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Book part
Publication date: 19 June 2019

Datien Eriska Utami, Irwan Trinugroho and Bruno S. Sergi

We empirically investigate the determinants of sukuk issuance type in Indonesia to issue either ijarah sukuk or mudharabah sukuk. We include sukuk characteristics…

Abstract

We empirically investigate the determinants of sukuk issuance type in Indonesia to issue either ijarah sukuk or mudharabah sukuk. We include sukuk characteristics, sharia-related factors, and firm characteristics, provide empirical evidence on the determinants of sukuk issuance type by incorporating sukuk-specific factors, firm-specific factors, and sharia compliance variables, and address the role of Sharia Supervisory Board, as the sharia representative of firm compliance for sharia products, in the issuer’s choice of sukuk type. By studying 88 sukuk issuance in Indonesia from 2009 to 2017, we find that firm profitability and the sharia compliance level have a significant effect on the probability of issuing mudharabah sukuk. Some other factors’ characteristics including sukuk yield, firm age, and inflation rate are also found to have a significant effect.

Details

Asia-Pacific Contemporary Finance and Development
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-273-3

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Article
Publication date: 25 August 2021

Nisful Laila, Sylva Alif Rusmita, Eko Fajar Cahyono and W.N.W. Azman-Saini

This study aims to analyze the determinants of ratings of corporate bonds and sukuk issued by firms listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX) for the 2013–2019 period.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to analyze the determinants of ratings of corporate bonds and sukuk issued by firms listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX) for the 2013–2019 period.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses a quantitative approach by testing hypotheses and using logistic regression. Ordinal logistic endogenous (or dependent) variables (Y) in ordinal logistics use data in the form of levels (ordinal scale). Independent (or exogenous) variables (X), include financial and non-financial factors for dependent (or endogenous) variables (Y), namely, of corporate bonds and sukuk ratings. There are two approaches to the study they are Logit and Gompit (Negative Log-Log. The population of the study is Indonesian companies listed on the IDX that issued bonds and sukuk for the 2013–2019 periods. The sampling technique is purposive. In total, 16 corporate companies adhering to the above criteria and issuing bonds and sukuk were chosen. In total, 270 types of bonds and 280 types of sukuk were selected as samples.

Findings

The results of the Logit and Gompit regression show that leverage ratio, firm size, security structure and maturity date are important determinants of corporate bond ratings while profitability and liquidity ratios appear to have no influence on the rating. In the case of sukuk, profitability, liquidity and maturity date play important roles in influencing the corporate sukuk rating. However, there is no evidence to suggest that leverage ratio, company size and security structure may affect sukuk ratings.

Research limitations/implications

For both sukuk and bond issuers, it is necessary to pay attention to the factors that may affect the ratings. Specifically, Sukuk issuers need to pay attention to the return of asset, current ratio, growth and structure. On the other hand, bond issuers need to consider depth to equity, structure and maturity. As for investors, the findings of this study reveal that both bond and sukuk ratings reflect their performance.

Practical implications

This study provides useful information for investors that allows them to assess the risk of sukuk or bonds chosen based on rating and financial performance.

Originality/value

The novelty of this study lies in its econometric methodology used to identify factors which influence sukuk and bond ratings. Specifically, this study used two different techniques that allow a robust conclusion to be drawn. Furthermore, this study provides a systematic analysis which allows comparison between factors which affect bond and sukuk ratings in Indonesia.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

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Article
Publication date: 2 September 2021

Saheed Abdullahi Busari and Sikiru Olanrewaju Aminu

This study aims to explore the opportunities and challenges in activating a Smart Contract to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of Ṣukūk offerings in the Islamic…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore the opportunities and challenges in activating a Smart Contract to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of Ṣukūk offerings in the Islamic capital market.

Design/methodology/approach

The study adopts a mono-method qualitative approach. Data were obtained from survey interviews of two issuances on the fusion of smart contracts in Ṣukūk structures that were Sharīʿah-compliant. A thematic approach was further used to analyze the interview data based on the onion research method while opportunities and challenges of activating the Smart Ṣukūk (SṢ) relied on doctrinal evidence.

