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Open Access
Article
Publication date: 17 August 2021

Enoch Bessah, AbdulGaniy Olayinka Raji, Olalekan John Taiwo, Sampson Kwaku Agodzo, Olusola Oluwayemisi Ololade, Alexandre Strapasson and Emmanuel Donkor

This study aims to assess gender-based differences on farmers’ perception of impacts and vulnerability to climate change and the implementation of adaptation strategies in the Pra…

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Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to assess gender-based differences on farmers’ perception of impacts and vulnerability to climate change and the implementation of adaptation strategies in the Pra River Basin of Ghana, while also providing lessons for other Sub-Saharan nations and regions with similar conditions.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used semi-structured interviews and questionnaires to collect data from 344 farmers, 64 participants in focus group discussions and 6 agriculture extension officers (key informants) from 10 districts in the Pra River Basin of Ghana.

Findings

Results showed several differences in how climate change is perceived and tackled by male and female genders. In the perception of male farmers, for example, they were found to be more vulnerable to increased temperature, and changes in rainfall and growing season, whereas female farmers on average were considered to be less resilient to floods and droughts for different reasons. Moreover, floods posed higher risks to farming than other climate change impacts. Gender roles had a significant correlation with the type of adaptation strategies practised. Men adopted agrochemicals more often than women, as an adaptation strategy.

Research limitations/implications

Gender-differentiated interventions should be incorporated in the national climate change action plan for sustainable development in a rain-fed agricultural economy such as Ghana. The study recommends several actions to promote gender equity in the assessed region.

Originality/value

This research assessed the gender differentials in climate trends, impact, vulnerability and adaptation based on primary data collected between April and May 2019 and compared the results with climate data in the basin for the period 1991–2014. It is an empirical study focused on primary data analysis obtained in loco by authors, involving approximately 400 participants.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 13 no. 4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 16 August 2014

Anne-Maria Holma

This study provides a comprehensive framework of adaptation in triadic business relationship settings in the service sector. The framework is based on the industrial network…

Abstract

This study provides a comprehensive framework of adaptation in triadic business relationship settings in the service sector. The framework is based on the industrial network approach (see, e.g., Axelsson & Easton, 1992; Håkansson & Snehota, 1995a). The study describes how adaptations initiate, how they progress, and what the outcomes of these adaptations are. Furthermore, the framework takes into account how adaptations spread in triadic relationship settings. The empirical context is corporate travel management, which is a chain of activities where an industrial enterprise, and its preferred travel agency and service supplier partners combine their resources. The scientific philosophy, on which the knowledge creation is based, is realist ontology. Epistemologically, the study relies on constructionist processes and interpretation. Case studies with in-depth interviews are the main source of data.

Details

Deep Knowledge of B2B Relationships within and Across Borders
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-858-7

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 12 March 2018

Alastair Orr, Jason Donovan and Dietmar Stoian

Smallholder value chains are dynamic, changing over time in sudden, unpredictable ways as they adapt to shocks. Understanding these dynamics and adaptation is essential for these…

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Abstract

Purpose

Smallholder value chains are dynamic, changing over time in sudden, unpredictable ways as they adapt to shocks. Understanding these dynamics and adaptation is essential for these chains to remain competitive in turbulent markets. Many guides to value chain development, though they focus welcome attention on snapshots of current structure and performance, pay limited attention to the dynamic forces affecting these chains or to adaptation. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper develops an expanded conceptual framework to understand value chain performance based on the theory of complex adaptive systems. The framework combines seven common properties of complex systems: time, uncertainty, sensitivity to initial conditions, endogenous shocks, sudden change, interacting agents and adaptation.

Findings

The authors outline how the framework can be used to ask new research questions and analyze case studies in order to improve our understanding of the development of smallholder value chains and their capacity for adaptation.

Research limitations/implications

The framework highlights the need for greater attention to value chain dynamics.

