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Article
Publication date: 25 October 2021

William Emitt Halal, Jess Garretson and Owen Davies

The purpose of this study is as follows: update the 1983 survey to determine the strategic practices being used in 2020, draw conclusions on major organizational changes since the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is as follows: update the 1983 survey to determine the strategic practices being used in 2020, draw conclusions on major organizational changes since the original 1984 study and recommend how leaders could use these findings to plan for strategic change.

Design/methodology/approach

This research updates an earlier study to learn how strategic planning and foresight are changing to cope with today’s high-tech world. The first author’s 1983 General Motors survey of “Strategic Planning in the Fortune 500” was updated by surveying 68 managers from 40 organizations to assess the current state-of-the-art. Results outline the leading edge of strategic practices today, illustrated by comments – from the respondents. Findings show a striking change from the earlier survey. Where strategic planning was formerly restricted to a top management function, respondents strongly think it should now include all units across the organization to form a bottom-up system. They also think it should extend to active participation from employees, customers, suppliers and other outside stakeholders. The main conclusion is that leaders should be developing the sophisticated systems that have been anticipated for many years but have rarely been practiced – strategic change from “the bottom up and the outside in.”

Findings

These results provide a rough assessment of the current state-of-the-art in strategic foresight.

Research limitations/implications

This study is limited because the sample was not randomly selected to provide a rigorous study that permits accurate statements for a well-defined population and the sample size is modest.

Practical implications

The first conclusion affirms that the strategic planning cycle remains the primary theoretical framework guiding strategy. However, the planning cycle is increasingly elaborated by new practices summarized in the second two conclusions described above. As noted, the need for strategic change now cuts across all organizational functions and levels. With massive change a constant, there is a move to decentralize strategy to agile units able to move quickly and hierarchical structures are being replaced with adaptive systems and innovative cultures. Managers are also broadening their methods to facilitate planning with stakeholders. Sound sources of information are considered a must and include direct communication with diverse and dissenting voices.

Social implications

While bottom-up systems and stakeholder management have been discussed endlessly, the time seems right to move these powerful concepts from the leading edge that remains marginalized and into the mainstream of strategic foresight and management practice. Scholars and researchers should evaluate the level of participation in these models, their effectiveness and possible improvements. Strategic managers should start implementing these changes carefully, rather than introducing emerging technologies, advanced products and other organizational changes.

Originality/value

This study replicates a landmark survey of Strategic Planning in the Fortune 500. Results show that organizations should now implement crucial changes to operate from the bottom up and the outside in.

Article
Publication date: 1 March 2005

William E. Halal

To examine and discuss the central features of institutional change and to compare it with organizational change.

2849

Abstract

Purpose

To examine and discuss the central features of institutional change and to compare it with organizational change.

Design/methodology/approach

Use interviews with managers to highlight key issues.

Findings

Results are presented of interviews with managers exploring changes that have for decades been transforming business, government, and other institutions into “organic” systems for the knowledge age. Institutional change differs from organizational change by focusing on the higher‐order unspoken social rules that govern the structure of institutions in common. The study evaluated trends driving this transformation, the obstacles blocking it, and the likely timetable of implementation.

Originality/value

Concludes that three central features mark the general direction of institutional evolution: “e‐organizations” operating in real time, “self‐organizing systems” of self‐managed teams, and “stakeholder collaboration” to unify diverse interests into a more powerful enterprise.

Details

On the Horizon, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1074-8121

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 September 2019

Jhon Wilder Zartha Sossa, William Halal and Raul Hernandez Zarta

The purpose of this study is to review the literature on the Delphi method, its characteristics and current applications through an analysis of recent most-cited scientific…

2077

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to review the literature on the Delphi method, its characteristics and current applications through an analysis of recent most-cited scientific papers, with an emphasis on three axes, namely, the number of rounds used, stakeholder participation relevance or only academic experts’ participation and the possibility of using indicators or techniques different from those related to descriptive statistics.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 57 papers were initially reviewed, 10 of them with a high citation rate. Then, an analysis was made of papers in Scopus for the period 2015-2018 published in the Technological Forecasting and Social Change Journal and in the Futures and Foresight Journal, which had the characteristic of displaying quartile Q1 or Q2 in Scimago in addition to being in Scopus.

