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Article
Publication date: 2 August 2022

Ahmad Gamal and Muhammad Joko Romadhon

The aim of this research is to provide a new understanding of the concept of visibility in the realm of property research. Further, this study could propose a more accurate way of…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this research is to provide a new understanding of the concept of visibility in the realm of property research. Further, this study could propose a more accurate way of calculating retail unit rental price based on visibility. An accurate visibility quantification can influence rent negotiations between shopping mall management and potential tenants. This study can also assist shopping center management, shop owners and architects to have a better mechanism for determining the visibility value and the effect on the retail unit rental price.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses data from 153 indoor retail stores in Jakarta and a sequential-transformative mixed method to answer an important question for modern retail management: How much would indoor store visibility affect rent? The authors developed a method to accurately measure an indoor retail store's object-based isovist – a visual field in which a number of observers can view the particular indoor store.

Findings

The study found that on average, each additional square meter person of visibility increases indoor retail rent price as much as IDR 40.74/sq m/month (USD 0.0027). Since visibility value is a variable with the greatest inter-store variation in this data set, the rent price difference between two stores with maximum and minimum visibility can reach IDR 100,904.62/sq m/month (USD 6.90). This finding is not just statistically but also financially significant since indoor inter-store retail rent price variation that can be directly attributed to visibility is about 38.4% of the average rent price in this data set.

Practical implications

Along with the rapid growth of e-commerce, numerous commercial properties are struggling to provide customers with a positive and distinct experience. Improving visibility can be a key spatial factor that will help shopping center designers, owners and management. The authors’ research can help shopping mall managers determine each store's optimum rent based on its visibility when negotiating with potential tenants.

Originality/value

The aim of this research is to provide a new understanding of the concept of appearance in the realm of property research. Further, this study could propose a more accurate way of calculating retail unit rental price according to the concept of visibility.

Details

Journal of Property Investment & Finance, vol. 41 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-578X

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 7 October 2019

Stig Stenslie and Kjetil Selvik

The chapter compares the survival of old regime elites in Tunisia and Egypt after the 2011 uprisings and analyses its enabling factors. Although democracy progressed in Tunisia…

Abstract

The chapter compares the survival of old regime elites in Tunisia and Egypt after the 2011 uprisings and analyses its enabling factors. Although democracy progressed in Tunisia and collapsed in Egypt, the countries show similarities in the old elite’s ability to survive the Arab Spring. In both cases, the popular uprisings resulted in the type of elite circulation that John Higley and György Lengyel refer to as ‘quasi-replacement circulation’, which is sudden and coerced, but narrow and shallow. To account for this converging outcome, the chapter foregrounds the instability, economic decline and information uncertainty in the countries post-uprising and the navigating resources, which the old elites possessed. The roots of the quasi-replacement circulation are traced to the old elites’ privileged access to money, network, the media and, for Egypt, external support. Only parts of the structures of authority in a political regime are formal. The findings show the importance of evaluating regime change in a broader view than the formal institutional set-up. In Tunisia and Egypt, the informal structures of the anciens régimes survived – so did the old regime elites.

Details

Elites and People: Challenges to Democracy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-915-6

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 16 September 2014

Sarah A. Tobin

This paper uses the case of Islamic banking in Amman, Jordan, to assess the wide moral range of expectations, levels of satisfaction, and means of evaluating banks’ “Islamicness.”

Abstract

Purpose

This paper uses the case of Islamic banking in Amman, Jordan, to assess the wide moral range of expectations, levels of satisfaction, and means of evaluating banks’ “Islamicness.”

Design/methodology/approach

The information is gathered from interviews conducted during over 21 months of ethnographic research and one month in participant observation and research access as an intern at the Middle East Islamic Bank (MEIB) in Amman, Jordan.

Findings

I found three modes for evaluating “Islamicness” when actors decide whether or not to become customers of Islamic banks.

Research implications

These modes demonstrate that Islamic banking is no longer the cultural protectionism of a relatively homogeneous community of Muslims. Rather it is a fraught and tense field for actors’ debates about types of moralities in the markets and modes of moral assessments of “Islamicness.”

