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Abstract

Details

Monetary Policy, Islamic Finance, and Islamic Corporate Governance: An International Overview
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-786-9

Article
Publication date: 29 July 2022

A.W. Ainol-Basirah and A.K. Siti-Nabiha

This paper aims to systematically review studies of waqf accountability to conceptualise accountability in this unique setting.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to systematically review studies of waqf accountability to conceptualise accountability in this unique setting.

Design/methodology/approach

This review followed the realist and meta-narrative evidence syntheses guidelines for meta-narrative review and used systematic searching for studies related to accountability in waqf institutions, based on the two main social sciences databases (Scopus and Web of Science). Thematic analysis was used to assess patterns regarding how researchers approached the concept of accountability in their studies, along with the context, the theories and the methods they used.

Findings

The number of research papers investigating the issue of waqf institutions’ accountability was severely limited in comparison to the growing literature on waqf institutions themselves. Existing research varies, with accountability practices understood through accounting, reporting and management perspectives, holistic accountability and studying various aspects antecedent to the achievement of accountability, such as governance, performance measurement and intellectual capital.

Originality/value

This study was conducted to fill the gap regarding a systematic review placing specific focus on accountability in the waqf institutional setting. The narrative from the review and suggestions for future research are provided to strengthen understanding of the current state of knowledge on accountability and direction, to enhance its usefulness in both theoretical building and practical improvement.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 July 2022

Nisful Laila, Ririn Tri Ratnasari, Shafinar Ismail, Putri Aliah Mohd Hidzir and Mohd Halim Mahphoth

The purpose of this study is to assess small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) owners’ intentions to participate in waqf, involving two countries, which are Malaysia and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to assess small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) owners’ intentions to participate in waqf, involving two countries, which are Malaysia and Indonesia, using the theory of planned behavior. SMEs are the backbone of many economies, representing 95% of all companies worldwide and accounting for 60% of employment. Based on this fact, this paper analyzes the influence of religiosity, knowledge and attitude to predict the intentions of SMEs’ owners in waqf participation in Malaysia and Indonesia.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were randomly obtained from 175 SMEs owners from Malaysia and Indonesia with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) used for analysis.

Findings

The empirical analysis data suggest that knowledge and attitude show a significant impact on the intentions of SMEs’ owners to participate in waqf, while religiosity does not have a significant impact on the intentions of Malaysian and Indonesian SMEs’ owners to participate in waqf.

Practical implications

This study aims to assist SMEs in Malaysia and Indonesia to formulate appropriate strategies and marketing using waqf for the sustainability of SMEs which represent more than 90% of business establishments in both countries. The strategy is a necessity, especially because the government is targeting to promote a sustainable Islamic financial system, improve governance policy and halal industry for SMEs, strengthen the development of Malay Reserve land, providing as financial independence to higher learning institutions and invest in digitalization and advanced technology through waqf funds. Therefore, both countries should take the initiative to provide training to equip SMEs with extensive knowledge through multiple platforms to further encourage their participation in waqf.

Originality/value

Because of the increasing interest in waqf participation both in Malaysia and Indonesia, this study claims three essential contributions. First, it aims to examine the intention of SMEs in waqf participation among the business owners in Malaysia and Indonesia. Second, the study findings are expected to benefit the development of literature in accordance with Islamic social finance, particularly waqf. Third, this study provides an insight into the inclusive knowledge and attitude of SME owners and their intention to participate in waqf.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 15 July 2022

Sulistyowati, Raditya Sukmana, Ririn Tri Ratnasari, Ascarya and Tika Widiastuti

This paper attempts to rejuvenate waqf in the health sector by identifying and elaborating on its issues and challenges. The government budget for this sector is…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper attempts to rejuvenate waqf in the health sector by identifying and elaborating on its issues and challenges. The government budget for this sector is significant; thus, the present paper aims to provide a nongovernment budget to lessen the government's burden

Design/methodology/approach

This qualitative study uses structured in-depth interviews with 12 respondents to generate valuable insights and thoughts in order to frame recommendations.

Findings

The findings highlight the key themes: human resources, finance, collaboration and coordination, legal issues, basic healthcare insufficiency, data and digitalization, accountability and sustainability and infrastructure. The following are the proposed solutions: capacity building program (CBP), hybrid waqf scheme, big data connectivity, specific legal framework, refocusing and reallocating of resources for the health sector during and after the pandemic

Research limitations/implications

This study focuses on Indonesia and Malaysia as the authors believe that these two countries have a lot of practice in the field. Further studies may focus on other countries, such as Pakistan.

Practical implications

This paper proposes potential ways to embrace government policy consideration, optimize the elaboration among productive waqf with other kinds, improve governance of and coordination among waqf institutions and increase the awareness to improve significant development.

Social implications

By considering this paper's recommendations, waqf stakeholders in the healthcare system can improve the social benefits for poor and needy patients.

Originality/value

This study presents the latest strategic analysis of waqf, which is important for the government policy in developing waqf.