Findings

The results from the issuances across two jurisdictions showed that deployment of SṢ can resolve contractual ambiguities arising from Sharīʿah interpretations, jurisdictional policies and legal regime issues, which affect Ṣukūk origination and issuances especially on the right of investors in the event of Ṣukūk defaults. Although SṢ is automated, the third party’s presence is not eliminated as the blockchain platform still relies on the validators who are usually blockchain developers functioning as a third party in the Ṣukūk chain.

Research limitations/implications

The study relies on doctrinal literature to explain the features and requirements of SṢ. The empirical approach is limited to interview data based on local SṢ issuances. Future studies need to explore regulators’ role and global standards in cross-border issuance of SṢ with multiple jurisdictions/laws.

Practical implications

The paper concludes that the offering of SṢ using local currency has been successful in the two issuances because of the facilitative regulatory environment. However, addressing Ṣukūk’s challenges in cross-border offerings would require guidance from international standard-setters such as the Accounting and Auditing Organization for Islamic Financial Institutions and the Islamic Financial Services Board.

Originality/value

This study is an advanced application of smart contracts to alleviate the related Ṣukūk challenges in the Islamic capital market.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

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Article
Publication date: 21 August 2021

Suriani Suriani, M. Shabri Abd. Majid, Raja Masbar, Nazaruddin A. Wahid and Abdul Ghafar Ismail

The purpose of this study is to empirically analyze the role of sukuk in the monetary policy transmission mechanism through the asset price and exchange rate channels in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to empirically analyze the role of sukuk in the monetary policy transmission mechanism through the asset price and exchange rate channels in the Indonesian economy.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the monthly data from January 2003 to November 2017, this study uses a multivariate vector error correction model causality framework. To examine the role of sukuk in the monetary policy transmission mechanism through the asset price channel, this study uses the variables of consumption, inflation, interest rates, economic growth and the composite stock price index. Meanwhile, to examine the role of sukuk in the monetary policy transmission mechanism through the exchange rate channel, this study used variables of inflation, interest rates, economic growth, foreign investment and exchange rate.

Findings

This study documented that sukuk has no causal relationship with inflation through asset price and exchange rate channels. Nevertheless, sukuk has a bidirectional causal relationship with economic growth through asset price and exchange rate channels. Sukuk is also documented to have a causal relationship with monetary policy variables of interest rate and stock prices through asset price and exchange rate channels. Finally, a unidirectional causality is recorded running from the exchange rate to sukuk in the exchange rate channel.

Research limitations/implications

The finding of independence of the sukuk market from interest rates provides evidence that the trading of the sukuk in Indonesia has been in harmony with the Islamic tenets.

Practical implications

The relevant Indonesian authorities need to enhance both domestic and global sukuk markets as part of efforts to promote the sustainability of Islamic capital market development in Indonesia.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is among the first attempts to empirically investigate the role of sukuk in monetary policy transmission through asset price and exchange rate channels in the context of the Indonesian economy.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 12 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

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Article
Publication date: 4 August 2021

Mahdi Ghaemi Asl and Muhammad Mahdi Rashidi

This study aims to investigate the spillover between the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) stock index and several security indices, including Sukuk and conventional…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the spillover between the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) stock index and several security indices, including Sukuk and conventional bond, and ultimately compare the hedge effectiveness of Sukuk and conventional bond.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses VAR (1)-asymmetric Baba, Engle, Kraft and Kroner-multivariate generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (1,1) model to analyze the volatility and shock and asymmetric shock spillover between Sukuk index and several bond indices in the MENA region including, Bond, All Bond, High Yield Bond and Bond and Sukuk and MENA stock market index and ultimately compare the hedging capabilities of Sukuk and conventional bonds by calculating the optimal portfolio weights for securities indices and stock portfolios and hedge effectiveness of security indices.

