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Open Access
Article
Publication date: 3 May 2019

Allen Z. Reich, Galen R. Collins, Agnes L. DeFranco and Suzanne L. Pieper

Because of the increasingly higher expectations of accrediting organizations, calls for greater accountability from state governments, and students’ demand for an education that…

1534

Abstract

Purpose

Because of the increasingly higher expectations of accrediting organizations, calls for greater accountability from state governments, and students’ demand for an education that prepares them for a career, most hospitality programs are now required to have an effective assessment of learning outcomes process. The increasing popularity of the assessment of learning outcomes process is viewed as highly positive because it can be considered as best practices in higher education. The paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

This is Part 1 of a two-part article that provides an overview of the justifications for implementing an assessment of learning outcomes process, the steps that were developed by two hospitality programs and the experiences of the two programs during implementation of the seven steps. Part 1 includes foundational principles of the process and the first three of the seven steps.

Findings

The steps in a closed-loop assessment of learning outcomes process are relatively detailed; however, because of changes in expectations of stakeholders and the requirements of accreditors, they are now mandatory for most hospitality programs. Therefore, the choice is not whether to implement them, but when to implement them. From a competitive standpoint, it is to the program’s advantage to begin as soon as possible. Another factor to consider is that the implementation of an effective closed-loop assessment of learning outcomes process will take several years to complete.

Originality/value

This paper is presenting a critical view of one of, if not the most important concepts in higher education, the closed-loop assessment of learning outcomes process. Hopefully, the information on the process that is provided and the experiences of the two programs can shorten the learning curve for other hospitality programs.

Details

International Hospitality Review, vol. 33 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2516-8142

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 31 May 2019

Allen Z. Reich, Galen R. Collins, Agnes L. DeFranco and Suzanne L. Pieper

Because of the increasingly higher expectations of accrediting organizations, calls for greater accountability from state governments and students’ demand for an education that…

1187

Abstract

Purpose

Because of the increasingly higher expectations of accrediting organizations, calls for greater accountability from state governments and students’ demand for an education that prepares them for a career, most hospitality programs are now required to have an effective assessment of learning outcomes process. The increasing popularity of the assessment of learning outcomes process is viewed as highly positive because it can be considered as best-practices in higher education. The paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

This is Part 2 of a two-part article that provides an overview of the justifications for implementing an assessment of learning outcomes process, the steps that were developed by two hospitality programs, and the experiences of the two programs during implementation.

Findings

The steps in a closed-loop assessment of learning outcomes process are relatively detailed; however, because of changes in expectations of stakeholders and the requirements of accreditors, they are now mandatory for most hospitality programs. Therefore, the choice is not whether to implement them, but when. From a competitive standpoint, it is to the program’s advantage to begin as soon as possible. Another factor to consider is that the implementation of a closed-loop assessment of learning outcomes process will take several years to complete.

Originality/value

This paper is presenting a critical view of one of, if not the most important concepts in higher education, the closed-loop assessment of learning outcomes process. Hopefully, the information on the process that is provided and the experiences of the two programs can shorten the learning curve for other hospitality programs.

Details

International Hospitality Review, vol. 33 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2516-8142

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 May 2018

Nan Hua, Wei Wei, Agnes L. DeFranco and Dan Wang

This study aims to use a sample of 2,120 individual hotel properties between 2011 and 2013 to evaluate the impact of loyalty programs on hotel operational and financial…

2704

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to use a sample of 2,120 individual hotel properties between 2011 and 2013 to evaluate the impact of loyalty programs on hotel operational and financial performance.

Design/methodology/approach

This study provides empirical support for the impact of loyalty program based on both cross-sectional and panel data analyses and uses the instrumental variable technique to avoid potential heteroscedasticity, autocorrelation and simultaneity issues.

Findings

Findings of this study show that loyalty program expenses have a significant and positive impact on all three operational performance indicators of RevPAR, ADR and Occupancy and the financial performance indicator of gross operating profit.

Research limitations/implications

This study suggests that the benefits of loyalty programs should be understood against the backdrop of a reasonable set of controlled variables such as e-commerce, franchise, advertising, other marketing expenses, hotel size and hotel chain scales.