Details

Islamic Economic Studies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1319-1616

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 June 2022

Masrizal, Raditya Sukmana, Budi Trianto and Annisa Masruri Zaimsyah

The potential of waqf is so great in Indonesia but has not been optimized. This paper aims to offer a model for waqf institutions to adopt financial technology for…

Abstract

Purpose

The potential of waqf is so great in Indonesia but has not been optimized. This paper aims to offer a model for waqf institutions to adopt financial technology for developing productive and social waqf. The authors cunduct an assesment of the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM3), Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT2) in seeing to the crowdfunders’ behavior.

Design/methodology/approach

This study adopted a structural equation using the partial least square approach to test the hypotheses. Based on purposive sampling, the spread of questionnaires through online surveys throughout Indonesia consists of all islands. A total of 297 respondents collected the questionnaires.

Findings

Based on the findings, acceptance models have a positive and significant impact on the behavioral intentions of crowdfunders, while Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology have no significant effect.

Research limitations/implications

The sample of this study involved potential crowdfunders from all over the islands in Indonesia, but these results cannot be generalized because of limitations in terms of the sampling technique used. However, the results of this study can be used as an illustration of how crowdfunders behave in donating money using financial technology.

Practical implications

The results of this study provide a comprehensive perspective for policymakers, especially the Indonesian Waqf Board as the waqf authority that regulates waqf nazir to improve quality by adopting crowdfunding financial technology in collecting waqf funds. In addition, in terms of implications for the government, this waqf crowdfunding model will reduce spending and increase economic growth.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this paper is the first in looking at the waqf crowdfunding in Indonesia by looking at two reliable technology determinant models. Studies on cash waqf in Indonesia are many, but they do not look at the issue of crowdfunding, which has gained more attention recently. This paper aims to fill this gap, and this becomes the novelty.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 June 2022

Ascarya Ascarya and Atika Rukminastiti Masrifah

This study aims to devise policies in implementing cash waqf system of Baitul Maal wat Tamwil (BMT) in Indonesia, enabling the BMT to optimize its commercial and social…

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Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to devise policies in implementing cash waqf system of Baitul Maal wat Tamwil (BMT) in Indonesia, enabling the BMT to optimize its commercial and social activities to better achieve outreach, sustainability and welfare impact.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses the strategic assumption surfacing and testing (SAST) method, with three groups of knowledgeable respondents, including expert, BMT practitioner and regulator to formulate important and certain policies.

Findings

The results show that four types of policies are required to improve cash waqf system of BMT, including 12 internal strategic policies, 15 internal operational policies, 15 external strategic policies and 9 external operational policies, which were found to be within a “certain planning region.” All of these policies have been agreed significantly by each group of respondents, as well as by all respondents combined. The most important-certain policies include Shiddiq, Amanah and professional Nazir, inculcate Islamic values to BMT employees and members, standard operating procedure and standard operating management of cash waqf management, technical assistance for Nazir to manage cash waqf and IT systems for BMT-cash waqf administration.

Research limitations/implications

The qualitative method used has its limitations, which could be improved by incorporating other methods. Moreover, the case and respondents are all Indonesian, so that the results are possibly only applicable to BMTs in Indonesia.

Practical implications

BMTs could adopt these policies in implementing their cash waqf management optimally.

Social implications

The management of cash waqf by BMT could help improve the social activities of the Baitul Maal directly from social cash waqf and indirectly from productive cash waqf.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study using SAST method to determine policies needed by the BMT to upgrade its cash waqf management producing more social programs for the society.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 May 2022

Abdelkader Laallam, Burhan Uluyol, Salina Kassim and Engku Rabiah Adawiah Engku Ali

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between the sub-components of intellectual capital and organisational performance in waqf institutions in Algeria.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between the sub-components of intellectual capital and organisational performance in waqf institutions in Algeria.

Design/methodology/approach

Data was collected through structured questionnaires from a sample of 193 waqf employees working in 23 different provinces in Algeria and analysed using partial least squares – structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) software to test the path modelling and the relationship between the instruments.

Findings

The results of this research show that human capital, structural capital and spiritual capital have a positive and significant relationship with organisational performance. However, relational capital, social capital and technological capital did not demonstrate any kind of role in the context of waqf institutions in Algeria.

Practical implications

The findings of this research are of great importance for waqf institutions in Algeria, as they provide a comprehensive screening with regard to organisational performance of these institutions through the lens of intellectual capital. The findings help waqf managers and policy makers consider effective solutions for the weaknesses and challenges impeding the performance of waqf institutions, in the hope of retrieving their role in serving and developing societies.