Findings

Results indicate that there is no shock, volatility and asymmetric shock spillover between the Sukuk index and MENA stock index, implying that Sukuk indices behave independently from MENA stock indices; however, there is shock and asymmetric shock spillover between MENA stock indices and security indices that include conventional bonds. The result of optimal portfolio weights and corresponding hedge effectiveness indicate that Sukuk is the most significant asset among other security indices in diversifying and hedging stock MENA portfolios. Moreover, the hedge effectiveness of Sukuk shows persistent trends during both the normal and crisis periods.

Practical implications

The study suggests that MENA stock market investors and investment managers should add Sukuk instead of the conventional bond to their portfolio to hedge their portfolio against investment risks during both normal and crisis periods.

Originality/value

Although many studies compare many aspects of Sukuk and conventional bonds, this is the first study that compares the hedge effectiveness of Sukuk and conventional bond based on the time-varying optimal portfolio weights strategy.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 12 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

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Article
Publication date: 28 July 2021

J.S. Keshminder, Mohammad Syafiq Abdullah and Marina Mardi

Green sukuk is a tool to finance climate change which has garnered considerable attention. However, having only recently come into existence has its own set of challenges…

Abstract

Purpose

Green sukuk is a tool to finance climate change which has garnered considerable attention. However, having only recently come into existence has its own set of challenges for this tool that require immediate identification and government intervention to intensify its growth. This study aims to explore the challenges encountered by green sukuk issuers and the structure of a reconciled green sukuk issuance framework to speed up the market’s growth with the right interventions.

Design/methodology/approach

The study engaged a qualitative approach via multiple case study interviews with green sukuk issuers and used expert views for data triangulation to generate the findings. A total of four green sukuk issuers participated in the interviews, and for data triangulation purposes, four expert’s opinions and views were considered. The thematic analysis technique is used to report the findings.

Findings

It was revealed that amongst the challenges encountered in the green sukuk market are shoddy green taxonomy, difficulty in identifying green assets, it is time-consuming and costly, no compelling benefits and exposure to higher-risk profiles.

Research limitations/implications

This study may be influenced by observer error and observer bias. However, the researchers have taken cautious steps to overcome these issues by following strict case study methodology procedures and triangulating the qualitative research findings with views from green sukuk experts. These interventions increased the rigour and trustworthiness of the results.

Originality/value

This study is amongst the pioneer in Malaysia, exploring challenges in the green sukuk market. The results are relevant to governments, regulators, institutions and central banks to structure the right interventions to counter the challenges. Greater government involvement is required to strengthen the green sukuk market and to spearhead the green agenda.

Details

Qualitative Research in Financial Markets, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4179

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Article
Publication date: 13 May 2021

Aristeidis Samitas, Spyros Papathanasiou and Drosos Koutsokostas

The purpose of this paper is to examine the connectedness across a variety of Sukuk and conventional bond indices and the implications for optimal asset allocation for the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the connectedness across a variety of Sukuk and conventional bond indices and the implications for optimal asset allocation for the period January 1, 2010–April 30, 2020.

Design/methodology/approach

The data set consists of five major Sukuk (Dow Jones Sukuk, Thompson Reuters BPA Malaysia Sukuk, Indonesia Government Sukuk, S&P MENA Sukuk and Tadawul Sukuk and Bonds Index) and five conventional bond indexes, one for developed (USA) and four for emerging markets (Malaysia, Indonesia, Africa and Qatar). This study investigates the connectedness and volatility spillover effects across the aforementioned indices, by following the Diebold and Yilmaz (2012) approach, based on the time-varying parameter vector autoregressive (TVP-VAR) model. In addition, this paper provides optimal hedge ratios and portfolio weights for investors.

Findings

The empirical results show that Sukuk and conventional bond markets are highly integrated and that total connectedness exhibits sensitivity to exogenous shocks. The Dow Jones and the Malaysian Sukuk indices are the primary shock transmitters to other markets. However, the weak volatility spillovers between the Dow Jones and conventional bonds suggest that opportunities for optimal asset allocation may in fact exist. The highest (lowest) hedging effectiveness can be achieved by taking a short position in Malaysian (Qatarian) bonds.

