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Book part
Publication date: 19 June 2019

Datien Eriska Utami, Irwan Trinugroho and Bruno S. Sergi

We empirically investigate the determinants of sukuk issuance type in Indonesia to issue either ijarah sukuk or mudharabah sukuk. We include sukuk characteristics…

Abstract

We empirically investigate the determinants of sukuk issuance type in Indonesia to issue either ijarah sukuk or mudharabah sukuk. We include sukuk characteristics, sharia-related factors, and firm characteristics, provide empirical evidence on the determinants of sukuk issuance type by incorporating sukuk-specific factors, firm-specific factors, and sharia compliance variables, and address the role of Sharia Supervisory Board, as the sharia representative of firm compliance for sharia products, in the issuer’s choice of sukuk type. By studying 88 sukuk issuance in Indonesia from 2009 to 2017, we find that firm profitability and the sharia compliance level have a significant effect on the probability of issuing mudharabah sukuk. Some other factors’ characteristics including sukuk yield, firm age, and inflation rate are also found to have a significant effect.

Details

Asia-Pacific Contemporary Finance and Development
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-273-3

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 September 2022

Mohammad Ali Ashraf

The main purpose of this study is to propose an Islamic model of human behavioral analysis that can explain the determinants such as Islamic moral values, internal factors…

Abstract

Purpose

The main purpose of this study is to propose an Islamic model of human behavioral analysis that can explain the determinants such as Islamic moral values, internal factors (e.g. self-efficacy or reasons for and against), external factors (e.g. perceived social support or others from external sources) and empathy (EMP) (humane attitude) to predict niyyah (worshipful intention) toward actual behavior (a’mal) in question.

Design/methodology/approach

With this end in mind, this research uses the theory of Islamic entrepreneurship and behavioral reasoning theory as their theoretical foundations. To validate the model, the study uses empirical data on investors’ intention toward sukuk (Islamic bonds or Shari’ah-compliant bonds) purchase in the context of Bangladesh, where very recently the sukuk were introduced by the Central Bank.

Findings

Findings of the study indicate that Islamic values and internal factors have the highest effects on external factors and EMP, respectively. Internal factors and Islamic values have moderate and almost similar impacts on EMP. Besides, external factors and EMP have somewhat equally moderate effects on niyyah. Islamic moral values and internal factors have the least influence on internal factors and niyyah, respectively. The external factor is also found to be insignificant to influence EMP. The findings also indicate that EMP, internal control factors and external control factors have mediating effects on niyyah toward sukuk purchase.

Research limitations/implications

These results imply that the present research model successfully predicts and explains the determinants of Islamic worshipful intention toward the actual purchase of sukuk.

Practical implications

Sukuk has been an important Islamic financial instrument that has been growing much rapidly in recent times. So, this paper will help to comprehend that pattern empirically.

Social implications

Islamic finance has emerged as a dominant financial tool nowadays. This paper contributes to advance that initiative one step further in terms of social and economic development.

Originality/value

This is a conceptual paper written in the area of Islamic Finance. This model has been validated by collating primary data collected from the selected respondents residing in Bangladesh.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 7 September 2022

Auwal Adam Sa’ad, Aishath Muneeza, Razali Haron and Anwar Hasan Abdullah Othman

This paper identified the ṣukūk structure suitable for deficit financing during the COVID-19 crisis. The study also explored the relevant Sharīʿah contracts that could be…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper identified the ṣukūk structure suitable for deficit financing during the COVID-19 crisis. The study also explored the relevant Sharīʿah contracts that could be utilized to issue ṣukūk that is suitable for various jurisdictions and corporations in handling deficit financing during the COVID-19 crisis.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors have adopted a qualitative research approach in which primary and secondary sources available on the subject were reviewed, especially a number of cases related to ṣukūk structures prior to and during the COVID-19 crisis and analyzed their performances and drawn their conclusions.