Originality/value

In the existing body of literature, there is a lack of research focusing on intellectual capital in the context of religious non-profit organisations particularly waqf institutions. Thus, this research adds to the body of knowledge on intellectual capital while highlighting its role and importance within the waqf industry, particularly in the context of Algeria. This research is considered among the primary attempts to investigate the impact of intellectual capital components on the organisational performance of waqf institutions in Algeria.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 13 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 April 2022

Muhammad Usman and Asmak Ab Rahman

This paper aims to highlight the importance of waqf in financing higher educational institutions (HEIs) and its potential as an alternative source of generating additional…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to highlight the importance of waqf in financing higher educational institutions (HEIs) and its potential as an alternative source of generating additional funds for the HEIs, and discourses on waqf practice, fundraising, waqf management and utilisation of waqf income for the development of higher education in Malaysia.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is based on the information gathered through interviews with 12 participants who are actively engaged in waqf in different capacities. The participants can easily be classified into three expert groups; personnel of waqf-based universities, personnel of the respective State Islamic Religious Councils (SIRCs) and waqf practitioners. In addition, archival records, relevant documents and library sources have been used in the research.

Findings

The study learnt that waqf in Malaysia is centralised and exclusively controlled by the SIRCs, which are, as a rule, sole trustees of all categories of awqaf in the respective states; hence, any form of private trusteeship is considered illegal. It is a prerequisite for the establishment of a waqf fund to obtain permission from the respective SIRCs, and bring it under the purview of the council prior to setting up a waqf. The ministry of higher education has taken some initiatives to encourage HEIs to use waqf as an alternative source of generating funds. Subsequently, numerous public universities have set up waqf funds and developed a comprehensive mechanism for raising the fund through traditional and modern methods and technologies. A major chunk of the waqf funds is collected in the form of cash, but the amount falls short of reaching critical mass to enable the waqf to become self-sustaining. The study found that the universities also involved themselves in various social welfare programmes, especially in health care, and some income-generating projects besides seeking support from the waqf fund for their academic and educational activities.

Practical implications

The paper brings out the fact that waqf offers the best features as an alternative fiscal instrument to finance projects of public good, including higher education at three selected waqf-based universities in Malaysia.

Social implications

The study’s findings will be helpful to the ummah in general and Malaysia in particular. It can help policymakers, legislators and academicians in formulating new strategies for the common good and sensitize the countries facing a huge fiscal deficit and lack of development to the viability and potential of waqf as a catalyst for progress and economic activity.

Originality/value

The paper shares the experience of Malaysia’s waqf-based universities, waqf fundraising, management and income utilisation. It accentuates the fact that waqf can help finance academic activities at universities and sheds light on some useful examples of waqf-based universities founded in earlier periods of Islamic civilisation.

Details

International Journal of Ethics and Systems, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9369

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 April 2022

Muhammad Iqmal Hisham Kamaruddin, Mustafa Mohd Hanefah and Rosnia Masruki

This study aims to explain the justification behind the current weak waqf reporting practices in waqf institutions in Malaysia and also investigates the factors affecting…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explain the justification behind the current weak waqf reporting practices in waqf institutions in Malaysia and also investigates the factors affecting the good waqf reporting practices.

Design/methodology/approach

A series of interviews with four waqf officers who are involved with waqf reporting process from four different waqf institutions in Malaysia were conducted.

Findings

The findings show a number of reasons for the current weak waqf reporting practices including the absence of standardised waqf reporting standards, no reporting or disclosure awareness by the waqf management, limited reporting channels from the state authorities to the national authorities, diversification in the governance structure and reluctance of waqf administration to disclose waqf reporting. The findings also identified several factors contributing to good waqf reporting practices. This includes leadership, good cultural setting within the institution, political will as a push factor, limited qualified personnel as well as sustainability issues and finally, the visibility of the waqf report itself.

Practical implications

The study findings and recommendations are useful for the State Islamic Religious Councils and waqf institutions in Malaysia to enhance the waqf reporting practices in Malaysia.

Originality/value

This study is among the few studies that identify the reasons and factors affecting the good waqf reporting practices in Malaysia.

Details

Journal of Financial Reporting and Accounting, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1985-2517

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 19 November 2018

Muhammad Ikhwan Mauluddin and Asmak Ab Rahman

Purpose – Differing opinions about the status of cash waqf are not new among jurists. Several studies have been conducted relating to this issue. This chapter discusses…

Abstract

Purpose – Differing opinions about the status of cash waqf are not new among jurists. Several studies have been conducted relating to this issue. This chapter discusses cash waqf from the perspective of certain scholars in Indonesia, the Majelis Ulama Indonesia (MUI, Indonesian Scholars Council) and the scholars of Aceh, and the fatwa (opinion) on cash waqf.

Methodology/approach – Data for this study were collected from interviews and academic literature to reach general and specific conclusions. The study was conducted in Aceh, Indonesia.

Findings – Different views exist on the validity of cash waqf between the MUI and the scholars of Aceh. The MUI has declared that the practice of cash waqf is allowable and valid, while some scholars of Aceh reject it except when the cash is exchanged (istibdal) for permanent assets.

Originality/value – MPU scholars and pondok scholars are not in agreement as to the legality of cash waqf. Pondok scholars reject the practice of cash waqf except if the money is substituted (istibdal) into a fixed asset. This is so even when many other scholars of Aceh ruled that cash waqf is still valid even if it is not converted into a fixed asset.

Details

New Developments in Islamic Economics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-283-7

Keywords

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