Table of contents(13 chapters)
Part I Children, Youth, Human Rights and Resistence
This article presents a description of Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) as a basis for guaranteeing fundamental human rights from birth. ECCE is the first stage and a solid base – considering the relevance of development processes from birth to six years. Active early education, committed to the reality of a community, facilitates the training of young citizens as rights’ agents. In this sense, the education and care in early childhood is indispensable. This article communicates a descriptive synthesis of the current state of the ECCE in various regions and countries, especially in Latin America – Argentina – and in Europe – Sweden.
In the analysis, theoretical sustenance about childhood and new perspectives that discuss classical conceptions are presented. The educational process is fundamental and is described as Early Education (EE), presenting a synthesis of the ECCE from its normative conformation that arises from the statements of Jomtien (1990). The concept of Educare is presented, as a holistic approach to education and care within early childhood. This aspect is linked to highlight the inequality gaps for children, describing ‘fragmented territories’, in terms of guaranteeing rights. The final reflection summarizes the importance of Early Education, recovering the current studies on Educare, which project the guarantee of rights from birth.
The members of the United Nations celebrate 30 years of the adoption of the Convention of the Rights of the Child (CRC) in 2019. This milestone has added significance in a context in which we are about a decade away from fulfilling the targeted goals of the UN 2030 Agenda with its pledge to leave no country or no-one behind. This is an opportune moment to assess the status of children in Small Island Developing States (SIDS). Using primary and secondary data, the chapter assesses the status of children after 30 years of the CRC in four Caribbean SIDs; Barbados, Jamaica, Haiti and St Lucia. The focus is on poverty, education, health and climate change related CRC articles and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Data analysis reveals that the vulnerabilities of SIDS impede adherence to Child Rights for large proportions of children who are at risk of being left behind. Climate Change increases their vulnerabilities and disparities persist in access to basic social services. As with the CRC and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), the implementation of the SDGs is plagued with a lack of timely and disaggregated data to inform the policy process; inadequate programmatic coordination; insufficient financial support; limited accountability and political will. Cultural perceptions of children and inadequate recognition of the importance of children to any the Developmental Agenda also thwart progress for children in SIDs. Urgent action is needed if we are to fulfil all the commitments that we made to our children since 1989 with the adoption of the CRC.
This text is the result of an extensive bibliographical research on the development of Childhood Studies in various regions of Brazil based on the understanding that childhood is a social discursive construction, as well as human rights, and both concepts are interlinked when the subject in focus is the children’s rights. According to research data while advances in the concept of childhood have supported specific child protection policies, the issue of marginalization and inequalities affecting children is some of the central matters developed within childhood studies in Brazil. In this article, we map the advances of childhood studies in Brazil and its relation to children’s rights. However, we may state that neither childhood nor children’s rights are still a reality for all Brazilian children, especially when considering other markers that have challenged the rights of our children, such as race, ethnicity, social class, and gender.
In this article, we discuss the issue of the right to education of young children, focusing on the Institution of Early Childhood Education (EIC in Portuguese), of views with legal markers and educational indicators of a Brazilian State. From a research that approached Early Childhood Education (EI in Portuguese) in settlements of the Landless Rural Workers Movement (MST in Portuguese) and making use of the Bakhtinian framework we highlight the processes of inequality that devastate childhood in the rural settings. The data reiterate the need to not only combat the logics of precariousness that affect the service given but also to guide the specificity of Children’s education field, within a framework of the effectiveness of primary school attendance. Hence, we call one’s attention to the debate of the ways of setting up institutions, with a view to serving children, urging the regulations related to the right to education, particularly, the right to Early Childhood Education in the peasant’s context, particularly in settlements.
Part II Children, Youth, Sociocultural Differentiation and Unity
Since the reforms started in the Romanian child protection, and in spite of adopting children’s rights, and investing in the professionalization of the child protection staff, research has indicated that children continue to suffer violence in care settings.
This chapter contributes to the literature that documents children’s rights violations in Romanian residential care, before and after the political shift in 1989, including the period after the accession to the EU, by presenting and discussing interview data of 48 adults who spent parts of their childhoods in child protection settings.
The conceptual framework of this analysis is based on the human rights perspective and the transitional justice. The main body of the article presents the testimonials of adults who grew up in institutional care in Romania, as collected in the framework of the SASCA project, funded by the European Union. 1
This paper recovers some theoretical elements of the sociology of childhood in the Anglo-Saxon field, to discuss their contributions, scopes and limits about child agency in children living in poor and urban contexts, in Latin America. The objective is to contribute to the debates within the field of childhood from a sociological perspective that accentuate the capacity of action and resistance of children even in the framework of structural restrictions, without assuming a decontextualized and ideal approach about the agency.
