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Publication date: 16 August 2014

Anne-Maria Holma

This study provides a comprehensive framework of adaptation in triadic business relationship settings in the service sector. The framework is based on the industrial…

Abstract

This study provides a comprehensive framework of adaptation in triadic business relationship settings in the service sector. The framework is based on the industrial network approach (see, e.g., Axelsson & Easton, 1992; Håkansson & Snehota, 1995a). The study describes how adaptations initiate, how they progress, and what the outcomes of these adaptations are. Furthermore, the framework takes into account how adaptations spread in triadic relationship settings. The empirical context is corporate travel management, which is a chain of activities where an industrial enterprise, and its preferred travel agency and service supplier partners combine their resources. The scientific philosophy, on which the knowledge creation is based, is realist ontology. Epistemologically, the study relies on constructionist processes and interpretation. Case studies with in-depth interviews are the main source of data.

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Deep Knowledge of B2B Relationships within and Across Borders
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-858-7

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Article
Publication date: 5 October 2015

Anniina Schreiner

This paper aims to improve the knowledge of the way business relationships end by using a triadic analysis. Triadic analysis is used as a tool, permitting the examination…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to improve the knowledge of the way business relationships end by using a triadic analysis. Triadic analysis is used as a tool, permitting the examination of a dyadic business relationship in relation to a third actor(s). The triadic approach has been chosen for two reasons: first, because a triad is the smallest possible network and so offers a network perspective on the phenomenon. Second, the triadic approach exposes the process of forming internal and external coalitions, which affects the course of events and, thus, offers a different perspective from the traditional dyadic one on the dissolution of business relationships.

Design/methodology/approach

As adopting a triadic perspective on the ending of business relationships and the field of research are relatively new, data gathering and empirical findings play an important role in producing understanding of the phenomenon. This qualitative research uses the abductive approach, in which empirical findings are systematically combined with the theoretical literature related to the topic. The research also draws from the theoretical literature of ending dyadic business relationships and uses a body of literature from the field of sociology where triadic analysis has long been used.

Findings

As the result, this paper presents a model describing the end of a triadic business relationship and details the characteristics that derive from a triadic perspective. The study answers questions on what kind of process takes place when a triadic business relationship is ending; what kinds of sub-processes can be identified; and also adds information on what kinds of coalitions companies may form during the ending process of a triadic business relationship. The findings suggest that triadic analysis is an appropriate tool when studying a dyadic business relationship in relation to third actors.

Originality/value

The research offers a new insight into the phenomenon of ending business relationships by using a triadic perspective.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 30 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article
Publication date: 15 June 2020

Nathalia Christiani Tjandra, John Ensor, Maktoba Omar and John R. Thomson

This study aims to investigate the applicability of Ritter’s (2000) framework of interconnectedness in a triadic relationship between a provider, intermediaries and…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the applicability of Ritter’s (2000) framework of interconnectedness in a triadic relationship between a provider, intermediaries and customers and to extend the framework by considering how the state of the relationships in a triad influences the relationship dynamic.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative case study research method with multiple sources of evidence was adopted in this study. The case study focusses on a triadic relationship of one of the largest UK-based financial services institutions, Provider XYZ, with independent financial advisers and customers.

Findings

The findings confirm that the synergy effect, lack effect, competition effect and by-pass effect exist in the triadic relationship. The findings also acknowledge that the state of the relationships in a triad, whether they are positive (+), negative (−) or neutral (0), combined with the identified interconnectedness effect determine the dynamic of the triadic relationship network.

Originality/value

This paper extends the existing framework of interconnectedness by considering how the change of the relationship state changes the relationship dynamic in a triad. By evaluating both the effect of interconnectedness and the state of the relationships in a triad, managers can identify and manage possible conflicts in a triad and enhance the effectiveness of the triadic relationship.

Details

Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-2752

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Article
Publication date: 30 November 2020

Victor Eriksson, Kajsa Hulthén and Ann-Charlott Pedersen

The aim of this paper is to investigate how the efforts of improving transport performance within the scope of one business relationship are embedded in a transport…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to investigate how the efforts of improving transport performance within the scope of one business relationship are embedded in a transport service triad, which, in turn, is embedded in the wider supply network.