Originality/value

The amplification of the individual and individual choice and authority in the moral assessments of Islamic banking may ultimately serve to unseat prior dichotomous theoretical framings of morality’s presence or absence as “Islamic” or “not Islamic” and “good” and “bad.” By unleashing to individuals the construction of morality in the markets, moral rights and wrongs, and moral evaluations, fragmentation of moral consensus in market practices will occur.

Details

Production, Consumption, Business and the Economy: Structural Ideals and Moral Realities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-055-1

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 June 2017

Zayyad Abdul-Baki and Ahmad Bukola Uthman

This paper aims to argue that the current environment in which the Islamic banking system is situated is not ideal for the system’s pursuance of its socioeconomic ideals, thus…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to argue that the current environment in which the Islamic banking system is situated is not ideal for the system’s pursuance of its socioeconomic ideals, thus necessitating the system’s shift from pursuing falah to maximizing profits.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper theorizes and conceptualizes this shift from falah to profit maximization using two complementary theories – systems theory and institutional theory – to prove that such a shift is not unexpected. The paper further adopts a dialectical analysis that is somewhat historical to analyse the shift.

Findings

The measure of the Islamic banks’ performance in terms of their social ideals is misplaced, as the environment in which they currently operate does not support such goals. Thus, stemming from the theoretical base, the Islamic banks’ pursuance of profit maximization instead of falah should not be unexpected. The paper concludes that despite the unfavorable environment, the social ideals of the Islamic banking system may still be met, to an extent, through investment in microfinance and awqaf.

Research limitations/implications

The paper adopts document analysis for sourcing data majorly from prior studies. Hence, the authors do not conclude that the analysis herein is applicable to all Islamic banks. Secondly, as the authors could not get a complete historical account of the Islamic banking system’s development, some aspects of the dialectical analysis – contradiction and change – have been discussed in a general fashion.

Practical implications

The need for Islamic banks in the current environment, especially for the Muslim population, cannot be over emphasized; however, the achievement of falah given this current environment may be daunting.

Originality/value

The current analyses of the shift of Islamic banks from pursuing falah to pursuing profit maximization are not well-defined, as they lack a proper theorization of the challenges faced by Islamic banks. This paper fills this gap.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 16 December 2009

Riad Attar

For more than nine decades, the Jewish–Palestinian conflict has dominated all aspects of life in the Arab world. The Arabs have disregarded and neglected their political…

Abstract

For more than nine decades, the Jewish–Palestinian conflict has dominated all aspects of life in the Arab world. The Arabs have disregarded and neglected their political, economic, and social development since 1916 because of their obsession with defeating the Jews or driving them into the sea. When the Arab armies collectively failed to destroy the newly established Jewish state in 1948, the dynamics of the conflict changed. On the one hand, Arab rationalists such as King Abdullah ibn al-Husyan (King Abdullah-I) (d 1951) of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (HKJ) suggested accepting the United Nations Partition Plan as proposed by the UN General Assembly on November 29, 1947. On the other hand, most Arab countries followed the lead of Egyptian President Gamal Abdul Nassir, who advocated the destruction of Israel. The latter view was also adopted by the PLO during Ahmad Shukeiri's reign (1964–1967) and later by Yasir Arafat (1969–2004) and most Palestinian armed factions.

Details

Arms and Conflict in the Middle East
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-662-5

Book part
Publication date: 19 December 2016

Abu Umar Faruq Ahmad

Sukuk are popular means for governments to raise money through sovereign issues, and for corporations to obtain finance through corporate sukuk offerings. The purpose of this…

Abstract

Purpose

Sukuk are popular means for governments to raise money through sovereign issues, and for corporations to obtain finance through corporate sukuk offerings. The purpose of this study is to critically examine the issues revolving around various aspects of sukuk such as regulation, performance and future challenges from different Asian market jurisdictions.

Methodology/approach

Using various sukuk structures and other literatures, this chapter critically investigates some general legal and regulatory requirements for sukuk issuance, its required infrastructure in various jurisdictions in addition to some other relevant important issues to generate cash flows and raise finance through Islamic capital market (ICM) operations without violating the tenets of Sharī’ah in sukuk structures which ultimately helps the economic growth of the Asian region.

