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Article
Publication date: 29 January 2020

Mondher Fakhfakh

The purpose of this paper is to examine the level of harmonization of consolidated auditors’ reports issued by the independent auditors of Islamic banks.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the level of harmonization of consolidated auditors’ reports issued by the independent auditors of Islamic banks.

Design/methodology/approach

A statistical measurement of the homogenization of the consolidated auditors’ reports of Islamic banks. International and Islamic auditing standards on consolidated auditors’ reports are used as the control (ISA 700 and AAOIFI standard-IAS2).

Findings

The results show a lack of harmonization among the Islamic bank’s groups in several elements related to the form of the consolidated auditor’s report and in all elements related to the independent auditor’s report.

Originality/value

This paper provides new empirical evidence about the measurement of harmonization in the form and content of the consolidated auditors’ reports of Islamic banks groups. It discusses the level of compliance with the consolidated elements enumerated by the standards issued by the International Federation of Accountants and the Accounting and Auditing Organization for Islamic Financial Institutions.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

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Article
Publication date: 10 April 2017

Mondher Fakhfakh

The purpose of this paper is to examine the level of harmonization of auditors’ reports issued by independent auditors of Islamic banks.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the level of harmonization of auditors’ reports issued by independent auditors of Islamic banks.

Design/methodology/approach

The homogenization of the auditors’ reports of Islamic banks has been statistically measured. Supranational auditing standards on auditors’ reports (ISA 700 and AAOIFI standard) are used as the control.

Findings

The results show lack of harmonization in several elements related to the form of the auditor’s report and in all elements related to the content of the auditor’s report among the Islamic banks.

Originality/value

This paper provides new empirical evidence about the measurement of harmonization in the form and content of the auditors’ reports of Islamic banks. It discusses the level of compliance with the elements enumerated by the standards issued by the International Federation of Accountants and the Accounting and Auditing Organization for Islamic Financial Institutions.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

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Book part
Publication date: 20 May 2019

Murniati Mukhlisin and Leny Nofianti

Islamic financial institutions offer a different paradigm from conventional institutions. From corporate governance (CG) viewpoint, it embodies a number of interesting…

Abstract

Islamic financial institutions offer a different paradigm from conventional institutions. From corporate governance (CG) viewpoint, it embodies a number of interesting features since equity participation and profit-and-loss sharing arrangements form the basis of Islamic financing. These financial arrangements imply different stakeholder relationships and governance structures, and distinct from the conventional model since depositors have a direct financial stake in the bank's investment and equity participations. On top of that, the Islamic bank is subject to an additional layer of governance since the suitability of its investment and financing must be in strict conformity with Islamic law and the expectations of the Muslim community. Other form of governance such as accounting standards have also been an issue whether they have met the reporting requirement of Islamic financial institutions that carry title as “Islamic” as there is no uniformity. Therefore, there should be concerted efforts to revisit the existing good CG and accounting standards for Islamic financial institutions.

Details

Research in Corporate and Shari’ah Governance in the Muslim World: Theory and Practice
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-007-4

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Article
Publication date: 4 February 2021

Sherif El-Halaby, Sameh Aboul-Dahab and Nuha Bin Qoud

This paper aims to systematically review the existing studies for Accounting and Auditing Organization for Islamic Financial Institutions (AAOIFI) standards which include…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to systematically review the existing studies for Accounting and Auditing Organization for Islamic Financial Institutions (AAOIFI) standards which include different tracks of researches and then identify the gaps to propose opportunities for future research.

Design/methodology/approach

By adopting a systematic literature review approach, 46 papers that were published between 2000 and 2020 from 23 journals concerned with AAOIFI were selected for review and analysis.

Findings

The authors combine electronic searches to identify relevant studies using keywords such as “AAOIFI” or andIslamic standards.” In light of the existing studies’ limitations, this paper derives and summarizes five leading future research tracks: identifies the research gaps in AAOIFI and then suggests that AAOIFI still requires more empirical analyses; identifies the alternative analytical methods as meta-analysis; identifies additional measurements for macro and microeconomics factors; identifies recent tracks as corresponding to Covid-19 pandemic; and future studies should consider the role of central banks and positive criticism for AAOIFI.

Practical implications

This analysis address the literature gaps on measuring compliance, determinants and consequences of AAOIFI adoption as this study serves as a guide for the researchers, regulators and Islamic financial institutions in research associated with this area. The findings would support AAOIFI, regulators and related authorities across jurisdictions with suggestions on improving the current AAOIFI practices.

Originality/value

This literature review is a historical record and guidance for researchers who seek to examine and explore several questions about AAOIFI. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first paper that applies systematic literature review over AAOIFI research field.

