In order to maintain food safety standards, conventionalmicrobiological methods are still being used to detect bacteria andother organisms in food. However, these techniques are…
In order to maintain food safety standards, conventional microbiological methods are still being used to detect bacteria and other organisms in food. However, these techniques are not ideal, as often it can be many days before results are known‐which may be of particular economic importance for those foods with a short shelf‐life. The introduction of newer technology, such as nucleic acid probe and related amplification technology in other fields, has transformed the detection of many organisms. The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) allows nucleic acid probes, with their inherent specificity, to be used to detect organisms present in very low numbers within a short period of time. However, at present, in food microbiology, there are technical problems with using the PCR, as certain components in food interfere with the reaction. When these problems are resolved and with prospects for semi‐automation of the PCR technique, there should be enormous potential for the rapid detection of bacteria in foods, with consequent benefits to the food industry and to consumers.
We are now very much aware of the hazards associated withsalmonella and listeria in foodstuffs. Newer methodologies are comparedwith conventional techniques for their rapid…
We are now very much aware of the hazards associated with salmonella and listeria in foodstuffs. Newer methodologies are compared with conventional techniques for their rapid detection. Recent developments in culture media are discussed, as is a new rapid culture test kit for salmonella. Novel techniques such as ELISA, nucleic acid probes and flow cytometry are described, and a comparative assessment is made of reported findings. Nucleic acid probe and ELISA assays are considerably quicker than traditional culture techniques but they would benefit from increased sensitivity; they show inferior specificity with listeria and are still dependent on an enrichment stage. Recent DNA amplification techniques could provide a solution to the problem of poor probe sensitivity and allow the direct detection of pathogens from food samples. Flow cytometry may have the potential for high sensitivity and specificity and could be useful for on‐line monitoring in factories.
Despite the publication of two comprehensive reports (Richmond Iand II) on the microbiological safety of food, together with newlegislation, there has been little direct action…
Despite the publication of two comprehensive reports (Richmond I and II) on the microbiological safety of food, together with new legislation, there has been little direct action concerning food safety in the home. Of particular relevance has been new research data which have shown that smaller numbers of bacteria are able to cause food poisoning, which stresses the importance of cross‐contamination. Doubts also have been raised about the safety of cooking raw meat in microwave ovens. Of perhaps greater impact have been the increased demands of food manufacturers and consumers on refrigeration. This has resulted, for example, from the increasing popularity of convenience foods and a reduction in the use of preservatives. Furthermore, many bacteria implicated in food poisoning are able to grow at relatively low temperatures. Recommendations include new standards by manufacturers of refrigerators and microwave ovens, together with a greater awareness and education of food safety issues.
Recently, universities have been subject to many changes which haveplaced new demands on management at all levels. Reports a study, at auniversity in the north of England, the…
Recently, universities have been subject to many changes which have placed new demands on management at all levels. Reports a study, at a university in the north of England, the aims of which were to investigate by questionnaire if heads of departments (HODs) possessed any management qualifications, whether they had undertaken any management training, and to assess the usefulness of training in certain management skills. No one held a recognized qualification in management and 35 per cent had not undertaken any management training. The two areas of management training that HODs considered to be the most important were those of financial and personnel management. Findings also suggested that HODs now regard their management role as being of greater importance than in the past. However, an ambiguity is that management skills are often not considered for promotion to HOD and that research performance is still the major criterion.
Escherichia coli 0157 is responsible for an emerging enteric disease which became a growing public health concern in 1996 with major outbreaks in Japan and Scotland…
Escherichia coli 0157 is responsible for an emerging enteric disease which became a growing public health concern in 1996 with major outbreaks in Japan and Scotland. Unfortunately, the more common haemorrhagic colitis can at times develop into the haemolytic uraemic syndrome with associated renal disease which can lead to fatalities. It is now apparent that few bacterial cells are needed to spread infection and that cross‐contamination is therefore a significant problem. Although there are national programmes to investigate E. coli 0157 infection and gain new information on epidemiology, handwashing is seen as a very simple but effective approach to prevent transmission from contaminated material to food. We need to be made aware of the clinical importance of E. coli infection and how best we can bring it under control.
Improved legislation controlling the major components of the foodchain cannot ensure that food leaving the food retailer will remain safeuntil it is consumed. Mishandling of food…
Improved legislation controlling the major components of the food chain cannot ensure that food leaving the food retailer will remain safe until it is consumed. Mishandling of food in the home contributes to a significant number of food poisoning cases each year. A survey conducted in West Glamorgan in 1991 identified a lack of understanding by many respondents in several aspects of food safety and hygiene. Some weak points in knowledge relate to factors that have been acknowledged for many years, while others relate to the use of appliances in the kitchen and “new” food products. A multitude of educational material is available to the general public from many sources, but its effectiveness is questioned.
This paper aims to provide an insight into how fashion designer businesses work and survive in London, with an understanding of business techniques and the survival strategies of British fashion designers.
The initial research demonstrated a need to define “innovation” as well as recognise the approach of “creative people” in business by exploring existing literature. This was followed by a series of structured interviews with nine British Fashion Designers in London, and three with intermediaries aimed at putting the designers' activities within a business context: a fashion PR; a lawyer specialising in fashion business and a creative director of a fashion distributor.
The research suggests ten survival strategies employed by fashion designers. The five fashion designers in a sustainable business all operated all of these principles. Those no longer in business operated between one and five of these principles. As designers gain experience and realise their “value“, there is evidence that they can get leverage for contractual agreements with licensors, which has led to financial growth of the designers' businesses. Strategies for diversification and consultancy, if managed without diluting design values, have also led to business growth and stability.
Further research is required to consider innovation and entrepreneurship in the different creative and cultural industries, particularly concerning issues and challenges for the creative person.
The implications are that designers need to be quick to understand the business and wider environment in which they are operating. More published material needs to be widely available to them concerning role models and business models relevant to this unique and problematic industry.
The value of this original research is to share experience and inform designers and practitioners of current practices.
Since the first Volume of this Bibliography there has been an explosion of literature in all the main areas of business. The researcher and librarian have to be able to uncover…
Since the first Volume of this Bibliography there has been an explosion of literature in all the main areas of business. The researcher and librarian have to be able to uncover specific articles devoted to certain topics. This Bibliography is designed to help. Volume III, in addition to the annotated list of articles as the two previous volumes, contains further features to help the reader. Each entry within has been indexed according to the Fifth Edition of the SCIMP/SCAMP Thesaurus and thus provides a full subject index to facilitate rapid information retrieval. Each article has its own unique number and this is used in both the subject and author index. The first Volume of the Bibliography covered seven journals published by MCB University Press. This Volume now indexes 25 journals, indicating the greater depth, coverage and expansion of the subject areas concerned.