Findings

Among the main results, the authors observe the tendency to use fewer rounds, a higher prevalence of stakeholder participation and not only academic experts but also the use of new types of modified Delphi such as real-time spatial Delphi, Delphi group, market Delphi, real-world Delphi and policy Delphi.

Originality/value

Among the conclusions, the possibility of using other indicators or complementary techniques to the descriptive statistics is highlighted such as number of justifications or comments between rounds, coefficients to quantify the competence or degree of expertise of the participants, measures of the perception of the expert on the usefulness of the presented feedback, graphs of the number of arguments according to the number of questions, the Wilcoxon Ranked Pairs Test, the k means, Kolmogorov–Simonov test and the Mann–Whitney U-test.

Details

foresight, vol. 21 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6689

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 2000

William E. Halal

The general concept of stakeholder management seems to be widely accepted, but its central tenet of “balancing” interests was prominently abandoned during the 1990s, as…

2982

Abstract

The general concept of stakeholder management seems to be widely accepted, but its central tenet of “balancing” interests was prominently abandoned during the 1990s, as corporations favored financial interests rather than the balanced treatment proposed by stakeholder theory. The prevailing logic of business provides little incentive to do otherwise. Managers and scholars generally think about stakeholders in terms of morality, ethics, and social responsibility rather than economic value and competitive advantage. This article presents an economic theory of the firm and supporting evidence that reconcile the conflict between profitability and responsibility. Rather than passive recipients of responsible treatment, modern stakeholders work with managers to improve their own benefits while also enhancing corporate profitability. Thus, the wealth‐creating role of business arises directly out of integrating stakeholders into a productive whole – a “corporate community.”

Details

Strategy & Leadership, vol. 28 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1087-8572

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 2005

William H. White

To describe examples of institutional change to help others appreciate the difficult but crucial nature of this process.

1995

Abstract

Purpose

To describe examples of institutional change to help others appreciate the difficult but crucial nature of this process.

Design/methodology/approach

A seasoned consultant describes, using frank, first‐hand account, examples of institutional change.

Findings

Shows how institutional change is often forced on organizations by shifting external forces that render old niches obsolete. Also shows the difficulty in mobilizing to confront the need for serious change, and how leadership transitions are often a central part of the change process.

Originality/value

The author points to three main lessons from this case study. Institutional change may be arduous, but it can also leave people feeling amazed at how long they tolerated the old system. The author also notes that institutional change is a natural process, proceeding with a life all its own. The author concludes with some thoughts on how to initiate this process when an organization appears ready.

Content available
Article
Publication date: 2 October 2007

308

Abstract

Details

Business Strategy Series, vol. 8 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-5637

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1984

Raymond G. McInnis and Michael Turner

Many people fear the approach of 1984. Why? Because in their minds too many of George Orwell's dark prophecies in his 1948 novel, 1984, appear to be coming true.

Abstract

Many people fear the approach of 1984. Why? Because in their minds too many of George Orwell's dark prophecies in his 1948 novel, 1984, appear to be coming true.

Details

Reference Services Review, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

Article
Publication date: 23 March 2012

Sharifah Zannierah Syed Marzuki, Collin Michael Hall and Paul William Ballantine

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the attitudes of restaurant managers toward halal certification.

6531

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the attitudes of restaurant managers toward halal certification.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 33 interview sessions were conducted among restaurant managers in halal certified, halal claimant and non‐halal restaurants and the data were coordinated into common themes.

Findings

Restaurant managers feel that halal certification is very prevalent in the hospitality industry, as it promotes the importance of restaurant managers having knowledge of Muslims' dietary restrictions, sensitivity and religious practices; halal certification signifies that it has some attributes that make it unique and at the same time conforming to the Islamic dietary rules.

Originality/value

This study is very significant as this is the first paper to examine attitudes of restaurant managers in relation to halal certification in Malaysia. It is gathered that very few researches were performed in the hospitality industry pertaining to halal certification, although the demand for halal foods is growing.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 1 September 2002

William E. Halal

106

Abstract

Details

On the Horizon, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1074-8121

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 1 March 2005

William E. Halal

1873

Abstract

Details

On the Horizon, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1074-8121

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