Details

Journal of Financial Reporting and Accounting, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1985-2517

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Article
Publication date: 11 May 2015

Radiah Othman and Rashid Ameer

The purpose of this paper is to describe the role and responsibilities of Shari’ah auditors in Islamic financial institutions (IFIs) in the auditing process in the IFIs…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe the role and responsibilities of Shari’ah auditors in Islamic financial institutions (IFIs) in the auditing process in the IFIs, to highlight capacity building challenges in the Shari’ah auditing industry.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors used a legitimacy theory to understand linkages between demand for Shari’ah audit and the role of Shari’ah auditors in IFIs complemented with the review the Accounting and Auditing Organization of Islamic Financial Institutions and Auditing Standard for Islamic Financial Institutions to understand the Shari’ah audit work requirements from an Islamic perspective.

Findings

Shari’ah auditing is an emerging field of investigation. There is no doubt that conventional auditing has a significant influence on the auditing frameworks used in IFIs. Western auditing practices are undergoing a metamorphosis to meet the needs of stakeholders in the Islamic economic system. The role and responsibilities of auditors in IFIs are much broader than those found in conventional banks in relation to an examination of a variety of contracts, product structures, transactions reporting, preparation of financial statements, reports, marketing circulars and any other legal documents, which are pertinent to IFIs’ operations.

Practical implications

We posit that the absence of a proper Shari’ah auditing framework and standards attuned to the needs of an Islamic economic system could dampen the future of the Islamic finance industry. The regulators and management of IFIs should meet the expectations of the stakeholders to whom they owe a duty of care by selecting competent professionals for auditing work, along with transparent policies and systems.

Originality/value

This paper presents an attempt to establish auditors’ roles and responsibilities from an Islamic perspective.

Details

Humanomics, vol. 31 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0828-8666

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Article
Publication date: 19 June 2021

Fahru Azwa Mohd Zain, Wan Amalina Wan Abdullah and Majella Percy

This paper aims to determine the role governance plays in the voluntary adoption of Accounting and Auditing Organization for Islamic Financial Institutions (AAOIFI…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to determine the role governance plays in the voluntary adoption of Accounting and Auditing Organization for Islamic Financial Institutions (AAOIFI) Disclosure Standards by Islamic insurance (takaful) operators in the Southeast Asia (SEA) and the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) regions.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses a sample of 44 takaful operators in the SEA and the GCC regions. While corporate governance (CG) strength is measured by the use of the frequently examined variables of the board of directors and audit committee, Shari’ah governance strength is measured by the characteristics of the Shari’ah Supervisory Board (SSB). Content analysis is used to extract disclosure items from the 2014 annual reports. Agency theory, stakeholder theory and political economy theory are argued to support the hypotheses.

Findings

The results show that CG strength has a positive and significant effect on the voluntary adoption of AAOIFI Disclosure Standards by takaful operators, indicating that CG plays an important role in the disclosure of information in the annual reports of takaful operators. However, the results show a lack of association between SSB strength and voluntary adoption of AAOIFI Disclosure Standards. Our results suggest that the SSBs may not be as involved as the other CG mechanisms (such as a board of directors and audit committees) in reviewing financial reports. On another note, the level of the political right and civil liberties has a negative and significant effect on the voluntary adoption of AAOIFI Disclosure Standards, providing an indication that stakeholders in a community with greater freedom tend to be more active in pressuring takaful operators to provide more information to justify their existence in the community. Similar to SSB strength, the legal system is also found to have no significant association with the voluntary adoption of the AAOIFI disclosure standards.

Practical implications

This study provides stakeholders with a tool to evaluate the effectiveness of the governance role in increasing the transparency of takaful operators by examining the governance factors using a self-constructed disclosure index.

Originality/value

Our study is among the first to provide an in-depth analysis of voluntary adoption of AAOIFI Disclosure Standards for takaful operators in these two regions; therefore, this study has implications for regulators and standard setters. The findings of this study are expected to provide information to regulators and standard setters on the role of governance in improving the transparency of takaful operators.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

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Article
Publication date: 13 April 2015

Anna Che Azmi and Mohamed Hisham Hanifa

– This study aims to examine whether the financial reporting practices of organisations managing waqf (Islamic endowed trust funds) are Sharia-compliant.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine whether the financial reporting practices of organisations managing waqf (Islamic endowed trust funds) are Sharia-compliant.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper reports on a case study of two Islamic-based organisations that manage waqf. The financial statements of these organisations are analysed using content analysis to assess their compliance with the Accounting and Auditing Organisation for Islamic Financial Institutions (AAOIFI) Sharia Standard No. 33 (SS 33) on waqf.

Findings

The authors found that both Islamic-based organisations use different sets of accounting procedures and practices, but that these accounting practices do not contradict the Sharia requirements prescribed in the SS 33 on waqf. However, the SS 33 on waqf requires that waqf funds to be utilised as stipulated by the waqif (donor) and that the accounting practices of both organisations do not adequately address this disclosure requirement. This study also found that the existing accounting practices adopted by organisations that manage waqf need to incorporate more disclosure on their Sharia-based financing and their investment of waqf funds.