Findings

The outcome of this paper suggests that certain ṣukūk structures used during the COVID-19 crisis aimed primarily at financing deficit have been successful. Furthermore, these ṣukūk structures are relied very much on the obligator’s/issuer’s cash flow position. It has been revealed that if the ṣukūk is structured on equity-based contracts with lower repayment amount or no payment, it would not trigger default because the nature of this ṣukūk is the sharing of profit and loss, in accordance with a Sharīʿah rule that there will be compensation for any loss only if deliberate and notable negligence is proven. However, if it is debt based or ijarah and wakalah contracts, then the payment to ṣukūk holders ought to be made as agreed and if not, it will trigger default. This payment is to be made from the cash flow of the issuer and if there is an issue in the cash flow of the issuer due to COVID-19, consent from the ṣukūk holders needs to be obtained to reschedule payment as found in the case of the Garuda Indonesia ṣukūk. However, as found in MASB’s IMTN ṣukūk case, if the cash flow of the company is good, then the chances of default are very slim. However, so far, three new ṣukūk in the middle of COVID-19 were issued, one by a corporation and two issued by a sovereign, one of which addresses the liquidity issues during the pandemic, and all these proved that ṣukūk is definitely a viable alternative mode for deficit financing and a reliable option during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Research limitations/implications

This paper looked into the ṣukūk structure, especially the ṣukūk which are yet to mature and the new ṣukūk issued during the crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic.

Practical implications

It is anticipated that the outcome of this research will assist the stakeholders in ṣukūk markets to understand the ṣukūk impact on COVID-19 related deficit financing and suggest various structures that could be utilized in the ṣukūk market in an unprecedented situation such as the COVID-19 economic distress.

Social implications

Looking at the social aspect of ṣukūk markets, this paper has endeavored to provide solutions to the financing of deficit for social well-being as a tool to provide relief and social stability in the lives of the people.

Originality/value

The novel COVID-19 pandemic has caused unprecedented economic difficulties and market distress on a global scale; and this research sought to identify the relevant ṣukūk structures to be used for deficit financing during the pandemic crisis, especially the ṣukūk which are yet to mature and new ṣukūk issued during the pandemic crisis. The former includes HDFC Muḍārabah ṣukūk (2019) Maldives and MAHB ṣukūk/IMTN program (2010) Malaysia, while the latter includes IsDB Trust Certificates, Phase 2 of the tranches (2020), the Federal Government of Nigeria Road ṣukūk (May, 2020) and Sharj’ah Government two billion Dirham ṣukūk (June, 2020).

Details

Islamic Economic Studies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1319-1616

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 12 July 2022

Syed Marwan Mujahid Syed Azman, Suhaiza Ismail, Mohamed Aslam Haneef and Engku Rabiah Adawiah Engku Ali

The objectives of this paper are two-fold: first, to empirically compare and contrast the salient features of three financial instruments (FIs), namely sustainable and…

Abstract

Purpose

The objectives of this paper are two-fold: first, to empirically compare and contrast the salient features of three financial instruments (FIs), namely sustainable and responsible investment (SRI) sukuk, social impact bonds (SIBs) and conventional bonds (CBs) and second, to examine the differences between the perceptions of the investors and the developers on the features of the three FIs.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a questionnaire survey, 251 completed and useable responses were received, representing a 42.54% response rate. In examining the differences and similarities in the characteristics of the three FIs, the inferential statistical of frequency and percentage were used. Wilcoxon test and Mann–Whitney tests were conducted to investigate the differences in the salient features of the three FIs and the differences between the investors and developers' perceptions on the salient features of SRI, SIBs and CBs, respectively.

Findings

The results reveal that stakeholders view SRI Sukuk, SIBs and CBs to be statistically significantly different from each other. This shows that stakeholders do not view SRI sukuk as “old wine in a new Shariah-compliant bottle” but instead considered different from SIBs and CBs. Furthermore, stakeholders also differentiate between SIBs and CBs.

Originality/value

The paper provides empirical evidence that Islamic finance (IF) instrument, represented by SRI sukuk, is viewed as different instruments to conventional tools, represented by SIBs and CBs. First, it debunks the notion that IF is viewed as similar to its conventional counterpart. Second, SIBs are seen as different from CBs, illustrating the distinct categorisation of impact investing instruments. As such, third, the development of SRI sukuk and SIBs can provide diversification to portfolios as it is a unique instrument in the social finance and financial market.