Design/methodology/approach

The theoretical framing originates from the IMP approach with a specific focus on the concept network horizon, and literature on triads. The study is explorative and applies a qualitative design and a case study approach to illustrate how three actors engage in a change initiative to improve transport performance.

Findings

The paper concludes that it is crucial to get counterparts aware of the importance of expanding and defining their network horizons for a certain change initiative. Interaction among actors is important to create awareness and expand its own as well as others’ network horizons for a certain change. Three generic facets are proposed: overlapping network horizons, partly overlapping network horizons and non-overlapping network horizons.

Practical implications

The framework offers a tool to managers in terms of the concept of network horizon that can help to understand the challenges when dealing with change in supply networks and to understand where to deploy resources to cope with change.

Originality/value

This study adds to the literature by explicating facets of the concept of network horizon, especially when firms are faced with a change, how they are affected by this change and how they can cope with the related challenges.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 36 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article
Publication date: 5 October 2015

Catherine Pardo and Sophie Michel

The purpose of this paper is to deal with business-to-business distribution, with a strong focus on the relationships developed by a distributor with its customers and its…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to deal with business-to-business distribution, with a strong focus on the relationships developed by a distributor with its customers and its producers.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is based on an in-depth analysis of a wholesaler specialized in fresh fruit and vegetable distribution. Data were gathered on the basis of 18 in-depth interviews. An additional important work of second-order data analysis was also conducted (sector analyses; statistics; companies’ Web sites).

Findings

This paper qualifies the different stages a wholesaler goes through in the relationships with its suppliers on the one side and its customers on the other. This work also identifies the nature of the impact of one type of relationship (wholesalers/producers) on the other (wholesalers/customers).

Research limitations/implications

Practical implications

The findings allow distribution firms to view distribution channels as places where they can have some latitude to find new positions other than the ones imposed by producers.

Originality/value

This research uses different concepts connected with triadic settings (dynamics, triggers and interconnectedness) and integrates them to provide a new perspective on how a business-to-business distributor can take a position in a distribution channel.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 30 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article
Publication date: 3 June 2019

Mette Vedel and Per Servais

The paper explores the links between network structures and internationalization, conceptualized as a process of value innovation. The exploration sets off from the…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper explores the links between network structures and internationalization, conceptualized as a process of value innovation. The exploration sets off from the concept of an entry node, i.e. whether network entrance is facilitated by a direct dyadic or an indirect triadic relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is mainly conceptual, but also presents an empirical cross-border actor constellation which highlights the implications of the study.

Findings

Bi-directionality implies that value innovation is contingent on the fit between the actors involved in the entry node, not on the fulfilment of the needs of a focal actor. Further, the attractiveness of an entry node depends on network structures, the network positions of the actors in the entry node, the desired outcomes of entry (immersion or reach), and the actual behavior of the actors. The dynamics of transitivity can influence triadic entry nodes. However, transitivity operates differently in business networks than in social networks constituted by inter-personal ties. Therefore, closure of open triadic entry nodes is neither an automatic outcome of strong ties, nor a normatively better outcome.

Research limitations/implications

The theorizing offered by this paper must be further explored in different empirical contexts to assess its practical adequacy. Still, the presented empirical case indicates that the expected attractiveness of entry nodes is closely linked to (in)transitivity.

Originality/value

The paper supports the relevance of expanding from a dyadic to a network perspective in order to capture the dynamics of value innovation in an international setting.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 34 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2004

Göran Svensson

The author argues that the unidirectional measurement and evaluation of the dependence in a specific relationship is not enough to understand the existing dependence…

Abstract

The author argues that the unidirectional measurement and evaluation of the dependence in a specific relationship is not enough to understand the existing dependence between two actors in a dyadic relationship, but a bi‐directional approach may be necessary. Furthermore, a bi‐directional approach may not always be sufficient to understand the dependencies in a specific relationship. The incorporation of a third actor may improve the understanding of dependencies in dyadic business relationships. Therefore, a method is applied to analyze the dynamics of dependence in triadic business networks.