Research limitations/implications

This study found that the AAOIFI’s SS33 on waqf is a useful guide for identifying the gap between Sharia principles and conventional financial reporting practices for non-profit organisations, and that there are aspects of Sharia-based disclosure practices that are not adequately implemented in financial reporting practices of institutions managing waqf.

Practical implications

This study proposes two essential Sharia-based disclosure practices for Islamic-based organisations that manage Islamic-based funds such as waqf. These two aspects are the disclosure on whether waqf funds are adequately utilised as stipulated by the waqif (donor) and what modifications to their existing financial reporting of their Sharia-based financing and investments are required to comply with the unique nature of waqf.

Originality/value

This paper fulfils an identified need to study how Sharia principles can be incorporated into the financial reporting practices of organisations that manage Islamic-based funds such as waqf.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

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Article
Publication date: 12 April 2013

Adel Mohammed Sarea and Mustafa Mohd Hanefah

The purpose of this paper is to determine the need of Islamic Accounting Standards – a review of the literature – for Islamic financial institutions (IFIs).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine the need of Islamic Accounting Standards – a review of the literature – for Islamic financial institutions (IFIs).

Design/methodology/approach

The basis of the paper was stakeholder theory to analyse the need of accounting standards and to design the conceptual framework as evidenced from Accounting and Auditing Organization for Islamic Financial Institutions (AAOIFI). The evidence reviewed suggests the need for Islamic accounting standards to fill the gap in accounting practice among Islamic financial institutions.

Findings

The AAOIFI accounting standards serve as a guideline that may reflect the unique characteristics of IFIs and become a useful tool to meet the various needs of IFIs. Currently, one of the major challenges facing IFIs lies in the preparation of the financial statements under different accounting standards and which may lead to problems of comparability, reliability and compliance level measurement. This has resulted in a heated debate among scholars which has hitherto translated to the evolving existing literature surrounding the interpretation of the level of compliance with the Islamic accounting standards. The paper concludes with various recommendations for future research, the most important of which is the need for future studies on how AAOIFI accounting standards can be made mandatory in all Muslim countries.

Originality/value

This paper contributes towards a better understanding and acceptability of the need of Islamic Accounting Standards.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

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Book part
Publication date: 20 May 2019

Abstract

Details

Research in Corporate and Shari’ah Governance in the Muslim World: Theory and Practice
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-007-4

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Article
Publication date: 20 January 2020

Nor Aishah Mohd Ali, Zurina Shafii and Shahida Shahimi

The purpose of this study is to identify the competencies required of Shari’ah auditor (SAR) in the Islamic banking environment.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to identify the competencies required of Shari’ah auditor (SAR) in the Islamic banking environment.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative approach using a multiple-case study through the semi-structured interview was used. Data was gathered from a representative of Central Bank of Malaysia, and 30 other respondents consist of the Head of Shari’ah audit (HSA) and SAR from four types of banking institutions. A focus group discussion was later conducted to validate the model of competency proposed.

Findings

Results show a mixed practice on the recruitment of SAR. Most banking institutions prefer to use their existing internal auditors as opposed to recruiting fresh graduates or acquire experienced SAR from other financial institutions. Knowledge in Shari’ah, Islamic banking and Fiqh Muamalat is considered as the essential knowledge component for SAR, while auditing is revealed as the core skill that SAR should have to perform the Shari’ah audit effectively. The study also found that personal skills such as willingness to learn and teamwork as the complementing characteristics to the knowledge and skill components, as a package required for a competent SAR.

Research limitations/implications

The results of this study would have both theoretical and practical contributions to the regulatory bodies, academicians and professionals. Theoretically, this study made a concerted effort to enhance prior studies on the qualification aspect of Shari’ah audit literature, emphasizing the elements necessary to recruit competent SARs in the Islamic financial institutions (IFIs). The element of “time” has been infused to the existing effective job performance theory add dynamics to the model, recognizing the need for years of experience as part of elements necessary to become competent SAR. In practice, the competency model is recommended to the industry players in pooling competent talents in the Islamic finance industry (R4) and (B5). In spite of its limitation to confine only to the IFIs, it sheds light on human resource management within the Islamic organizations.

Practical implications

The study would contribute to the practitioners as a guideline to the Human Resource Department in recruiting their SAR and also for succession planning purposes.

Originality/value

A competency model for SAR was proposed focusing on building knowledge, core and personal skills that can be used as guidance in determining the criteria needed for a competent SAR, which is a new dimension for Islamic auditing literature. The sub-objective of determining the elements of competency, as well as understanding the current practice of recruiting the SAR became the input in the building of the competency model.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

Keywords

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