Details

ISRA International Journal of Islamic Finance, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0128-1976

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 June 2022

Adeel Nasir, Umar Farooq, Kanwal Iqbal Khan and Ather Azim Khan

This study aims to explain the Sukuk structures individually by highlighting the key differences and commonalities in their influential aspects. It also compares the core…

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Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explain the Sukuk structures individually by highlighting the key differences and commonalities in their influential aspects. It also compares the core aspects of Sukuk literature with conventional bonds and suggests the point of differences between them.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses a quali-quantitative approach with the help of segmented bibliometric analysis to describe core differences and commonalities in various Sukuk structures in terms of core authors, countries, sources, affiliation, documents and keywords. In addition, it deploys “biblioshiny” from R-package “bibliometrix 3.0” to identify key influential aspects of different Sukuk instruments.

Findings

Results reported that Malaysia is the core contributing country in Sukuk publications and the center of author correspondence. There is a structural difference among various Sukuk instruments. The significant literature commonalities in Ijarah, Mudarabah, Musharakah and Murabahah Sukuk affiliations and globally cited journal articles are also found. However, the influential aspects of Sukuk compared with conventional bonds are different from other Sukuk literature. It also conducted a keyword analysis to report significant themes in the literature.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the existing body of knowledge as it helps investors to understand the shariah permissibility and investment supremacy of various Sukuk alternatives. Investors, policymakers, scholars and researchers should understand the dynamics of multiple Sukuk structures and their Shari’ah permissibility. This study significantly elaborates on this objective.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

Keywords

Abstract

Details

A Modern Perspective of Islamic Economics and Finance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-137-8

Book part
Publication date: 30 March 2017

Rwan El-Khatib

I study the determinants of conventional leverage in a sample of publicly listed corporations based in Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, and Qatar, for a period spanning…

Abstract

I study the determinants of conventional leverage in a sample of publicly listed corporations based in Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, and Qatar, for a period spanning from 2005 up to end of 2014, and investigate whether those determinants can also explain the utilization of Sukuk by the same corporations in their capital structures. Evidence related to the determinants of conventional leverage is consistent with results from prior studies conducted on corporations based in developed and developing countries. Firm’s size, profitability, tangibility, age, and tendency to pay dividends are significant determinants of conventional leverage. However, not all those factors significantly explain the utilization of Sukuk as a financing vehicle. The size of the firm remains to be the most significant factor, in addition to the conformance of those corporations with respect to Shari’a principles measured by their utilization of other Islamic investments and financing instruments. Overall, I conclude that models used to predict conventional leverage are not capable of fully explaining the determinants of Sukuk issuances.

Details

Global Corporate Governance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-165-4

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 20 January 2022

Sherin Kunhibava, Zakariya Mustapha, Aishath Muneeza, Auwal Adam Sa'ad and Mohammad Ershadul Karim

COVID-19 pandemic was a health crisis that plunged the world into economic turmoil due to its resultant national lockdowns across economies which brought business and…

Abstract

COVID-19 pandemic was a health crisis that plunged the world into economic turmoil due to its resultant national lockdowns across economies which brought business and market activities to a standstill. In order to adapt to ensuing restrictions owing to the pandemic, forge ahead in a new way of living, work and interactions with one another (new normal), digitizing business and market operations is considered a necessary option. Sukuk is an essential Islamic capital market product whose operations involve multiple parties/intermediaries alongside some technical financial, administrative and legal/shariah processes. On this note, this chapter aims to study and examine the need for digitizing and automating sukuk operations and related activities to pave way for innovation, development and better continuity of sukuk market. In conducting the study, a review of literature approach is employed where relevant works on sukuk and fintech were examined. Using content analysis, the chapter explored digitization of sukuk in the Islamic capital market via fintech and blockchain and associated benefits, including peculiar challenges therein. An interview was also conducted to better understand the Wethaq case study. The chapter reveals that digitizing sukuk issuance adds value to sukuk and remedies certain inadequacies associated with sukuk transactions; can increase transparency of underlying sukuk assets and cash flows and can reduce costs due to lesser number of intermediaries. Digitization is the future of sukuk issuance and will promote sukuk well through the COVID-19 crisis and beyond.