This study aimed to document the life experiences of child miners (CMs) engaged in small-scale gold mining system (SSGMS) in Paracale using qualitative and ethnographic approaches. Findings revealed that the SSGMS started even before the Spaniards came in 1572. Pagbibitâ (underground mining), and pagkocompressor (underwater mining) were identified as types of SSGMS (pagkakabod) with common organizational structure and CMs. Their differences were in the nature of work, roles, costs, income, equipment, and processes. Majority of the CMs are males, out-of-school youth, eldest children, and have worked from two months to nine years. Altruistic factors, a source of inspiración, motivated them to engage on mining. They view their families as poor, and mining as their primary means of livelihood and family tradición. Their life threatening or work-related risks and impoverished living conditions unquestionably infringe their children’s rights. Their aspiración include having permanent employment, better family life and community, finishing their studies, and sending their siblings to school. Perseverance and hard work are their means to realize them.
Their experiences of labour explotación and destitution are indeed social issues. Espousing social development and community organizing frameworks, good governance, holistic alternative livelihood and learning system may minimize their plight as child miners.
This study aimed to analyze the most common child’s play of students (approximately seven years old) both during the playtime and the time they are not at school, also considering the teacher’s interpretation of the child’s play practiced in the school, located in a small slum of the metropolitan area of Belo Horizonte. In this way, the analysis considered the issues that involve the recognition of the essentiality of childhood (Dahlberg, Moss, & Pence, 2003; Sarmento, 2007), in the context of the reality and affectivity of children in the place called slum (Coelho, 2007; Perez & Jardim, 2015, Tuan, 1983), as well as in aspects that demonstrate the control of their bodies through the child’s play performed in the school (Brighente & Mesquida, 2011; Foucault, 2009). As a methodological basis, participant observation was chosen because it was believed that from this practice it was possible to extract important experiences and reflections from the research participants, know our actions and, by observing these people, their behaviours and attitudes in routine situations (Lüdke & André, 1986). The results suggested that the slum children’s play, both in school and outside, are different among boys and girls. In the open areas of the slum, the boys explore more spaces than girls, who prefer child’s play in the domestic sphere. At school, educators try to censure some behaviours and attitudes of children, suggesting the pursuit of obedient postures and disciplined bodies. In this context, it is crucial that educators do not convert the school into a place of censorship of the child’s play that resides in the slums and thus transforming the school into a space that reinforces the domestication of bodies from the earliest stages of childhood.
Young people are widely known to have poorer outcomes, social status and political representation than older adults. These disadvantages, which have come to be largely normalized in the contemporary context, can be further compounded by other factors, however, and are particularly amplified by coming from a lower social class background. An additional challenge for young people is associated with place, with youth who live in more remote and less urban areas at a higher risk of being socially excluded (Alston & Kent, 2009; Shucksmith, 2004) and/or to face complex and multiple barriers to employment and education than their urban-dwelling peers (Cartmel & Furlong, 2000). Drawing upon interviews and focus groups in a qualitative project with 16 young people and five practitioners, and using Nancy Fraser’s tripartite theory of social justice, this paper highlights the various and interlocking disadvantages experienced by working-class young people moving into and through adulthood in Clackmannanshire, mainland Scotland’s smallest council area.
According to Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection) Act, 2015 Act, the registration of Child Care Institutions (CCIs) is compulsory, but the registration process all over the country is being prolonged on the part of the NGOs and other private welfare agencies. Against this background, the researcher intends to study the reasons for reluctance to registration by the CCIs.
The researcher adopted exploratory approach to find the reasons behind the reluctance towards JJ registration. There are 112 children’s homes in Malappuram district, among which 40 institutions did not apply or get JJ Registration. Among these 40, the researcher selected 20 (50%) by simple random sampling. The respondents were one among the institution’s Secretary/President or staff. The method used for extracting data was interview schedule and the collected data were coded and analyzed with the help of the SPSS software.
The CCIs apprehend that their organizational freedom would be limited after registration. Another observation of this study is most of the children’s homes are managed by religious organizations and most of them are worried that registering their institution under this act might adversely affect their religious sentiments. About 60% of the CCIs concern about the financial burden and 85% of them have difficulty to implement the new rules and regulation.
This study covered the 20 children’s Home and all those institutions are run by Muslim religious management, so the situations of child care institutions run by other management (Hindu, Christian, Secular) is not covered by this study.