Originality/value

Given the conflicting viewpoints about the positive and negative impacts of loyalty programs, and that the literature is scant on empirical validation of the impact of loyalty programs on the overall operational and financial performance of hotel properties, this study is an early attempt to empirically test the impact of loyalty programs on a number of hotel operational and financial performance indicators by using an extensive list of individual hotel properties between 2011 and 2013.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 30 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 September 2020

Nefike Gunden, Cristian Morosan and Agnes L. DeFranco

This study aims to develop and validate a conceptual model that explains consumers’ persuasion by the information available on online food delivery systems (OFDS). The study…

1373

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to develop and validate a conceptual model that explains consumers’ persuasion by the information available on online food delivery systems (OFDS). The study validated consumers’ price savings orientation as an antecedent of two types of browsing behaviors (utilitarian and hedonic). Browsing and social influences were examined as predictors of persuasion.

Design/methodology/approach

A literature review was conducted to determine constructs that constituted the best conceptual model for this study. To test the model, an online instrument was developed, and data were collected with the help of a global marketing panel company from 333 consumers who have used OFDS. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were used to test the hypotheses of the model.

Findings

The study found that consumers’ price savings orientation strongly influenced both types of browsing. However, while utilitarian browsing did not influence consumers’ persuasion, hedonic browsing and social influence were strong predictors of persuasion.

Research limitations/implications

Given the uniqueness of the study that stems from its task-technology context and the type of product being purchased, this study advances the literature in hospitality information technology, especially in the relatively neglected foodservice information technology area. The study also provides implications for both restaurants and OFDS as critical stakeholders in this important area.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study to examine consumers’ persuasion in a food-service online retail context. This study is also the first to examine both types of browsing as distinct constructs in hospitality and to explain their differential role in persuasion.

摘要

研究目的

本论文提出和验证了在线送餐系统(OFDS)解释顾客劝服的理论模型。本论文检测了顾客省钱心理作为两种浏览行为的动力(功利型和享乐型)。浏览行为和社会影响作为顾客劝服的因子在本文中进行了检验。.

研究设计/方法/途径

本论文通过审阅文献以找到最佳模型。通过在线采样的方式, 与全球营销公司合作, 搜集数据, 样本数量为333位使用过OFDS的顾客。分析方法为验证性因子分析和结构方程模式以验证假设模型。.

研究结果

研究发现顾客省钱心理对两种浏览模式有着重大影响。然而, 功利型浏览行为并不影响顾客劝服, 但是享乐型浏览和社会影响成为劝服的强烈动力。.

研究理论限制/意义

由于本论文的独特性在于其任务-科技背景和购买产品类别, 本论文对酒店信息科技的文献有着延展性贡献, 特别是在较少关注的餐饮服务信息技术领域。本论文还对饭店和OFDS, 两大在此领域重要利益相关者提供了启示。.

研究原创性/价值

本论文是首篇检测在线餐饮销售领域中的顾客劝服问题。此外, 本论文也是首篇检测两种类别浏览行为, 以及检验其行为对顾客劝服的特别作用。.

Details

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9880

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2005

Morgan W. Geddie, Agnes L. DeFranco and Mary F. Geddie

This paper describes the variables researchers have found to be significantly associated with relationship marketing, those related to Guanxi, and the similarities and differences…

6540

Abstract

Purpose

This paper describes the variables researchers have found to be significantly associated with relationship marketing, those related to Guanxi, and the similarities and differences between them.

Design/methodology/approach

The researchers reviewed 77 articles on the subjects of Guanxi and relationship marketing and identified seven constructs from the literature that apply to both Guanxi and Relationship Marketing.

Findings

These six constructs were investigated (bonding, customer loyalty, empathy, reciprocity, and satisfaction, and trust). Four constructs were associated with Guanxi (bonding, empathy, reciprocity, and trust) and while two (satisfaction, and customer loyalty) and a category termed other were commonly used with relationship marketing.

Practical implications

Guanxi concentrates on building the bond or relationship before the transaction in such a way that the company and customer become one cooperative unit. Relationship marketing deals with the transaction first and builds the relationship later. Relationship marketers could benefit from incorporating the principles of Guanxi in their strategies and tactics.

