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Article
Publication date: 11 May 2010

Gary W. Ivey and Theresa J.B. Kline

This study seeks to examine the manifestation and effects of transformational, contingent reward, and active management‐by‐exception leadership across ranks in the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study seeks to examine the manifestation and effects of transformational, contingent reward, and active management‐by‐exception leadership across ranks in the Canadian military. It also aims to investigate whether or not the relationships between perceived leadership behaviors and effective leadership outcomes are moderated by hierarchical level and followers' expectations.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 704 military officers and enlisted members rated their leaders' behaviors and the behaviors they expect of their leaders.

Findings

Frequency of transformational leadership behaviors increased with rank, but frequencies of perceived and expected contingent reward and active management‐by‐exception leadership behaviors did not. Transformational and contingent reward leadership effects were not moderated by rank or by followers' expectations. The effects of perceived active management‐by‐exception leadership were moderated by followers' expectations.

Research limitations/implications

When followers do not expect active management‐by‐exception from their supervisors, based on their own implicit beliefs about the types of behaviors their leaders should be exhibiting, but they are subjected to it, their job satisfaction and their attitudes toward their supervisors may be negatively affected.

Practical implications

Transformational leadership is prevalent, expected, and effective at all hierarchical levels. Because of their positive impact on followers' job satisfaction and their attitudes toward their supervisors, the Canadian military should continue to encourage transformational leadership and contingent reward leadership behaviors at all hierarchical levels.

Originality/value

The study highlights the potential importance of congruence between the expectations followers have of their leaders and followers' perceptions of their leaders' actual behaviors.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 31 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Article
Publication date: 20 September 2011

Hilde Hetland, Jørn Hetland, Cecilie Schou Andreassen, Ståle Pallesen and Guy Notelaers

The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between transformational leadership and a transactional leadership component (management by exceptionactive), and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between transformational leadership and a transactional leadership component (management by exceptionactive), and fulfillment of the basic needs of autonomy, competence and relatedness.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is based on cross sectional data from 661 employees who completed validated questionnaires such as the the multifactor leadership questionnaire (MLQ) and the basic need satisfaction at work (BNSW). The data were analysed using structural equation modeling in AMOS 18.0.

Findings

The results show that both transformational leadership and the transactional behavior management by exception active are significantly related to fulfillment of the basic needs. Significant regression weights of 0.50 (p<0.01) 0.46 (p<0.01), and 0.21 (p<0.01) from transformational leadership to relatedness, autonomy and competence were also found. Negative and smaller paths were revealed from management by exception to relatedness (=−0.12, p<0.01), competence (=−0.12, p<0.05), and autonomy (=−0.18, p<0.01). Squared multiple correlations (R2) for relatedness, competence and autonomy were 0.28, 0.06, and 0.27, respectively.

Originality/value

The paper empirically addresses the theoretically suggested link between transformational leadership and need fulfillment.

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Article
Publication date: 8 June 2012

Gareth Edwards, Birgit Schyns, Roger Gill and Malcolm Higgs

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factor structure of the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) in a UK context. For a number of years studies have…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factor structure of the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) in a UK context. For a number of years studies have failed to reproduce the original MLQ factor structure. A paper published in Leadership & Organization Development Journal by Alban‐Metcalfe and Alimo‐Metcalfe in 2000 suggested that, in the UK context, contextually different views on leadership could be prevalent. This paper therefore reports a UK‐specific factor structure.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper used a dataset from a recent piece of research on leadership by the first and third authors. The sample consisted of 367 managers from 38 UK‐based manufacturing organisations. The research used multiple ratings that consisted of 366 self‐ratings, 315 superior‐ratings, 238 peer‐ratings and 325 subordinate‐ratings and these ratings covered all levels across participating organisations CEO, MD, directors, senior, middle and lower level management.

Findings

The findings uncovered a variant of the MLQ model that comprises active constructive leadership, active management‐by‐exception, and passive avoidant leadership. The findings also lend support to those who suggest that passive management‐by‐exception and laissez‐faire leadership are the same, or a similar, concept and support contingent reward as highly positively correlated with transformational leadership. Particularly interesting is the stand‐alone nature of active management‐by‐exception and which supports claims that there is a different view of leadership in the UK from that held in the USA.