Details

European Business Review, vol. 16 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-534X

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2004

Virpi Havila, Jan Johanson and Peter Thilenius

This paper addresses the question of whether the dyadic approach to international business relationships should, in some situations, be extended to a triadic one. In…

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Abstract

This paper addresses the question of whether the dyadic approach to international business relationships should, in some situations, be extended to a triadic one. In studies of business relationships the common view is that the relationship consists of two parties, one selling party and one buying party. However, in some, especially international business relationships an intermediary exists that has contact with both the selling party and the buying party, at the same time as the selling party and the buying party also have direct contact with each other, i.e. these relationships are triadic by nature. The purpose here is to investigate whether a triadic approach should be used in these types of situations. The empirical analysis is based on a subset of the database established within the IMP2‐project. The analysis of the data material was done using LISREL. Trust and commitment, two central concepts in studies within the field of business‐to‐business research, are used to investigate whether businessrelationship triads are different from businessrelationship dyads. The results indicate that this is very much the case.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 25 January 2008

Karlos Artto, Kirsi Eloranta and Jaakko Kujala

This paper seeks to address the risks for a main contractor firm's project business that arise from subcontractors' inter‐organizational relationships in complex‐ and…

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2130

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to address the risks for a main contractor firm's project business that arise from subcontractors' inter‐organizational relationships in complex‐ and dynamic‐project networks.

Design/methodology/approach

Existing project risk management research neglects the management of such relational risks in networks. This paper discusses this un‐researched area by analyzing triads representing sub‐networks of three actors in a larger network. The empirical study employed several semi‐structured interviews in two global contractor organizations. Critical incidents identified in triadic settings were used to explain the logic of how risks arose from subcontractors' inter‐organizational relationships.

Findings

This paper identifies four categories of risk sources characterized by subcontractors' inter‐organizational relationships. The four risk source categories are based on subcontractors' relationships with other subcontractors, the contractor's competitor the contractor's client and non‐business actors (e.g. a local authority or regulatory body).

Research limitations/implications

The empirical study emphasizes the dynamic nature of the risks that business relationships cause in the main contractor's current and future projects and business. Furthermore, the empirical analysis suggests that the risks arising from subcontractors' relationships have an impact on two different layers: the temporary project network layer and the permanent business network layer. The impacts of risk on the temporary project network layer relate to specific sales and delivery projects, whereas the impacts of risk on the permanent business network layer relate often to changes in the network position of the business players.

Originality/value

This paper suggests a novel risk management approach, where risks and opportunities arising from subcontractors' relationships are actively taken into account in subcontractor management.

Details

International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8378

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Article
Publication date: 2 December 2019

Artur Swierczek

The purpose of this paper is to explore whether brokered network governance, run by the manufacturer, affects relational embeddedness and thus contributes to yielding the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore whether brokered network governance, run by the manufacturer, affects relational embeddedness and thus contributes to yielding the Coleman rent in the triadic supply chains.

Design/methodology/approach

Building upon the theoretical tenets of transaction cost analysis, complemented by the underpinnings of social capital theory, this study involves an empirical investigation that uses survey data collected from the triadic supply chains in Europe. The research covers a two-step analysis. In the first step, the Coleman rent was estimated through the regression analysis with the interaction effects. Then, partial least squares–structural equation modeling was used to estimate the reflective-formative nature of higher component model and test the research hypotheses.

Findings

The results of the study demonstrate that the distribution of three mechanisms in network governance is relatively even; however, market and hierarchy still emerge as the most impactful dimensions. Interestingly, though, this study shows that social capital can actually coexist with market and hierarchy in the triadic supply chains with the structural hole. Likewise, the research indicates that the impact of brokered network governance on the strength of network relational embeddedness is significant, but relatively weak, whereas network relational embeddedness has a strong and positive effect on the Coleman rent.

Research limitations/implications

This study makes three major contributions. First, this study is one of very few that explicitly considers brokered network governance, run by the manufacturer positioned on the structural hole in its triadic supply chain. Second, as the triadic perspective is still uncommon in the supply chain studies, this research investigates a triad with the structural hole within the manufacturing setting. Third, the paper seeks to investigate the ability to yield the Coleman rent in the triadic supply chains with the structural hole, although this type of rent is typically linked to another arrangement called closure.

Originality/value

Given the increasing attention paid to the role of social capital within supply chains, this study investigates how relational embeddedness can be used by the manufacturer, sitting on the structural hole and running the network governance mechanism, to yield the Coleman rent in the triadic supply chain.

Details

Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, vol. 25 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-8546

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