Findings

The study finds that in many Asian countries, a separate and specialised regulatory framework, as demanded by sukuk, is lacking and this instrument is treated under the same regulations as of conventional capital markets and their instruments. Some of the regulations may be appropriate for ICM and sukuk, however, most of these regulations need proper modification in order to treat sukuk with clear understanding.

Practical implications

Being part of a niche and new area of Islamic finance in the global financial market a plethora of confusion exists regarding various aspects of sukuk including regulation, performance and future challenges particularly in Asian jurisdiction where sukuk are largely in operation. Findings from this study can be used as a reference to understand the need of the proper modification of conventional regulations, the performance of sukuk in better ways, and meeting other relevant challenges.

Originality/value

Although the demands for having specialised regulatory framework of sukuk, or at least amendments in the current framework for conventional bonds is gaining momentum worldwide in order to accommodate sukuk in the capital markets according to their peculiar nature, it has not caught much attention of researchers and practitioners involved with Islamic finance. Therefore, this study is expected to add value to regulation, standardisation and performance of sukuk in the Asian market, and it deals with the obstacles in the growth of sukuk, which were not extensively covered earlier by the researchers and the Islamic finance industry practitioners.

Details

Advances in Islamic Finance, Marketing, and Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-899-8

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 October 2023

Yusuf Karbhari, Abdelhafid Benamraoui and Ahmad Fahmi Sheikh Hassan

The study applies Erving Goffman's (1974) “frame analysis” principles to examine how Sharia governance is practiced in Islamic banks and explores the interaction and strategies…

Abstract

Purpose

The study applies Erving Goffman's (1974) “frame analysis” principles to examine how Sharia governance is practiced in Islamic banks and explores the interaction and strategies adopted by bank managers to influence the decisions of Sharia scholars. The study also aims to identify inherent flaws in the Sharia compliance review system.

Design/methodology/approach

The study employs the principles of Goffman as a lens to critically analyse a rich dataset obtained through interviews undertaken with 46 key players operating in the governance framework of the Malaysian Islamic banking industry due to its progressive Islamic governance framework.

Findings

The study demonstrates that managers of Islamic banks may engage in “passing” and “covering” strategies while interacting within the governance structure. Concurrently, Sharia boards (SBs) implement “protective practices” during their interactions, adding complexity to their responsibilities within the banks. Consequently, SBs cannot merely be viewed as instruments for legitimising banking operations. This raises questions about the “impression management,” “concealment” and “competence” strategies employed by managers and SB members, as suggested by Goffman's framework. These findings indicate that there is room for further enhancement in the governance practices of Islamic banks.

Research limitations/implications

Future research could explore aspects related to the governance of Islamic banks, such as investigating the independence and effectiveness of internal Sharia officers. Examining the strategies employed during their interactions with external Sharia boards and other stakeholders could provide further valuable insights.

Practical implications

By highlighting shortcomings in the governance and compliance review process, the findings could serve as a valuable resource for policymakers. The insights derived could inform the development of regulations aimed at reducing opportunistic behaviour and promoting accountability in the Islamic banking sector.

Originality/value

This study uniquely employs Goffman's concepts of “frontstage” and “backstage” strategies to offer insights into the interactions between Islamic bank managers and SBs and the impact of these interactions on Sharia compliance. The study contributes to the understanding of the dynamics between key players in the governance of Islamic banks and the factors influencing their adherence to Sharia principles.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 14 December 2018

Abu Umar Faruq Ahmad, Aishath Muneeza, Mohammad Omar Farooq and Rashedul Hasan

Sukuk restructuring primarily aims at offering a debtor more latitude, in form and time, to settle his obligations. To meet Shari’ah requirements of transferring assets to Sukuk…