Originality/value

The originality of the paper is based around the understanding of the MLQ in the UK and has produced a model of the full range leadership model that relates to the UK manufacturing context.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 33 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2013

Jos Mesu, Maarten Van Riemsdijk and Karin Sanders

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between transformational and transactional leadership, and labour flexibility within small to medium‐sized…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between transformational and transactional leadership, and labour flexibility within small to medium‐sized enterprises (SMEs). Using a sample comprising 755 employees, rating 121 supervisors within 50 Dutch small and medium‐sized companies, the authors examined the relationship between transformational and transactional leadership on the one hand, and temporal and functional flexibility on the other. Further, to test whether the expected associations could be perceived as a social exchange between supervisor and employees, this study investigated the mediating role of affective organisational commitment.

Design/methodology/approach

Because data were nested, the authors used multilevel analysis for hypothesis testing.

Findings

Both dimensions of transformational leadership, visionary leadership and coaching, were positively related to temporal flexibility; also two dimensions of transactional leadership, contingent reward and active management by exception, were also positively associated with temporal flexibility. All of these associations were mediated by affective organisational commitment, indicating social exchange relationships. As opposed to expectations, passive management by exception, representing poor transactional leadership, was positively related to temporal and functional flexibility. Affective commitment did not mediate these relationships.

Practical implications

SMEs are therefore advised to improve visionary leadership, coaching skills, contingent reward, and active management by exception.

Originality/value

The paper shows that, remarkably, labour flexibility can be increased by both effective and poor leadership. On the one hand, effective leadership seems to promote temporal flexibility by creating employees’ commitment to the organisation. Poor leadership, on the other hand, does not call for people's affective commitment and thus seems to be forcing employees into demonstrating flexible behaviours, as a way of compensating for bad management.

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2001

Kerry Barnett, John McCormick and Robert Conners

Describes a study, which investigated the relationship between the transformational and transactional leadership behaviours of school principals in selected New South…

Abstract

Describes a study, which investigated the relationship between the transformational and transactional leadership behaviours of school principals in selected New South Wales state secondary schools with some teacher outcomes and aspects of school learning culture. Analysis suggested that there were two factors which were transformational, two factors which were transactional and one teacher outcome factor. Five school learning culture factors were identified. Furthermore, the transformational leadership behaviour (individual concern) was associated with the teacher outcomes – satisfaction, extra effort and perception of leader effectiveness. Contrary to what might be expected, transformational leadership behaviour (vision/inspiration) had a significant negative association with student learning culture. Significant interactions suggested that this relationship may be more complex than might be expected.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 39 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

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Article
Publication date: 14 March 2018

Muhammad Mustafa Raziq, Felipe Mendes Borini, Omer Farooq Malik, Mansoor Ahmad and Mehwish Shabaz

The purpose of this paper is to examine the mediating role of goal clarity in the relationship between leadership styles and project success. The paper draws on full-range…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the mediating role of goal clarity in the relationship between leadership styles and project success. The paper draws on full-range leadership theory, and contextualizes leadership styles such as transformational leadership style, and transactional leadership style (active management by exception, and contingent reward) to temporary project environment.

Design/methodology/approach

Data are collected (in year 2017) from 248 individuals working in ten large project-based organizations from different sectors, each having multiple units in Pakistan. Respondents comprise functional managers and individuals (who have lead or worked on projects), as well as dedicated project managers.

Findings

Goal clarity partially mediates the relationship between transformational leadership style and project success. However, in case of the transactional leadership style, there is no mediation as transactional leadership style is not associated with goal clarity. Furthermore, contingent reward is positively associated to project success, while active management by exception is negatively associated to project success.