Originality/value

To the best of the knowledge, this is the largest sample taken into account to investigate the connectedness between Sukuk and conventional bonds.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

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Article
Publication date: 17 May 2021

Sudipa Majumdar and Rashita Puthiya

The global sukuk market has seen widespread innovations in the last couple of decades, which helped sukuk develop into one of the most acceptable Islamic instruments for…

Abstract

Purpose

The global sukuk market has seen widespread innovations in the last couple of decades, which helped sukuk develop into one of the most acceptable Islamic instruments for raising finance. According to the State of the Global Islamic Economy Report (2018–19), United Arab Emirates (UAE) is ranked second among Islamic economies and Nasdaq Dubai is credited to be the leading international center for sukuk listings (Thomson Reuters, 2018). However, there has been limited research studies on this financing option within the region. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first to focus on the role of signaling theory driving the financing choice for listed entities in the UAE. The paper aims to make a significant contribution in light of the recent expansion of sukuk issuances and fills the lacuna in research carried out in the UAE bond market.

Design/methodology/approach

This study empirically tested the hypotheses on a data set that covered a sample of 1,354 bond issuances over the period 2008–2019. The authors used logistic regression to distinguish between the issuance of sukuk versus conventional bond. Sukuk structuration leads to information asymmetry that prompts firms to send signals to the capital market. Information asymmetry has been studied in terms of issue-specific (maturity and issue size) and issuer-specific (firm size, growth, profitability, leverage) variables. Two control variables were included to capture the years under study and the macroeconomic effects of economic slowdown.

Findings

The banking sector accounted for 93% of bond issuances but contributed only 63% of the bond market in the UAE in terms of issue size. The data evidenced that non-banking sukuk issuances expanded over the years, with participation from sectors like real estate, oil and gas, logistics and utilities and contributed 50% of issuances in the UAE sukuk market. Typically, firms with smaller asset sizes and higher financing requirements were found to favour sukuk. The banking sector revealed irrelevance of information asymmetry, as Islamic Banks were mandated to issue sukuk. Non-financial firms with high profits and high debts were prompted to prefer conventional bonds, in line with the adverse selection mechanism.

Originality/value

Although UAE’s sukuk market has existed for more than a decade, scant research has been carried out. Few studies exist for the GCC region that either concentrated on stock market reactions to issuances of Islamic versus conventional bonds or studied capital market characteristics of non-financial entities alone. This is the first study to focus on signaling theory and information asymmetry playing a role in the capital structure of all listed firms (banking and non-banking) issuing bonds in the UAE.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

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Abstract

Details

A Modern Perspective of Islamic Economics and Finance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-137-8

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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2021

Houcem Smaoui, Karim Mimouni and Ines Ben Salah

This paper aims to examine the effect do Sukuk Spur Infrastructure Development of Sukuk market expansion on infrastructure development for a sample of 15 emerging…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the effect do Sukuk Spur Infrastructure Development of Sukuk market expansion on infrastructure development for a sample of 15 emerging countries over the period 1997–2018. The paper also compares the role of Sukuk in infrastructure development to that of the size of the banking system, bond market development and stock market development.

Design/methodology/approach

A novel index of infrastructure development is constructed via principal component analysis. This index is regressed on Sukuk market development and other macroeconomic and institutional variables. To tackle the problems of heteroscedasticity and the existence of serial correlation in the residuals, the panel model is estimated using the generalized least squares (GLS) procedure with random effects and robust standard errors.

Findings

The evidence shows that a well-developed Sukuk market contributes to the expansion of the country’s infrastructure, whereas a larger banking system and a better capitalized stock market do not have any significant effect on infrastructure development. Surprisingly, well-developed bond markets jeopardize infrastructure expansion, thereby pointing to a potential crowding-out effect between Sukuk and bonds in financing infrastructure investments. Additionally, per capita GDP and education are positively related to infrastructure development, whereas inflation has a negative effect on the country’s proliferation of infrastructure.

Originality/value

This study uses a novel infrastructure index via principal component analysis and shows that Sukuk markets fill an important gap in the financing of large-scale and long-term projects. This result is novel and has not been documented in previous research.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

Keywords

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