Originality/value

Many western managers are not familiar with Guanxi. Managers, who have an understanding of the Guanxi, can become more effective at relationship marketing.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 17 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 April 2019

Nan Hua, Stephen Hight, Wei Wei, Ahmet Bulent Ozturk, Xinyuan (Roy) Zhao, Khaldoon Nusair and Agnes DeFranco

This paper aims to offer empirical insights on how investing in e-commerce capabilities affects the relationship between loyalty programs and hotel operating performance so as to…

2592

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to offer empirical insights on how investing in e-commerce capabilities affects the relationship between loyalty programs and hotel operating performance so as to aid in identifying proper resource allocation strategies.

Design/methodology/approach

This study extended the model in Hua et al. (2015) by testing the interaction of e-commerce and loyalty programs.

Findings

The findings illustrate that proper allocation of company financial resources to e-commerce initiatives can help improve the impact of loyalty programs on hotel operating performance.

Practical implications

The results of this study illustrate that hotel performance can be improved by the synergy between loyalty program and e-commerce initiatives. Thus, hotel managers and owners can use results from this study to improve the efficiency of their asset allocation strategies, with five practical implications offered.

Originality/value

Theoretically, this study adapted and extended an integrative model of hotel operating performance (Hua et al., 2015) by identifying critical factors that elucidate the variance in firm performance. In addition, the moderating role of e-commerce provides a new conceptualization of information technology. Practically, this study makes several important contributions as well.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 31 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 February 2019

Cristian Morosan and Agnes DeFranco

The purpose of this study was to validate a conceptual model that examined consumers’ intentions to use hotel interactive technologies (HINT) and their conversion behaviors in…

1589

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to validate a conceptual model that examined consumers’ intentions to use hotel interactive technologies (HINT) and their conversion behaviors in hotels. The model was built on consumers’ participation in consumer–firm interactions, their level of innovativeness and their perceived benefit of using interactive technologies as antecedents of intentions and conversion.

Design/methodology/approach

The conceptual model was built upon the service-dominant (S-D) logic, technology adoption, social psychology and marketing theory. Using structural equation modeling, the model was validated using a nationwide sample of 841 consumers who have stayed in hotels that offered interactive technologies.

Findings

Consumers’ information system habit and hedonic motivations influenced their participation in consumer–firm interactions when using HINT. In turn, participation and innovativeness influenced conversion behavior, while innovativeness and perceived benefit of using interactive technologies influenced intentions to use such technologies.

Research limitations/implications

This study extends the S-D logic, technology adoption, social psychology and marketing literature by validating a model that blends system perceptions, consumer characteristics and information system-related behaviors to explicate intentions and conversion. Thus, this study illustrates the modeling/evaluation of such blended models.

Practical implications

The study provides hoteliers a layout of the factors influencing consumers’ intentions to use interactive technologies and conversion. It also explains how participation in consumer–firm interactions and perceived benefit have contrasting roles in influencing consumers’ intentions and conversion behavior.

Originality/value

This study examined two distinct concepts that reflect the value co-created in hotel settings due to technology-based consumer–firm interactions: consumers’ intentions to use interactive technologies and their actual conversion behavior. The study also recognized the pivotal role of participation in influencing conversion and emphasized the contrasting roles of participation and perceived benefit in influencing longer-term (i.e. intentions) and short-term (i.e. conversion) behavior.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 31 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 August 2021

Cristian Morosan and Agnes DeFranco

As social distancing procedures can be facilitated by various hotel technologies, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the extent to which consumers develop perceptions of…

Abstract

Purpose

As social distancing procedures can be facilitated by various hotel technologies, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the extent to which consumers develop perceptions of value regarding the use of certain hotel technologies for social distancing in hotels.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing from the social exchange theory, this study conceptualized the benefits of using technologies for social distancing, health risks, social rewards and privacy concerns as antecedents of value of using technologies for social distancing in hotels. The structural model was validated by using data from more than 1,000 nationwide US consumers.

Findings

Benefits and consumers’ privacy concerns of using technologies for social distancing in hotels were the strongest predictors of value. Social rewards also had a significant but relatively lower effect on value. Health risks was found to have no influence on value.