Originality/value

The framework offers a new perspective on the dynamics of smallholder value chains.

Details

Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-0839

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 August 2010

Lisa Westerhoff and Sirkku Juhola

The purpose of this paper is to emphasise the importance of resolving the disconnect between issues of quality, timing and uncertainty in climate projections and the need for…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to emphasise the importance of resolving the disconnect between issues of quality, timing and uncertainty in climate projections and the need for swift, informed and appropriate climate change adaptation decisions.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper utilises results from a multi‐level study of adaptation policy conducted in early 2009 to assess the different approaches to climate change, the production of climate information, and its application at national and select sub‐national levels in Italy and Finland. Data were collected via a preliminary review of relevant documents as well as 23 interviews in Italy and 21 interviews in Finland conducted with climate change and environmental policy actors at each scale of administration.

Findings

The paper shows while the different extent and processes of climate research and their linkages to policy can be seen as determinants of the development of adaptation measures, the multi‐scalar adaptation decision‐making processes and the ways in which climate change and climate information are framed and used render climate research and its application a complex process.

Originality/value

The paper contributes further understanding of the linkages between science and policy with regards to adaptation, and the nature of science‐policy linkages in local decision‐making processes in particular. The findings are of importance to climate scientists and policy‐makers alike.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 17 May 2021

Kristof van Assche, Vladislav Valentinov and Gert Verschraegen

The purpose of this paper is to deepen the understanding of adaptive governance, which is advocated for as a manner to deal with dramatic changes in society and/or environment. To…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to deepen the understanding of adaptive governance, which is advocated for as a manner to deal with dramatic changes in society and/or environment. To re-think the possible contributions of organizations and organization theory, to adaptive governance.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on social systems theory this study makes a distinction between “governance organizations” and “governance communities.” Organizations are conceptualized as the decision machines which organize and (co-)steer governance. Communities are seen as the social environments against which the governance system orients its operations. This study considers the adaptive mechanisms of organizations and reflect on the roles of organizations to enhance adaptive governance in communities and societies.

Findings

Diverse types of organizations can link or couple in different ways to communities in their social environment. Such links can enhance the coordinative capacity of the governance system and can also spur innovation to enable adaptation. Yet, linking with communities can also slow down responses to change and complexify the processes of deliberation in governance. Not all adaptive mechanisms available to organizations can be used in communicating with communities or can be institutionalized, but the continuous innovation in the field of organizations can inspire continuous testing of small-scale adaptive mechanisms at higher levels. Society can thus enhance its adaptive capacity by managing the role of organizations.

Originality/value

The harnessing of insights in organization theory and systems theory for improving understanding of adaptive governance. The finding that both experiment and coordination at societal level are needed, toward adaptive governance, and that organizations can contribute to both.

Article
Publication date: 21 February 2022

Olumuyiwa Bayode Adegun

Climate impacts are a significant challenge in slums and informal settlements, most of which are located along the coast. This article aims to show coping strategies and flood…

Abstract

Purpose

Climate impacts are a significant challenge in slums and informal settlements, most of which are located along the coast. This article aims to show coping strategies and flood adaptation opportunities through the case study of a coastal slum in Lagos, Nigeria.

Design/methodology/approach

A mixed-method approach is used in Idi-Araba settlement, Oworonshoki, Lagos – the case study area. Data collection involved semi-structured interviews with 15 purposively selected residents and a survey (sample size = 300 residents). A town hall meeting was convened to disseminate the findings and gather feedback from the community.

Findings

Being an informally developed settlement, flooding affects the poor-quality buildings – a situation made worse by absence of infrastructure and services. Coping with flooding involves structural strategies (raising building’s foundation, re-roofing, sand-filling the surrounding, etc.), failed attempt through green infrastructure, nonstructural measures through dietary pattern, dressing, etc. These measures emanate from self-help and community efforts, attesting to notable social capital in the study area. They are minimally effective and limited, which highlights adaptation gaps and opportunities.