Details

Towards a Post-Covid Global Financial System
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-625-4

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 14 December 2018

Abu Umar Faruq Ahmad, Aishath Muneeza, Mohammad Omar Farooq and Rashedul Hasan

Sukuk restructuring primarily aims at offering a debtor more latitude, in form and time, to settle his obligations. To meet Shari’ah requirements of transferring assets to…

Abstract

Sukuk restructuring primarily aims at offering a debtor more latitude, in form and time, to settle his obligations. To meet Shari’ah requirements of transferring assets to Sukuk holders in asset-based Sukuk, the originator usually transfers the beneficial ownership to the issuer special purpose vehicles (SPV). However, in asset-backed Sukuk, the originator sells the underlying asset to an SPV and Sukuk holders do not have recourse to the originator in the event of defaults. Among some key unresolved Shari’ah issues in this regard is whether a change of contract necessitates entering a new contract. Other related issues that conflict with the tenets of Shari’ah are: (1) Sukuk structuring on tangible assets and debts; (2) receiving the full title by the Sukuk holders to the underlying assets in the event of default in case of securities that are publicized as asset backed; (3) Sukuk’s similarity with interest bearing conventional bonds: (a) capital guarantee by the originator or third party, (b) the originators’ promise to repurchase Sukuk at face value upon their redemption, and (c) providing internal and external credit enhancement. The Shari’ah-compliance of the above-mentioned clauses and structures of Sukuk remain debated among the Shari’ah scholars. Based on some specific cases, this study examines the Shari’ah viewpoint on sukuk restructuring and potential solutions to these unresolved Shari’ah issues in light of the past and recent declaration of some Sukuk defaults as non-Shari’ah complaints. Undoubtedly, resolution of these and other unresolved issues pertaining to Sukuk defaults can help strengthen the confidence of investors in Islamic capital market structures.

Details

Management of Islamic Finance: Principle, Practice, and Performance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-403-9

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 19 December 2016

Abu Umar Faruq Ahmad

Sukuk are popular means for governments to raise money through sovereign issues, and for corporations to obtain finance through corporate sukuk offerings. The purpose of…

Abstract

Purpose

Sukuk are popular means for governments to raise money through sovereign issues, and for corporations to obtain finance through corporate sukuk offerings. The purpose of this study is to critically examine the issues revolving around various aspects of sukuk such as regulation, performance and future challenges from different Asian market jurisdictions.

Methodology/approach

Using various sukuk structures and other literatures, this chapter critically investigates some general legal and regulatory requirements for sukuk issuance, its required infrastructure in various jurisdictions in addition to some other relevant important issues to generate cash flows and raise finance through Islamic capital market (ICM) operations without violating the tenets of Sharī’ah in sukuk structures which ultimately helps the economic growth of the Asian region.

Findings

The study finds that in many Asian countries, a separate and specialised regulatory framework, as demanded by sukuk, is lacking and this instrument is treated under the same regulations as of conventional capital markets and their instruments. Some of the regulations may be appropriate for ICM and sukuk, however, most of these regulations need proper modification in order to treat sukuk with clear understanding.

Practical implications

Being part of a niche and new area of Islamic finance in the global financial market a plethora of confusion exists regarding various aspects of sukuk including regulation, performance and future challenges particularly in Asian jurisdiction where sukuk are largely in operation. Findings from this study can be used as a reference to understand the need of the proper modification of conventional regulations, the performance of sukuk in better ways, and meeting other relevant challenges.

Originality/value

Although the demands for having specialised regulatory framework of sukuk, or at least amendments in the current framework for conventional bonds is gaining momentum worldwide in order to accommodate sukuk in the capital markets according to their peculiar nature, it has not caught much attention of researchers and practitioners involved with Islamic finance. Therefore, this study is expected to add value to regulation, standardisation and performance of sukuk in the Asian market, and it deals with the obstacles in the growth of sukuk, which were not extensively covered earlier by the researchers and the Islamic finance industry practitioners.

Details

Advances in Islamic Finance, Marketing, and Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-899-8

Keywords

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