Originality/value

The study is the first to examine the role of technologies in mitigating the effects of coronavirus. Thus, it extends the information technology and hospitality literature by examining the role of these technologies in safeguarding individual and public health.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 33 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 June 2020

Nan Hua, Arthur Huang, Marcos Medeiros and Agnes DeFranco

This study aims to examine how operator type moderates the relationship between hotel information technology (IT) expenditures and operating performance.

1094

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine how operator type moderates the relationship between hotel information technology (IT) expenditures and operating performance.

Design/methodology/approach

By adapting and extending O’Neill et al.’s (2008) and Hua et al.’s (2015) research, this study constructed an empirical model and tested proposed hypotheses, with Newey and West (1994) errors computed to accommodate potential heteroscedasticity and autocorrelation issues.

Findings

Operator type moderates the impact of hotel IT expenditures on operating performance. In particular, it appears that the operator type of franchising exerts a stronger moderating effect compared with other operator types explored.

Practical implications

This study, as the first of its kind, shows that the choice of operator type shapes how a hotel can effectively use IT expenditures to improve operating performance. This finding can be beneficial for hotel owners when making operator type decisions. In addition, operator type moderates the direct impact of IT expenditures on revenues and gross operating income. This study’s results show that franchised hotels seem to use IT expenditures more effectively compared with independently owned hotels.

Originality/value

This study contributes both theoretically and practically to understand how operator type moderates the relationship between IT expenditures and hotel performance. The research outcome provides a more holistic view that governs the relationships between IT expenditures, operator type and operating performance.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 32 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 July 2019

Cristian Morosan and Agnes DeFranco

Cyber-attacks on hotel information systems could threaten the privacy of consumers and the integrity of the data they exchange upon connecting their mobile devices to hotel…

Abstract

Purpose

Cyber-attacks on hotel information systems could threaten the privacy of consumers and the integrity of the data they exchange upon connecting their mobile devices to hotel networks. As the perceived cyber-security risk may be reflected heterogeneously within the US consumer population traveling internationally, the purpose of this study is to examine such heterogeneity to uncover classes of US consumers based on their perceptions of risk of using tablets for various tasks when staying in hotels abroad.

Design/methodology/approach

Using data collected from 1,016 US consumers who stayed in hotels abroad, this study used latent profile analysis (LPA) to classify the consumers based on their perceptions of risk associated with several tablet use behaviors in hotels.

Findings

The analysis uncovered four latent classes and produced a characterization of these classes according to several common behavioral (frequency of travel, the continent of the destination, duration of stay and purpose of travel) and demographic (gender, age, income and education) consumer characteristics.

Originality/value

Being the first study that classifies consumers based on the risk of using tablets in hotels while traveling internationally, this study brings the following contributions: offers a methodology of classifying (segmenting) consumer markets based on their cyber-security risk perceptions, uses LPA, which provides opportunities for an accurate and generalizable characterization of multivariate data that comprehensively illustrate consumer behavior and broadens the perspective offered by the current literature by focusing on consumers who travel from their US residence location to international destinations.

研究目的

酒店信息系统的网络攻击可能会泄露消费者隐私以及其通过酒店网络连接移动网络而进行的数据交换。由于美国消费者在出国旅游中对于网络安全危险的感知因人而异,因此,本论文旨在研究这种个人差异性,对美国消费者在出国旅游居住酒店中使用平面电脑的危险感知,进行特点分类。

研究设计

本论文样本为居住在国外酒店的1,016名美国消费者。本论文采用潜在剖面分析(LPA),对其使用酒店平板电脑的危险感知进行分类。

研究结果

本论文研究结果归纳四种潜在类别,以及根据集中常见行为变量(旅游频率、旅游目的地所在的洲、酒店居住时长、旅游目的地)和统计人口信息(性别、年龄、收入、和教育),进行消费者特点归纳。

研究原创性/价值

本论文是首篇基于消费者出国旅游时使用酒店平板电脑的危险感知而进消费者分类的文章。因此,本论文结果有以下贡献:(1)贡献一种分类研究方法(市场细分),基于网络安全危险感知而划分;(2)使用潜在剖面分析方法,为多变量数据分析消费者行为,产出精确而概括特性的研究,提供机会;(3)对现有文献对国际旅游的美国消费者的研究拓宽了视野。

关键词

网络安全危险、平板电脑、潜在剖面分析、酒店、国际旅游

Details

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9880

Keywords

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