Research limitations/implications

This study calls for transformative adaptation, beyond the current coping and maladaptation. It argues that local strategies need to meet with innovative substantive external initiatives from the state and third sector.

Originality/value

This study considers the single case of a coastal settlement in Lagos. This focus allowed detailed examination within a representative settlement, much unlike city-wide, cross-settlement considerations in many other studies. It provides additional empirical evidence on limitations of self-help flood coping measures and adaptation prospects in the often overlooked low-income, informal urban sector.

Details

International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-5908

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 May 2022

Sutinee Chao-Amonphat, Vilas Nitivattananon and Sirinapha Srinonil

This study aims to explain the existing adaptation practices in an urbanized sub-region in the lower Chao Phraya River basin (CPRB) across different scales and dimensions. It…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explain the existing adaptation practices in an urbanized sub-region in the lower Chao Phraya River basin (CPRB) across different scales and dimensions. It offers an overview of water hazards in urban areas along the river basin to discover ways to deal with and recover from hazards via understanding the implications of existing and potential practice for the mitigation of hydrological hazards.

Design/methodology/approach

First, this study collected current adaptation strategies and measures from interview, focus group discussion, workshop organization, etc. to get the current adaptation strategies/measures for the whole CPRB and each specific area. Second, this study identified a set of criteria for evaluation from review of current publications and official reports. Then, the current adaptation strategies/measures were examined through a set of criteria to obtain the current situation of existing practices. Finally, analysis of key challenges and opportunities was done to propose supporting guidelines to reduce hydrological risks and incorporate further adaptation measures needed to boost resilience in the area.

Findings

Adaptation methods should focus on mixed adaptation, which integrates structural, social, organizational and natural adaptation, and to develop multi-dimensional collaboration. The adaption strategy has restricted the usage of some technologies and technical know-how, particularly in the area of climate change. As a result, intentional adaptation to become more inventive is required, to reduce hazards and improve disaster-response capacity. The various adaptation measures should be more integrated or more adaptive and to achieve greater cohesion and mutual benefit of individual measures, such as community-based adaptation or community-driven slum upgrading.

Originality/value

Hydrological risks are wreaking havoc on social, economic and environmental elements, particularly river flood, flash flood and drought in the Asia-Pacific region. Twenty-two existing adaptation options were evaluated with evaluation criteria such as scales of risks/impacts reduction, benefits of environmental and socio-economic and institutional aspects. The findings highlight the current situation of existing practices, key challenges and opportunities, which emphasized on natural-based solutions, raising knowledge and awareness and lessons learned on adaptation of hydrological risks. The existing adaptation measures will be suggested as supporting guidelines and master plans to minimize the hydrological risks.

Details

International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-5908

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 April 2020

Julian Himmerich

Psychodynamic psychotherapy is increasingly adapted and used with individuals with intellectual disability (ID) and mental health difficulties. However, the evidence base is still…

Abstract

Purpose

Psychodynamic psychotherapy is increasingly adapted and used with individuals with intellectual disability (ID) and mental health difficulties. However, the evidence base is still small and largely based on case studies and small trials whose participants mainly have mild to moderate ID. This paper aims to review and critique the literature in regards to the adaptations; and the effectiveness of psychodynamic psychotherapy for those with severe and profound ID.

Design/methodology/approach

A systematic literature search of PsycINFO, Social Policy and Practice, Medline, Cumulative Index to nursing and allied health literature and applied social sciences index and abstracts was conducted. Six studies met inclusion criteria and underwent a quality evaluation and critical review.

Findings

Six papers (all case studies) met inclusion criteria and underwent a quality evaluation and critical review. Some adaptations to therapy were reported, such as a more flexible therapeutic frame and increased use of the physical environment as a therapeutic tool. Due to significant methodological weaknesses of the included studies, it is yet unclear whether psychodynamic psychotherapy is an effective intervention for individuals with severe and profound ID.