Originality/value

Research suggests that the underlying mechanisms of the relationship between leadership styles (transactional and transformational) and project success are less clear and need to be further explored. This study contributes to literature by answering such calls, and examines possible underlying mechanisms (i.e. goal clarity) in the relationship between leadership styles and project success.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 39 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Article
Publication date: 2 October 2009

Olivier Doucet, Jean Poitras and Denis Chênevert

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the influence of managers' leadership styles (transformational, transactional and laissez‐faire) on both the level and the nature…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the influence of managers' leadership styles (transformational, transactional and laissez‐faire) on both the level and the nature of workplace conflicts (cognitive and relational in nature).

Design/methodology/approach

Data are collected from hospital employees in Canada. A total of 1,031 completed questionnaires are received, representing a response rate of 46 percent. The hypothesis is tested using confirmatory factor analyses and multiple regressions.

Findings

The results indicate that the two conflict dimensions do not derive completely from the same mechanisms, since only two out of the eight leadership dimensions evaluated influence both cognitive and relational conflicts. On the one hand, inspirational motivation has a negative impact on cognitive conflicts while intellectual stimulation and passive management by exception seem to foster it. On the other hand, inspirational motivation and individualized consideration negatively influence relational conflicts whereas management by exceptionactive and management by exception‐passive impact it positively.

Research limitations/implications

The sample comprises a single organization and the data are collected at one point in time. Also, the model's variables are assessed by the same source (employees).

Practical implications

The results of this research highlight the importance of a supervisor's ability to introduce a common vision and demonstrate individualized consideration to reduce workplace conflict during periods of organizational change.

Originality/value

Although researchers stress that conflict management represents an important role for leaders, very few empirical studies have examined how leadership influences workplace conflicts.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 20 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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Article
Publication date: 31 October 2008

Sudha Xirasagar

The purpose of this paper is to examine the empirical validity of transformational, transactional and laissez‐faire leadership and their sub‐scales among physician managers.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the empirical validity of transformational, transactional and laissez‐faire leadership and their sub‐scales among physician managers.

Design/methodology/approach

A nation‐wide, anonymous mail survey was carried out in the United States, requesting community health center executive directors to provide ratings of their medical director's leadership behaviors (34 items) and effectiveness (nine items), using the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire 5X‐Short, on a five‐point Likert scale. The survey response rate was 40.9 percent, for a total 269 responses. Exploratory factor analysis was done, using principal factor extraction, followed by promax rotation).

Findings

The data yielded a three‐factor structure, generally aligned with Bass and Avolio's constructs of transformational, transactional and laissez‐faire leadership. Data do not support the factorial independence of their subscales (idealized influence, inspirational motivation, individualized consideration, and intellectual stimulation under transformational leadership; contingent reward, management‐by‐exception active, and management‐by‐exception passive under transactional leadership). Two contingent reward items loaded on transformational leadership, and all items of management‐by‐exception passive loaded on laissez‐faire.

Research limitations/implications

A key limitation is that supervisors were surveyed for ratings of the medical directors' leadership style. Although past research in other fields has shown that supervisor ratings are strongly correlated with subordinate ratings, further research is needed to validate the findings by surveying physician and other clinical subordinates. Such research will also help to develop appropriate content of leadership training for clinical leaders.

Originality/value

This study represents an important step towards establishing the empirical evidence for the full range of leadership constructs among physician leaders.

Details

Journal of Health Organization and Management, vol. 22 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7266

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Transformational and Charismatic Leadership: The Road Ahead 10th Anniversary Edition
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-600-2

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2001

Sarah Burke and Karen M. Collins

The results of this study suggest that self‐reported leadership styles of female accountants differ somewhat from the leadership styles reported by male accountants…

Abstract

The results of this study suggest that self‐reported leadership styles of female accountants differ somewhat from the leadership styles reported by male accountants. Females are more likely than males to indicate that they use an interactive style of management called transformational leadership. This leadership style was found to be correlated with several management skills associated with success. Female accountants reported somewhat higher perceived effectiveness on two of these management skills: coaching and developing and communicating. The findings also suggest that female accountants receive more developmental opportunities than do their male colleagues.

Details

Women in Management Review, vol. 16 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-9425

Keywords

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