuals to create sustainable new identities. It examines these claims in relation to the ongoing argument about embodiment and…

812

Abstract

Examines the claims that cyberspace allows individuals to create sustainable new identities. It examines these claims in relation to the ongoing argument about embodiment and information systems. Accepts that computer mediated communication changes the nature of the interaction by removing bodily cues from the process, but argues that creating new identities is not simply a case of using new words. Argues that the choice of words is the result of socialized learning into a particular role, a process that cannot be taught explicitly. Analyses an existing case study and highlights the limitations of playing with an identity into which one has not been socialized. Ends with a discussion of the implications of the ideas presented.

Details

Information Technology & People, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2001

Lindsey Muir and Alex Douglas

This paper examines the rise of electronic‐commerce and its implications for quality and service delivery with particular reference to its impact on legal services. E‐commerce is…

2088

Abstract

This paper examines the rise of electronic‐commerce and its implications for quality and service delivery with particular reference to its impact on legal services. E‐commerce is growing at a phenomenal rate with more organisations offering their goods and services on‐line every day. Importantly, this growth is being matched by the number of people gaining access to the Internet in a variety of ways. E‐commerce offers both opportunities and threats to law firms. The main threat is identified as coming from on‐line competitors offering reduced prices and higher customer services. This competition is forcing law firms to change their attitude to new technology generally and the Internet in particular. A Web presence allows legal practices to be more transparent and to offer greater access to information to customers by way of improving their services. This improved communication may lead to a reduction in complaints against solicitors. The paper concludes that the Internet will have a profound effect on the way private law firms conduct business.

Details

Managing Service Quality: An International Journal, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-4529

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 February 2023

Alex Scott and Beth Davis-Sramek

Recent supply chain disruptions have highlighted the global shortage of truck drivers. Because it is a quintessential “masculine” profession, the proportion of women truck drivers…

Abstract

Purpose

Recent supply chain disruptions have highlighted the global shortage of truck drivers. Because it is a quintessential “masculine” profession, the proportion of women truck drivers is small, although efforts are underway to recruit and retain women. This research offers a comprehensive and theoretically-driven empirical analysis of women in the US trucking industry.

Design/methodology/approach

The research utilizes a detailed longitudinal database of 20 million driver inspections from 2010 to 2019. It is paired with US Social Security Administration data to infer the gender of the driver for each inspection. Descriptive evidence is provided, and a logit model is used to test the hypotheses.

Findings

The research finds that female truck drivers make up 3.2% of the inspection sample, but their representation has grown by 23.1% over the last decade. Women are vastly overrepresented in the jobs that are the easiest to get and underrepresented in jobs that offer better pay, more regular hours and more time at home. However, the proportion of women in more desirable truck driving jobs has grown from 2010 to 2019, offering positive news for the industry.

Practical implications

The research offers a more credible and realistic statistic for the proportion of women in the industry, contradicting previous industry figures. The research also highlights policy implications for industry stakeholders.

Social implications

The truck driving industry is vital for a nation's economic sustainability. Truck driving jobs offer better wages and more opportunity than many non-professional female-dominant jobs. The research emphasizes the path to move into jobs that are better suited for women with domestic or family responsibilities.

Originality/value

The authors document hitherto unknown facts about women in the US trucking industry. Using theoretically driven research in organizational science, this study highlights the interplay of supply-side and demand-side factors that help to explain a nuanced perspective of the workforce composition and discusses potential policies to increase the number of female drivers.

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, vol. 53 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-0035

Keywords

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