Research limitations/implications

Only a small number of case studies met the inclusion criteria. Further research should use more robust outcome measures, larger samples and compare psychodynamic psychotherapy to alternative interventions.

Originality/value

This paper is the first to review the psychodynamic psychotherapy literature with regard to its effectiveness as a treatment specifically for individuals with severe and profound ID and mental health difficulties.

Details

Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1282

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 March 2016

Anna Taylor

This paper aims to present an investigation of the climate adaptation planning and implementation process undertaken by the municipal government of Cape Town, South Africa…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present an investigation of the climate adaptation planning and implementation process undertaken by the municipal government of Cape Town, South Africa, situating the findings within the broader literature on governance-related barriers to adaptation.

Design/methodology/approach

By developing an in-depth case study using methods of organizational ethnography, the research traces phases of climate adaptation planning and implementation in Cape Town. Applied thematic analysis surfaces issues of coordination, decision-making, resource constraints and tracking progress as key constraints to urban climate adaptation.

Findings

While considerable progress has been made on developing a citywide climate adaptation plan for Cape Town, implementation is constrained by poor monitoring and feedback within and between departments and a lack of oversight and impetus from central authorities within the government hierarchy.

Research limitations/implications

Further research is needed on the interface between technical and political decision-making, governance arrangements that facilitate coordination and iterative adjustment and the organizational uptake of externally commissioned work on climate adaptation.

Practical implications

The paper points to the need for a climate adaptation coordination function situated higher up in the municipal government structure than the environment department to implement, monitor, evaluate and revise measures to reduce climate risks and vulnerabilities citywide.

Originality/value

The paper is of value to those seeking to understand local government decision-making, as it pertains to climate adaptation and those looking for means to address climate risks and vulnerabilities in cities, especially in South Africa.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 April 2008

Lalit M. Johri and Phallapa Petison

To analyse the scope of localization strategies and corresponding benefits of these strategies to subsidiaries of international companies in the automobile industry in Thailand.

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Abstract

Purpose

To analyse the scope of localization strategies and corresponding benefits of these strategies to subsidiaries of international companies in the automobile industry in Thailand.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors have adopted the case research method to investigate localization strategies of subsidiaries of seven companies (Toyota, Hino, Honda, Isuzu, DaimlerChrysler, BMW, and Auto Alliance) as well as 14 of their dealers and suppliers in Thailand. The information was gathered by conducting in‐depth multiple interviews with 120 local and expatriate employees at various levels in the organizations; by referring to annual reports, policy documents and internal reports of these companies; and by observation during plant visits.

Findings

Contrary to the belief that international companies implement localization strategies to simply match the local market environment, it was found that these companies implement a wide range of localization strategies to achieve multiple benefits. The paper identifies nine areas of localization: localization of strategic decision making; building and exploiting the local knowledge pool; deployment of local human resources; localization of R&D; localization of products; use of local supplier networks; adaptations to manufacturing processes; local deployment of subsidiary profits; and localization of corporate image. These localization strategies are not just based on the principle of “cost‐based localization” but are based on “value‐based localization.” These strategies work in tandem and create value through a system of multiple benefits, such as managements' ability to comprehend and deal with uncertainty in the operating environment; make informed decisions to respond to challenges in developing efficient local assembly and marketing systems; cost reduction; higher degree of commitments by local employees; product customization and acceptance; and greater brand equity and image as a good corporate citizen.

Practical implications

Based on concrete illustrations of seven companies, this study identifies nine distinct areas for planning and implementing localization strategies and their corresponding benefits. The managers of subsidiaries can benefit by focusing their localization efforts in these areas to gain maximum advantage from host country context and then translate these advantages into a competitive international strategy.

Originality/value

CEOs of subsidiaries in emerging markets can learn how to build and harness local advantages for global competitiveness by implementing a wide range of localization strategies.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

Keywords

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