Abstract

Sukuk restructuring primarily aims at offering a debtor more latitude, in form and time, to settle his obligations. To meet Shari’ah requirements of transferring assets to Sukuk holders in asset-based Sukuk, the originator usually transfers the beneficial ownership to the issuer special purpose vehicles (SPV). However, in asset-backed Sukuk, the originator sells the underlying asset to an SPV and Sukuk holders do not have recourse to the originator in the event of defaults. Among some key unresolved Shari’ah issues in this regard is whether a change of contract necessitates entering a new contract. Other related issues that conflict with the tenets of Shari’ah are: (1) Sukuk structuring on tangible assets and debts; (2) receiving the full title by the Sukuk holders to the underlying assets in the event of default in case of securities that are publicized as asset backed; (3) Sukuk’s similarity with interest bearing conventional bonds: (a) capital guarantee by the originator or third party, (b) the originators’ promise to repurchase Sukuk at face value upon their redemption, and (c) providing internal and external credit enhancement. The Shari’ah-compliance of the above-mentioned clauses and structures of Sukuk remain debated among the Shari’ah scholars. Based on some specific cases, this study examines the Shari’ah viewpoint on sukuk restructuring and potential solutions to these unresolved Shari’ah issues in light of the past and recent declaration of some Sukuk defaults as non-Shari’ah complaints. Undoubtedly, resolution of these and other unresolved issues pertaining to Sukuk defaults can help strengthen the confidence of investors in Islamic capital market structures.

Details

Management of Islamic Finance: Principle, Practice, and Performance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-403-9

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 July 2020

Gamal Mohamed Shehata, Mohammed Abdel-Hakim Montash and Mohamed Raafat Areda

The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationships among a set of human resources management (HRM) practices, entrepreneurial traits (ET) and corporate…

Abstract

Purpose

The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationships among a set of human resources management (HRM) practices, entrepreneurial traits (ET) and corporate entrepreneurship (CE) in an emerging market such as the Egyptian one.

Design/methodology/approach

This research is explanatory in nature where it explains the causal relationships between the variables. Data was collected from 230 human resources (HR) managers and professional serving in top Egyptian financial institutions. Data was analyzed using structural equation modeling with relevant goodness-of-fit statistics.

Findings

The results of this study indicate that HRM practices have significant impact on the development of ET of personnel currently operating in the Egyptian financial institutions. Besides, the results confirm the effect of HRM practices on ET, which in turn have significant impact on CE.

Practical implications

This research provides an appropriate direction for HR managers on how to best design HR programs directed toward the development of strong CE orientation. It also highlights the core ET needed to enhance CE in emerging economies. The validated hypothetical relationships of this model serve as the baseline for those managers to plan, execute and measure the consequences of those HRM programs.

Originality/value

Although HRM is widely considered as a critical driving force for CE, there is a remarkable scarcity of empirical research examining the role of ET. The conceptual model tested in this research typically deepens both HRM scholars and managers’ understanding of how they can best connect HRM practices to ET and CE in emerging economies. The findings of this study open the door for a new venue of research in the HRM area of study, particularly in emerging markets that search for a fast-growing rate of economic prosperity. The findings of this study lend support for HRM as an antecedent to CE rather than vice versa.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4604

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 August 2022

Salman Ahmed Shaikh

This paper aims to discuss the views of scholarship in South Asia regarding Riba and Riba-free finance, including the conservative and realist schools in mainstream thought and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to discuss the views of scholarship in South Asia regarding Riba and Riba-free finance, including the conservative and realist schools in mainstream thought and the assimilative and interpretive schools in liberal thought.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses textual analysis to critically review the writings of scholars in South Asia on contemporary issues regarding Riba and Riba-free finance. It provides a critical review in the light of Islamic jurisprudence and extant Islamic economics literature.

Findings

There are several characteristics in conventional banking and finance products that do not comply with Islamic teachings. In this scenario, Islamic banking is comparatively a better alternative to conventional banking and finance products to achieve Shari’ah compliance and avoid indulging in Riba.

Practical implications

Voluntary financial exclusion to avoid Riba is significant in Muslim-majority countries. Increased penetration of Islamic finance requires clarity on what is Riba and confidence in Riba-free alternatives. Outreach efforts of Islamic financial institutions use conventional banking as a frame of reference to provide a critique of interest-based banking. However, the apprehensions within the Islamic finance literature also need to be answered to change perception and enhance people’s willingness to use Islamic banking. Doing this can expedite the process of financial inclusion as well as help in the transformation of the economy on Riba-free foundations in a reasonably quick timeframe.

Originality/value

This is the first study to critically evaluate the financial proposals presented and propagated by the contemporary interpretive school in South Asia.

Details

International Journal of Ethics and Systems, vol. 39 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9369

Keywords

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